Here is the draft script of the television program. Some small
bits may change, but this should provide a fairly good preview for
those who are interested.
LIVE FROM MARS "CRUISING BETWEEN THE PLANETS"
To air live from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
Thursday, April 24, 1997
Final script as of April 23, 1997
Live guests at JPL are:
DONNA SHIRLEY, Manager of the Mars Exploration Directorate: in
"SANDBOX" and MISSION CONTROL (aka MSA)
BRIAN MUIRHEAD, MPF Deputy Project Manager, in MISSION
ROB MANNING, MPF Surface PATHFINDER CHIEF ENGINEER in
WAYNE LEE, MGS Mission Planner, MGS in "RUMPUS ROOM"
STUDENTS FROM LA USD who will both ASK e-mail questions
AND their own, in "RUMPUS ROOM"
Also note the following abbreviations:
S.N.O.R.T. = Surface Nominal Operations Readiness Test
MPF = Mars Pathfinder (to land July 4)
MGS = Mars Global Surveyor (to orbit beginning 9/97)
JPL = Jet Propulsion Lab. (NASA/Caltech)
MSU = Mississippi State University
PET = LFM's Planet Explorer Toolkit, online activity resulting in kids
taking data about local Earth sites in parallel to MPF work
EDL = Entry, Descent and Landing sequence of MPF, slated for July 4, '97
TPS = The Planetary Society, sponsor of Red Rover, Red Rover
1) UNDERWRITER ANNOUNCE / VTR (00:15) RT 00:15
LIVE FROM MARS IS MADE POSSIBLE BY...
2) TEASE / VTR & LIVE JPL SANDBOX (01:00) RT 01:15
TODAY WE'RE BROADCASTING LIVE FROM NASA'S JET PROPULSION
LABORATORY, NESTLED NEAR PASADENA IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE
SAN GABRIEL MOUNTAINS IN SUNNY SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.
MANAGED FOR NASA BY CALTECH -- THE CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY -- JPL IS THE NERVE CENTER FOR ALL AMERICA'S
ROBOTIC EXPLORATIONS OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM.
Low angle buildings
SOME PARTS OF JPL LOOK LIKE A COLLEGE CAMPUS... BUT MULTIPLE
GUARD GATES AND CAREFUL CHECK-IN PROCEDURES REMIND YOU OF THE HIGH-TECH,
HIGH SECURITY RESEARCH BEING DONE HERE.
JPL HAS BEEN HOME ON EARTH TO THE HONOR ROLL... OF SOLAR
SYSTEM EXPLORERS... PIONEER, MARINER, VIKING, MAGELLAN,
VOYAGER... AND MANY MORE...
Upstairs, etc., to SFOF
AND IT'S FROM HERE THAT MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR AND MARS
PATHFINDER -- NOW SOME CHECK MILLION MILES AWAY IN SPACE --
ARE BEING MONITORED AND CONTROLLED.
back at JPL
MORE GUARDS SECURE SFOF -- THE SPACE FLIGHT OPERATIONS
FACILITY -- CONTROL CENTER FOR NASA'S DEEP SPACE NETWORK,
WHICH LINKS ALL THESE SPACECRAFT TO SCIENTISTS AND
ENGINEERS ON EARTH.
Card reader, elevator
PAST ANOTHER SECURITY CHECK, UP A FEW FLOORS AND THROUGH A MAZE OF
CORRIDORS WE'RE AT PATHFINDER MISSION CONTROL
AND THE SO-CALLED "SANDBOX"...
2A) CUT TO CAMILLE, LIVE CAMERA TO CONTINUE SEQ. AND
ARRIVE AT SANDBOX
FROM WHICH WE'RE COMING TO YOU, LIVE, TODAY, APRIL
HELLO, I'M CAMILLE MOODY.
TODAY IS "TAKE OUR DAUGHTERS TO WORK DAY" >AND< FALLS
WITHIN NSF'S "NATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WEEK,"
WHOSE THEME IS "WEBS, WIRES AND WAVES" -- THE FUTURE
see kids in RUMPUS ROOM and workers in MSA
WE HOPE YOU FIND THIS "ELECTRONIC FIELD TRIP" AN EXCITING WAY FOR STUDENTS
ALL ACROSS AMERICA TO VISIT
THIS VERY SPECIAL >WORKPLACE<, USING INTERACTIVE TV
AND THE INTERNET TO CONNECT TO REAL WORLD SCIENCE
AND SCIENTISTS IN REAL TIME
WELCOME TO LIVE FROM MARS PROGRAM 2, "CRUISING
BETWEEN THE PLANETS."
3) SHOW OPEN / VTR (01:00)
PTK, AMNH, MSU LOGOS
PROGRAM 2 TITLE
4) LIVE FROM MARS UPDATE / VTR (02:30) RT 04:45
scenes from LFM 101, focusing on kids
LAST TIME WE TOOK YOU BEHIND THE SCENES AT CAPE CANAVERAL,
LAUNCH SITE FOR BOTH MARS MISSIONS.
Kids in the flame pit. STUDENTS FROM McNAIR MIDDLE SCHOOL SHOWED US AROUND
THE SHUTTLE PADS...
kids with signs watching the launch, and a quick shot of the rocket taking
off and in flight
...WITNESSED SURVEYOR'S LAUNCH...
kids with hard hats close to the Delta pad
...TOOK US UP CLOSE TO PATHFINDER'S DELTA ROCKET...
at the beginning of the show, they walk into SAEF 2 with Camille, and the
yellow warning light blinks
AND RIGHT UP TO THE HIGH SECURITY CLEAN ROOM WHERE
PROJECT MANAGER TONY SPEAR SHOWED US THE FINAL
PREPARATIONS BEFORE LAUNCH.
Camille gets into bunny boots and goes thru air shower... high, wide shot
shows crew down below TAKING SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS CAMILLE MOODY AND OUR
CAMERAMAN WERE ALLOWED IN TO GIVE YOU AN INSIDER'S VIEW!
Wayne boxed over Delta on pad, and following box shots
GLOBAL SURVEYOR'S WAYNE LEE DESCRIBED THE ROCKETS THAT
CARRY BOTH MARS MISSIONS AWAY FROM EARTH.
Quick blips of the air bag test, CU of Sojourner roving, etc.
AND WE SAW THE YEARS OF TESTING IT TAKES TO GET SPACECRAFT
"GOOD TO GO."
Classroom scene with bottom super already on it
UP IN WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS, STUDENTS INTERACTED WITH
PATHFINDER PROJECT SCIENTIST MATT GOLOMBEK...
Neil shows CU of meteorite
AND THE AMERICAN MUSEUM'S NEIL TYSON SHOWED US A
METEORITE WHICH HAD COME FROM MARS!
Kids speak to camera, and map/box shots zoom up...
DOWN AT THE CAPE, STUDENTS PASSED ALONG E-MAIL QUESTIONS
FROM ALL ACROSS AMERICA TO TONY, MATT AND WAYNE...
stream-table activity, see variety of kids
AND WE SHOWED HANDS-ON EXPERIMENTS WHICH >YOU< CAN DO
IN CLASS TO SIMULATE THE EXPLORATION OF MARS.
ON DECEMBER 4TH, MARS PATHFINDER TOOK OFF IN A
SPECTACULAR 2:00 A.M. LAUNCH...
ON MARCH 14, 1997, PATHFINDER, TAKING A MORE DIRECT PATH TO
MARS, OVERTOOK GLOBAL SURVEYOR.
BOTH MISSIONS HAVE HAD A FEW GLITCHES TO KEEP JPL
ENGINEERS WORKING HARD, PATHFINDER WITH COMMUNICATIONS,
SURVEYOR WITH STICKY SOLAR PANELS, BUT BOTH NOW SEEM ON
COURSE AND A-OK.
PET imagery, from Lindgren, etc.
DOWN HERE ON EARTH, STUDENTS CREATED THEIR OWN "PLANET
EXPLORER TOOLKITS" SIMULATING HOW MARS SCIENTISTS SELECT
PDI form from the LFM Web site
STUDENTS DEBATED ONLINE, THEN WENT INTO THE FIELD, AND
RECENTLY HAVE SUBMITTED RESULTS, FROM SUSSEX, ENGLAND TO
ALASKA. WE'LL SEE MORE LATER...
Theresa Hall and Joy Selberg footage
MANY SCHOOLS HAVE ALSO WORKED ON "RED ROVER, RED ROVER"
WHICH LETS STUDENTS CONTROL MODEL ROBOTS VIA THE
MEANWHILE ASTRONOMERS AROUND THE WORLD HAVE BEEN
STUDYING MARS DURING ITS CLOSEST APPROACH TO EARTH... THE
HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROVIDED THESE GREAT IMAGES...
AND AMATEURS AND STUDENTS WERE ALSO WATCHING...
5) SHOW SET-UP / LIVE JPL (01:00) RT 05:45
CAMILLE in RUMPUS ROOM, with kids
BRIAN in MISSION CONTROL
ROB in SANDBOX
PATHFINDER DEPUTY PROJECT MANAGER BRIAN MUIRHEAD IS
OVER IN PATHFINDER "MISSION CONTROL"... HI BRIAN...
we see him, he waves
AND IN THE SANDBOX ALONG WITH A MOCKUP OF THE LANDER
AND ROVER IS CHIEF ENGINER ROB MANNING...
we see him, he waves
AND WE'VE GOT STUDENTS FROM THE LA UNIFIED SCHOOL
DISTRICT... AND QUESTIONS FROM KIDS AROUND THE
IF YOU WANT TO SEND IN QUESTIONS DURING THIS PROGRAM,
THIS IS THE ADDRESS...
Today, April 24, 1997
send questions to
BUT REMEMBER, THAT'S ONLY GOOD DURING THE NEXT HOUR...
WE'LL TELL YOU LATER HOW TO SEND QUESTIONS AFTER THIS
5A) MARVELLOUS MARS / VTR (00:30) RT
MARS... WHAT'S IN A NAME?
The "Red Planet" was known as "Horus" to the Egyptians... "Ares" to the
Greeks... and "Mars" to the Romans... Mars -- God of War, Agriculture and
the State, and father of Romulus and Remus.
Now here's a question...
Pathfinder arrives on July 4, 1997... but there's a month that might be
even more appropriate... when and why?
March -- named, of course, for Mars...
6) "FIRST WEEK ON MARS" / LIVE & VTR (03:00) RT 08:45
WELL BRIAN, WE SAID TODAY'S >APRIL 24<, BUT AROUND HERE
PEOPLE THINK IT'S JULY 8TH... WHAT'S GOING ON?
Well, Camille, we're right in the middle of what's called a
"SNORT"... a SURFACE NOMIAL OPERATIONS READINESS TEST
and we've got all the Pathfinder scientists out here at JPL from
around the country... and what we're doing is rehearsing exactly
what we hope will happen during Pathfinder's first week on Mars...
ROB, YOU GUYS CALL WHERE YOU'RE STANDING THE
"SANDBOX"... PLAY AROUND MUCH THERE?
No, we're pretty serious in this sandbox. This is a full-size... see
the airbags... and these rocks... and this is where Sojourner has
gotten by day 4... so that's what we mean by saying it's "July 8."
SO BRIAN, IF YOU'VE GOT ALL THESE SCIENTISTS AND
ENGINEERS OUT HERE, WHERE ARE THEY?
Well, it's not just July 8, it's also 03:00 hours, 3 a.m. in our
simulation, and we kept the team up working all night!
ROB, HOW'S IT BEEN GOING?
We've found a few things that didn't go quite as we expected... this
is a very risky mission... but in fact we're testing the human team as
much as anything else...
roll VTR of scientists debating, discussing, late night, etc...
CAMILLE, BRIAN and ROB ad lib comments on what's been going
on, just as Camille and Bill Fraser did about birds in LFA2
OK, KIDS, WE'VE SEEN WHAT'S BEEN GOING ON HERE, NOW
IT'S TIME FOR YOUR QUESTIONS TO BRIAN MUIRHEAD AND ROB
7) Q&A / LIVE & VTR (04:00) RT 12:45
CAMILLE calls on kids in RUMPUS ROOM, includes 2 live
questions from kids at JPL (RUMPUS ROOM)
THE FIRST QUESTION IS FROM WASHINGTON, DC
What did you use to test the Pathfinder if there's no atmosphere here like
the atmospher on Mars?
My question is: does the Sojourner Rover have artificial
intelligence on board to guide it since it takes 20 minutes to
transfer data between the Rover and Earth?
AND THE FIRST QUESTION FROM ONE OF OUR LOS ANGELES
How do you know that the Rover is going to land rightside up so
that it can drive? What are you going to do if the rover turns over or
on its side? Are their any provisions for righting it?
direct to 2nd LAUSD student
Can the camera on the Rover be raised and/or lowered to get
different views? Is there a range finder built into the camera to
help determine distances and angles? If not, how do you do that?
AND THIS JUST IN... BY E-MAIL...
LAUSD student reads EMAIL:
Brian Ganter, a student at the Kessler School in Helena, Montana
emailed this question: "Are the Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner
prepared for any kind of weather conditions on Mars?"
Direct to 2nd LAUSD e-mail
Students from Mr. Farmer's class at Mack Elementary School in
Ann Arbor, Michigan emailed the following questions:
Could you tell us a little more about the Alpha Proton X-Ray
Spectrometer (we call it the 'sniffer') and how it works? Does it
really sniff rocks and will it be able to detect any chemicals which
are necessary for life?
Camille leads to tape:
GREAT QUESTIONS KIDS... AND GREAT ANSWERS, GUYS!
WELL, WE SAW A LITTLE OF JPL EARLIER IN THE VIDEO, BUT
SINCE WE'RE INSIDE THIS WINDOWLESS AREA WE THOUGHT
WE SHOULD SHOW YOU MORE OF WHERE WE ARE, SINCE JPL
IS "DISCOVERY CENTRAL" FOR ALL AMERICA'S UNMANNED
MISSIONS TO THE PLANETS...
OVER TO MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR MISSION PLANNER WAYNE
LEE AND ROB MANNING, TO SHOW US AROUND...
8) JPL TOUR / VTR (04:30) RT 17:15
Wayne Lee and Rob Manning take us behind the scenes at JPL and show us
sites associated with MPF and JPL's "Greatest Hits"
8A) MARVELLOUS MARS #2 / VTR (00:30) RT
Highest Temperature: 17 Celsius / 63 F.
Lowest Temperature: -143 Celsius / -225 F.
Martian Year: 687 Earth days
Martian Day: 24 hours 37 minutes
9) ANATOMY OF A S/C / LIVE & VTR (04:00) RT 21:15
DONNA SHIRLEY IN SANDBOX, W/ CAMILLE
THANKS, GUYS... GREAT. NOW IT'S TIME TO GET UP CLOSE TO
THE THE SPACECRAFT THAT SHOULD "STAR" IN THE WEEK OF
JULY 4TH... PATHFINDER...
AND DONNA SHIRLEY IS THE PERSON WHO'S SHEPHERDED IT
FROM DESIGN TO LAUNCH TO CRUISE...
DONNA, WHAT HAVE WE GOT HERE?
DONNA describes Pathfinder... gets up close and points out the
CAMERA system... we roll in tape showing how IMP builds up its
we see the WEATHER MAST and the conical wind vanes... get a kid to blow on
DONNA, THAT'S GREAT... WE'LL GET TO MEET THE SOJOURNER
ROVER A LITTLE LATER... AND STUDENTS WILL BE ASKING YOU
QUESTIONS IN JUST A FEW MOMENTS...
IN FACT YOU WILL BE ANSWERING LOTS MORE QUESTIONS
LATER TODAY... WHAT'S THAT ALL ABOUT?
talks about the online WebChat for TAKE OUR DAUGHTERS TO
WORK day, and we give the LFM Web address, as a poiner to the
SO THAT'S AN INTRODUCTION TO MARS PATHFINDER AND
SOME OF ITS INSTRUMENTS... AND DONNA, BRIAN, ROB AND
THEIR COLLEAGUES ARE THE PEOPLE WHO PUT IT ALL TOGETHER.
BUT YOU STUDENTS OUT THERE ALSO HAD THE CHANCE TO
DESIGN AN INSTRUMENT PACKAGE, DEPLOY IT TO EXPLORE A
SITE ON A NEARBY PLANET -- EARTH -- AND SEE WHAT KIND OF
DATA YOU COULD OBTAIN.
CAMILLE AND DONNA MOVE TO MISSION CONTROL AREA,
ALLOWING ROB TO GET SET-UP IN THE SANDBOX.
10) PET REPORT / LIVE and VTR (02:34) RT 23:15
Camille reviews student involvement in PET, shows what kids have done
(relate to kick-off msg from MATT, and note scientist mentors througout)
and sets Mystery Site challenge.
Opening graphic with text I.D.
WE CALLED IT THE "PLANET EXPLORER TOOLKIT" AND CLASSES
ACROSS AMERICA AND OVERSEAS PARTICIPATED.
STUDENTS DEBATED WHAT TOOLS TO INCLUDE, FIRST IN CLASS,
AND THEN ONLINE.
JUST AS ON PATHFINDER, THERE WAS A SIZE AND BUDGET
RESTRICTION... IN OUR CASE, THE INSTRUMENTS HAD TO FIT WITHIN
A REGULAR SHOEBOX, AND THE TOTAL PACKAGE COULDN'T COST
MORE THAN $200 -- BUT WE EXPECTED SCHOOLS TO >BORROW< NOT
BUY THE INSTRUMENTS.
84 PROPOSALS WERE RECEIVED, OVER 3,000 STUDENTS ACTIVELY
PARTICIPATED, SUGGESTING MORE THAN 350 UNIQUE TOOLS!
THE ONLINE DISCUSSIONS WERE MENTORED BY SPACE SCIENTISTS,
INCLUDING ONE PATHFINDER MISSION PLANNER.
TEACHERS AND STUDENTS DEBATED THE BEST CHOICES, AND EVENTUALLY ARRIVED AT
A STANDARD TOOLKIT OF SOME 14
INSTRUMENTS, INCLUDING THERMOMETER, DISPOSABLE CAMERA
AND AN ANEMOMETER TO MEASURE WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION --
JUST AS ON PATHFINDER!
IN EARLY APRIL, STUDENTS "LAUNCHED" THEIR INSTRUMENT
KEN GRANGER'S 5TH GRADE IN MORRIS, MINNESOTA, WENT OUT IN
THE SNOW... SAMPLED SOIL AND VEGETATION... COLLECTED WATER
SAMPLES... CHECKED TEMPERATURES AT 3 DIFFERENT HEIGHTS,
JUST AS PATHFINDER WILL DO... TOOK PICTURES... AND THEN
ANALYZED THE SAMPLES BACK AT SCHOOL, AS IF OPERATING A
FUTURE SAMPLE RETURN MISSION.
DOWN IN WET AND WARMER GEORGIA, RHONDA TOON'S 3RD
GRADERS FOLLOWED THE SAME PROCEDURES WITH THE SAME SET
TEACHERS REPORTED STUDENTS FROM 2ND THROUGH 12TH
GRADES FOUND IT EXCITING AND INSTRUCTIVE TO PLAN AN
EXPLORATION, FOLLOWING THE ONLINE DISCUSSIONS,
COMPROMISING PERSONAL PREFERENCES WITH AN EXTENDED
TEAM OF COLLABORATORS, SELECTING INSTRUMENTS, AND THEN
ACTUALLY COLLECTING DATA.
IN LA CENTER, WASHINGTON, BONNIE LOCK'S 8TH GRADE TOOK
THEIR SHOEBOX TOOLKIT ON THE ROAD.
THEY NOT ONLY MEASURED SOIL AND WATER, BUT ALSO WORMS
AND WILDLIFE -- WHICH SO FAR WE'VE NOT SEEN ON MARS!
UP IN MASSACHUSETTS, DELAYED A WEEK BY A LATE SPRING
SNOWSTORM, CHARLIE LINDGREN'S 8TH GRADERS WENT OUT TO
THE SHORE, TAKING MEASUREMENTS WHICH SHOW HOW VERY
DIFFERENT SITES ON EARTH CAN BE.
10A) CAMILLE LIVE on camera (MISSION CONTROL!) RT
WE HOPE YOU STUDENTS DISCOVERED FOR YOURSELVES
THAT WHAT YOU FIND OUT ABOUT AN "ALIEN SITE" DEPENDS
ON THE INSTRUMENTS YOU CHOSE TO STUDY IT...
AND THAT ANY >ONE< SITE CAN'T EASILY CHARACTERIZE AN
NOW COMES ANOTHER EXCITING CHALLENGE OPEN TO ALL OF
SEE IF YOU CAN DETECT PATTERNS IN PLANETARY DATA, AND
SOLVE A CHALLENGE.
Web site address graphic:
LIVE FROM MARS
World Wide Web
ONLINE YOU'LL FIND DATA FROM 5 "MYSTERY SITES", ALL
CATEGORIZED BY ONE OF OUR PLANET EXPLORER TOOLKITS.
YOUR MISSION, WHICH WE SURE HOPE YOU'LL >CHOOSE TO ACCEPT<, IS TO FIGURE
OUT WHERE THESE SITES ARE!
CHECK OUT OUR WEB SITE, UNDER "FEATURED EVENTS", FOR
FULL INFORMATION, AND SUBMIT YOUR ANSWERS ONLINE!
THERE'LL BE WINNERS AT ELEMENTARY, MIDDLE AND HIGH
WIN OR LOSE, YOU'LL BE SIMULATING THE WORK OF REAL
WORLD SCIENTISTS -- TRYING TO UNDERSTAND A PLANET
FROM LIMITED DATA!
10A) MARVELLOUS MARS #3 / VTR (00:30) RT
BIGGER, LONGER, DEEPER!
"Vallis Marineris", named for the Mariner 9 spacecraft which imaged it in
1972. 4,000 kilometers long, large enough to stretch from New York to Los
Angeles, and 7 kilometers deep...
Now as we "fly" through this computer simulation of Vallis Marineris, you
have 10 seconds to estimate...
HOW MUCH >LONGER< AND >DEEPER< IS THIS VALLEY THAN
EARTH'S GRAND CANYON???
Arizona's Grand Canyon is 277 kilometers long and 1.6 kilometers deep, so
Vallis Marineris is about 14 times longer, and 4 times deeper!
11) "MY MARS" LIVE / STILL STORE (02:00) RT 25:15
CAMILLE AND DONNA IN MISSION CONTROL!
WELL, DONNA, YOU'VE BUILT AND LAUNCHED A REAL-WORLD
"PLANET EXPLORER TOOLKIT"... WHAT DO WE ALREADY KNOW
ABOUT MARS, AND WHAT DO YOU THINK IS MOST INTERESTING
ABOUT WHAT WE MIGHT FIND OUT IN THE COMING YEARS?
Donna refers to some of her favorite Mars images, and interacts
with Camille, to provide areological data... comparing and
contrasting Earth and Mars.
WELL, I CAN SEE WHY YOU FIND MARS SO FASCINATING... BUT
NOW IT'S TIME FOR STUDENT QUESTIONS ONCE AGAIN...
12) Q&A: MARS THE PLANET / LIVE & VTR (04:00) RT 29:15
We would like to know... how do you put a mission like this
together, exactly what is the very first step? the payload? the
budget? the design of the spacecraft?
OK, NEXT QUESTION FROM OUT IN WASHINGTON STATE!
My name is Jeremy Rosenblum and I was wondering why NASA
doesn't start terraforming Mars now?
OVER TO YOU, LOS ANGELES...
Why didn't you include an arm to scoop up rock samples and why
isn't this a return mission to bring back samples?
NOW THANKS TO IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION, WHERE THE
WHOLE STATE'S WATCHING... LIVE FROM SIOUX CENTER!
SIOUX CENTER AUDIO UPLINK QUESTION
How does last summer's discovery of the Mars Meteorite in
Antarctica affect future Mars Missions?
AND THIS E-MAIL QUESTION...
LA USD kid reads:
Rex, Christina, and Yi-Ying, Rover Project Team Leaders in the 5th
Grade, Encinal School, Atherton, CA ask:
What were the most important feaures about the surface of Mars
that you had to think about when you designed the Sojourner?
MORE E-MAIL TO COME!!!
AS WE SAID, DONNA WILL BE ONLINE ANSWERING MORE
QUESTIONS ABOUT WHAT IT'S LIKE TO BE AN ENGINEER, AND
MOTHER OF A FIRST YEAR COLLEGE STUDENT. LATER... BY THE
WAY DONNA... IS THAT YOUR DAUGHTER?
DONNA describes her "student shadow"!
WELCOME, WHITNEY... WE'LL PUT YOU TO WORK ON SOME E-
NOW IT'S TIME TO MEET THE LANDER'S MOBILE SIDEKICK...
SOJOURNER... AND TO TELL US ABOUT IT, WHO BETTER THAN
BRIAN COOPER, WHO'LL BE THE PRINCIPAL DRIVER DOWN HERE
ON EARTH FOR THAT FIRST WEEK...
13) ROVING ROUND MARS / LIVE & VTR (04:00) RT 33:15
BRIAN COOPER VTR sequence... VR
CAMILLE IN SANDBOX WITH ROB MANNING...
WELL ROB, THAT'S THE WAY IT'S S'POSED TO BE... DID IT RUN QUITE THAT
SMOOTHLY ON THIS WEeK'S TEST?
ROB describes the events of SNORT...
CAMILLE to camera:
THANKS BRIAN... WELL, DRIVING SOJOURNER
FOR REAL OBVIOUSLY INVOLVES ADVANCED COMPUTERS.
BUT STUDENTS ACROSS AMERICA AND AROUND THE WORLD
ALSO HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO CONTROL ROBOT
EXPLORERS AND SIMULATE, HANDS-ON, SOME PRETTY
EXCITING ASPECTS OF PLANETARY EXPLORATION.
14) RED ROVER, RED ROVER / VTR (03:00) RT 35:15
Super graphic over CU of Rover on "Mars"...
text: "RED ROVER, RED ROVER"
THE PROJECT IS CALLED "RED ROVER, RED ROVER" AND IS
COORDINATED BY THE PLANETARY SOCIETY, A PUBLICLY-SUPPORTED GROUP PROMOTING
THE EXPLORATION OF SPACE.
Kids at La Canada
THESE 5TH GRADERS AT PARADISE CANYON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IN LA CANADA, JUST A FEW MILES FROM JPL, ARE A PRINCIPAL RED
See backdrop, volcanoes, etc.
WITH PARENT SUPPORT, THEY'VE BUILT A LANDSCAPE THAT
RESEMBLES MARS. USING A KIT OF PARTS FROM LEGO DACTA, AND
AN INEXPENSIVE CAMERA, THEY BUILD A SIMPLE REMOTELY-
BUT THE MOST EXCITING THING IS THAT THIS ROVER IN CALIFORNIA
IS ACTUALLY BEING DRIVEN BY STUDENTS AT INDIAN HILLS SCHOOL
IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH!
Computers, technology, kids at work, etc.
HERE'S HOW IT WORKS.
THESE STUDENTS IN UTAH CALL UP THE REMOTE RED ROVER SITE
OVER THE INTERNET.
USING SIMPLE CONTROLS, THEY'RE ABLE TO DRIVE THE ROVER IN
CALIFORNIA IN REAL TIME. JUST LIKE BRIAN COOPER, THEY HAVE TO
FIGURE OUT WHERE THEY WANT TO GO... AND WHAT ROUTE LOOKS
SOME SITES FIND IT'S FUN TO HIDE OBJECTS, JUST AS FOSSILS MAY
BE HIDDEN BELOW SURFACE ON MARS, CREATING A KIND OF
ROBOTIC TREASURE HUNT...
Scenes of kids having fun, frustration, triumph -- perhaps split screen
from the two sites.
UNLIKE SOJOURNER, "RED ROVERS" HAVE NO ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE, SO HOW CLEVERLY >YOU< DRIVE DETERMINES HOW FAR YOU GET, AND
IF YOU GET STUCK!
Scenes in the CA classroom.
MEANWHILE STUDENTS IN CALIFORNIA CAN DRIVE OTHER ROVERS
AROUND THE WORLD! THE CAMERAS BRING BACK IMAGES OF THE
ALIEN LANDSCAPE, JUST LIKE SOJOURNER WILL BRING US MARS.
STUDENTS PRACTISE TEAMWORK, COORDINATION, LEARN THE
PRINCIPLES OF ROBOTICS... AND HAVE A LOT OF FUN.
THERE ARE SITES IN THE UK, AND IN SCANDINAVIA... AND MORE AND
MORE SCIENCE MUSEUMS ARE CREATING INTERACTIVE SITES -- SO
THIS SUMMER, FIND THE CLOSEST SITE, AND GO OUT AND TRY YOUR
14A) CAMILLE / LIVE to camera
WELL, REMEMBER WE SAID WE HAD PRIZES FOR THE PLANET
EXPLORER TOOLKIT WINNERS?
EACH CLASS WILL BE GETTING A "RED ROVER" STARTER KIT, COURTESY OF THE
PLANETARY SOCIETY AND "LIVE FROM
MARS"... GOOD LUCK, AND GET THOSE ROBOTS ROVING!
THIS SUMMER, WE HOPE IT'LL BE PATHFINDER THAT'S IN THE
LAST SUMMER IT WAS METEORITES FROM MARS... AND THE
POSSIBILITY OF FINDING EVIDENCE OF MICROSCOPIC FOSSIL
LIFE. ODDLY ENOUGH, THAT STORY TAKES US WAY DOWN
SOUTH TO THE SITE OF OUR EARLIER "LIVE FROM" ELECTRONIC
FIELD TRIP... ANTARCTICA!
15) MESSENGERS FROM MARS / VTR (04:30) RT 39:45
segment graphic: MARS ON EARTH?
15A) MARVELLOUS MARS #4 / VTR (00:30) RT
RED PLANET RISKS!
Getting to Mars is risky. Since 1960, America and Russia have launched 29
spacecraft to Mars... but only 8 have returned useful data.
Some talk about a "Great Galactic Ghoul", waiting out there to gobble up
craft like America's Global Observer, lost in 1993.
So... GOOD LUCK and Bon Voyage to Mars Pathfinder and Global
Surveyor, and the men and women who control them...
DONNA, A QUICK QUESTION BEFORE WE BEGIN TO LOOK AT
GLOBAL SURVEYOR... IF WE'RE LUCKY ENOUGH TO FIND
CHUNKS OF MARS DOWN HERE ON EARTH, WHY DO WE NEED
TO SEND SPACECRAFT TO THE RED PLANET ANYWAY?
16) MGS MATH / VTR (05:00) RT 44:45
CAMILLE leads to MGS Math.
WE'VE BEEN LOOKING AT MARS PATHFINDER QUITE A LOT
TODAY, WHICH IS OKAY -- SINCE IT GETS TO MARS FIRST... BUT
IT'S BY NO MEANS THE ONLY MARS MISSION...
MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR WON'T ARRIVE TILL SEPTEMBER AND
ITS BEST SCIENCE WON'T EVEN START COMING BACK TILL SPRING 1998... BUT HOW
IT GETS TO MARS ILLUSTRATES THE
MATH AND PHYSICS OF ROCKET SCIENCE.
Cruising between the planets is not an easy task. It involves using the
laws of physics namely those derived by Newton and Kepler over 400 years
ago. These laws govern how s/c and planets move arond the sun. Now I know
this sounds really complicated, but I can show you what's happening in a
The s/c MGS is here at the time of launch. Notice that Mars is here at the
time of launch. Because Mars is a moving target we have to follow this
green path around the sun and intercept Mars right about here.
Today, April 24, we're here at this red star, 41 million kms from reaching
Mars. Now let me show you a CU view of what happens when we get to
Mars, right here.
Now this view that we are seeing here shows you what happens during the
last 20 minutes. We follow this blue line here over the North Pole of
Mars, and our ultimate goal is to aim for a point right here. It's our
point of closest approach, and it will occur on September 12, and we'll be
three hundred kms above the Martian surface.
How tough is it to do this? Imagine sinking a free throw from LA and
hitting a moving basket all the way in New York. Now that's a really tough
THESE ARE THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE TO MAKE THAT COSMIC THREE-
POINTER HAPPEN, THE NAVIGATION TEAM.
HEADED BY PAT ESPOSITO, THEY HAVE BACKGROUNDS IN PHYSICS,
ENGINEERING, AND -- OF COURSE -- MATH.
SOME OF THEM WROTE THE GLOBAL SURVEYOR MISSION PLAN YEARS AGO...
OTHERS JOINED MORE RECENTLY. ALL HAVE TO USE THEIR MATH
>AND< THEIR IMAGINATIONS TO REACH OUT MILLIONS OF
KILOMETERS INTO SPACE TO FIGURE OUT -- FIRST JUST WHERE THE
SPACECRAFT IS... AND THEN -- HOW TO CHANGE ITS SPEED AND
DIRECTION TO GET IT WHERE THEY >WANT< IT TO BE.
JUST LIKE TRAFFIC COPS USING RADAR, THEY TRACK CHANGES IN
THE SIGNALS COMING BACK FROM THE SPACECRAFT TO FIGURE OUT
CHANGES IN ACCELERATION.
BUT THESE COSMIC COPS, ALSO HAVE TO ACCOUNT FOR HEAVENLY
PROBLEMS AS THE PRESSURE OF SUNLIGHT ON THE SOLAR
PANELS, AND SMALL INSTABILITIES IN HOW THE SPACECRAFT SPINS.
THEY OFTEN GATHER TO SHARE DATA... AND COMPARE CALCULATIONS, USING ANY
DISCREPANCIES TO COME UP WITH THE
BEST POSSIBLE CALCULATION OF WHERE THEY ARE, AND HOW THEY
NEED TO CHANGE THE SPACECRAFT'S SPEED.
DURING SURVEYOR'S VOYAGE TO MARS, THEY HAVE 4 CHANCES TO
FINE TUNE THEIR COURSE.
Now Mars is far from the Earth, and it is a moving target. So it's hard to
hit Mars on the first try, in fact it's impossible. So our navigators face
a very tough job. It turns out that in the course of the journey from
Earth to Mars there are 4 opportunities to make Trajectory Correction
Maneuvers, and I'll show you where these are.
Each one of these maneuvers involves firing the the spacecraft's main
rocket to slightly change the direction and speed of the s/c. Now what
kind of change are we talking about?
The s/c has a velocity of 55,000 mph around the Sun, and we're talking
about changing the velocity by less than 25 mph, so it's a very small
change, but it makes a big difference at the end. 18:27
THIS WAS THE SCENE AT JPL DURING TCM #2, MARCH 20, 1997.
GLENN CUNNINGHAM, MGS PROJECT MANAGER, GATHERED HIS
TEAM TO AWAIT FIRST EVIDENCE THAT SURVEYOR'S ENGINES HAD
BURNED FOR THE CORRECT TIME, AND THAT A NEW COURSE HAD
UNLIKE PATHFINDER, SURVEYOR IS ACTUALLY CONTROLLED BY
LOCKHEED MARTIN ASTRONAUTICS, IN DENVER, COLORADO --
LINKED IN BY AUDIO-CONFERENCE TO JPL.
SURVEYOR ITSELF IS MILLIONS OF KILOMETERS FARTHER OFF IN
SPACE. ITS RADIO SIGNALS TRAVELING AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT,
ALREADY TAKE 2 MINUTES TO REACH EARTH.
DOWN HERE ON EARTH, THEY KNOW WHEN THE BURN >SHOULD<
HAVE HAPPENED. BUT THERE'S NOTHING THEY CAN DO BUT WAIT.
THE EVIDENCE ON THE SCREEN SEEMS GOOD... BUT IRONICALLY IT
TAKES A FAXED PRINTOUT FROM DENVER TO DEMONSTRATE THE
CHANGE IN ACCELERATION THAT WILL TELL THEM "ALL IS WELL."
IN FACT THINGS WENT SO WELL THAT TCM 3 WAS CANCELLED... AS
OF TODAY, APRIL 24, 1997... MGS SEEMS 100% ON COURSE FOR
TO LIVE INTERACTION, CAMILLE AND WAYNE.
WAYNE live, with doppler gun (police?) and large s/c model
WAYNE... WHY DO YOU HAVE THAT RADAR GUN?
17) MGS Q&A / LIVE, VTR and e-mail (04:00) RT 49:45
THANKS, WAYNE... AND NOW IT'S TIME FOR QUESTIONS TO YOU
ABOUT HOW BOTH SPACECRAFT USE MATH AND PHYSICS TO
GET TO MARS... AND MORE MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR...
I'm wondering... is there a more direct route to Mars than the one
taken? And, if so, why wasn't it taken?
What kinds of problems do or can occur in the travels of spaceships
HERE'S A QUESTION FROM LOS ANGELES...
How will the pictures be sent back from Mars Global Surveyor? And
how are they translated from data into photographs that we recognize?
ONCE MORE, LIVE FROM IOWA!
SIOUX CENTER AUDIO UPLINK QUESTION:
What happens when Mars Global Surveyor is in Mars' shadow and
not receiving solar rays on its solar panels? Is there back-up
LA, LET'S HAVE THAT E-MAIL QUESTION...
LA STUDENT reads EMAIL:
Jackie Gebhart, a fifth grade student from Muncie, Indiana
emails: What type of device do you use to execute the Trajectory
Correction Maneuvers as MGS and MPF are traveling to Mars?
LA STUDENT reads 2nd question:
And this email question comes from the eighth grade classes at
Spring Creek Jr. High in Elko, Nevada:
Was it ever determined why the Global Surveyor's solar array failed
to fully deploy? Will this have any effect on the aero-braking which
is to slow the Surveyor's approach?
WE CAN ONLY ANSWER A FEW OF YOUR QUESTIONS DURING
THIS HOUR, BUT ALL OF YOU CAN GET YOUR QUESTIONS
ANSWERED, WHETHER YOU'VE ONLY GOT E-MAIL ACCESS TO
THE INTERNET, OR A DIRECT CONNECTION TO THE WORLD WIDE
TO FIND OUT HOW, PLEASE REGISTER FOR OUR ONLINE
NEWSLETTER. SEND E-MAIL TO
AND IN THE BODY OF THE MESSAGE WRITE ONLY
18) LFM WEB SITE / LIVE & VTR (01:17) RT 51:15
Netscape browser "reads on" the opening page, with the various icons
THE BEST WAY TO KEEP UP TO DATE WITH WHAT'S HAPPENING TO
THE MARS MISSIONS IS VIA THE INTERNET.
What's New section
OUR LIVE FROM MARS SITE IS UNDER "CONTINUOUS CONSTRUCTION"
AND WILL KEEP YOU COOL AND CONNECTED EVEN DURING THE
Teacher's Lounge, and Guide links
THERE'S AN ONLINE VERSION OF THE TEACHER'S GUIDE, WITH LOTS
OF HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES.
Links to MPF and MGS
THERE ARE LINKS, OF COURSE, TO BOTH MARS MISSIONS OWN HOME
PAGES HERE AT JPL, SO YOU CAN FIND OUT THE LATEST ABOUT
Team logo, and pages
THERE'S THE CHANCE TO MEET SOME OF THE MEN AND WOMEN
WHO OPERATE THE SPACECRAFT.
ONLINE YOU CAN READ "FIELD JOURNALS" AND "BIOGRAPHIES" WHICH TAKE YOU
BEHIND THE SCENES, WITH ANECDOTES ABOUT
WHAT IT'S LIKE TO WORK ON THESE MISSIONS.
ANY STUDENT CAN SEND A QUESTION VIA RESEARCHER "Q&A" AND
WITHIN A WEEK OR SO, YOU'LL GET AN ANSWER BACK FROM ONE OF
Featured events, WebChats
THERE'S THE CHANCE TO INTERACT IN REAL TIME WITH MARS
SCIENTISTS, VIA WEB CHAT.
Featured events: PET, etc.
AND AS YOU'VE SEEN, THERE ARE ALSO OPPORTUNITIES FOR
STUDENTS TO COLLABORATE WITH OTHER STUDENTS -- IN
ACTIVITIES LIKE THE "PLANET EXPLORER TOOLKIT"...
AND FOR TEACHERS TO INTERACT WITH OTHER TEACHERS, AND SHARE IDEAS.
ALL THIS PLUS LOTS OF LINKS TO OTHER COOL MARS, NASA AND
18A) CAMILLE: LIVE IN MISSION CONTROL (00:??) RT
WHEW... PRETTY EXCITING!!!
AND WAY, WAY, EXCITING IS WHAT WE HOPE TO EXPERIENCE
VIA TV AND THE INTERNET THIS SUMMER.
THROUGHOUT THIS PROGRAM, WE'VE SEEN WHAT THE
SCIENTISTS WILL BE DOING DOWN HERE AT JPL. BUT WHAT
WILL PATHFINDER BE DOING UP THERE ON MARS?
19) JULY 4TH ON MARS / VTR (01:00) RT 52:15
MPF animation featuring EDL sequence, inc. airbags, etc.)
TRAVELING ON A BALLISTIC TRAJECTORY, PATHFINDER'S ARRIVAL
SHOULD PROCEED ACCORDING TO PLAN AND TIMETABLE.
DURING THE MARTIAN NIGHT, PATHFINDER ARRIVES... ITS BACKSHELL
HITS THE ATMOSPHERE, SLOWS THE SPACECRAFT DOWN THRU
FRICTION, AND BURNS AWAY.
THEN A PARACHUTE DEPLOYS, SLOWING THE SPACECRAFT STILL
THEN RETRO-ROCKETS FIRE... THIS JULY 4TH, THERE'LL BE ROCKETS
GLOWING OVER THE RED PLANET!
LASTLY STURDY, KEVLAR-STRENGHTENED AIRBAGS DEPLOY, THE
SPACECRAFT BOUNCES, PERHAPS AS HIGH AS A TEN STORY
BUILDING, AND REBOUNDS OFF ACROSS THE SURFACE, PERHAPS FOR ANOTHER 20
ONCE IT SETTLES, PETALS UNFOLD, RIGHTING THE SPACECRAFT NO
MATTER WHICH SIDE IT LANDS ON.
THE LANDERS INSTRUMENTS THEN COME TO LIFE, SENDING A FIRST
BURST OF DATA BACK TO EARTH, SOME TIME AROUND 13:00 HOURS
PACIFIC, SIGNALING THAT THE SPACECRAFT IS ON THE SURFACE
A FEW HOURS LATER, IN THE EARLY EVENING, PACIFIC TIME, THE
FIRST NEW IMAGES FROM MARS SHOULD BEGIN TO ARRIVE...
Sojourner rolls off and around...
AND WE'LL ALL KNOW WHERE WE'VE LANDED... AND WHAT SCENES
SOJOURNER SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPLORE OVER THE FOLLOWING
DAYS AND WEEKS.
20) JULY 4TH ON EARTH / LIVE & VTR (01:00) RT 53:15
VHS/Hi-8 video from LFM schools around US show how students and
families can simulate events on Mars
egg drop sequences
DOWN HERE ON EARTH, NASA-TV AND THE NEWS CHANNELS WILL
CARRY THE LATEST ON THE LANDING...
scenes of various schools
BUT MANY SCHOOLS HAVE ALREADY GOTTEN STUDENTS, PARENTS
AND THEIR COMMUNITIES INVOLVED IN SIMULATIONS OF
LAST YEAR, TEACHER FRAN O'ROURKE IN WASHINGTON STATE GOT
HER LOCAL FIRE DEPARTMENT TO LOAN A LADDER TO DROP TEST
PAYLOADS TO SEE IF THEY'D SURVIVE.
THIS YEAR RHONDA TOON'S CLASS IN LAMAR, GEORGIA, MADE
HER SCHOOL BORROWED A CHERRY PICKER FROM A LOCAL UTILITY!
SOME STUDENTS WERE SUCCESSFUL...
SOME LOST THEIR PAYLOADS!!!
OUT IN MONTANA TEACHER DETLEF JOHL HAD HIS MIDDLE
STUDENTS GO A FEW STEPS FURTHER.
THEY USED BALLOONS TO SIMULATE PATHFINDER'S AIR BAGS...
WHETHER THE FRAGILE PAYLOADS SURVIVED OR NOT, ALL
PARTICIPANTS EXPERIENCED THE CHALLENGE OF HIGH VELOCITY
ENCOUNTERS... AND THE FUN OF SEEING WHAT WORKED AND WHAT DID NOT.
21) ROUND ROBIN Q&A / VTR and e-mail (04:00) RT 57:15
CAMILLE THROWS QUESTIONS TO ROB, BRIAN, DONNA,
WAYNE... FROM LA KIDS, VTR, E-MAIL...
OVER TO WASHINGTON, DC...
What is the reason for the July 4th landing... why not July 5th or July
2ND DC QUESTION
Are you afraid of anything floating around in space hitting and damaging
any of the probes?
SOME LAST QUESTIONS FROM OUR LA STUDENTS!
Why is the Rover only designed to operate for 30 days? Is there any device
built into the Rover to clean dust off the camera lens once it gets moving
or will the images be "dirty?"
ANOTHER E-MAIL QUESTION:
Is the Pathfinder going to explore the volcanoes on Mars?
Why are we working on going to Mars and building a space station at the
same time? Shouldn't we concentrate our efforts toward one thing?
WOULDN'YA JUST KNOW THAT QUESTION COMES FROM DC... DONNA, THAT'S FOR YOU!
LA STUDENT READS EMAIL:
Nikki Bennett, a 9th grader at Allegany-Limestone Central
School, in Allegany, NY asks: When the Pathfinder lands on Mars, it has
two ramps that open up to let the Sojourner Rover roll off. What would
happen if one of the ramps was blocked by a rock and the other ramp opened
into a crater? Would the Sojourner be able to right itself if it rolled
over and be able to go down into the crater?
How is the bubble which protects the Rover durable enough to hit Mars at
such a fast speed?
What would happen if the homebase was damaged in some way
and what would happen to the Rover?
What is the one thing you'd say you have to be most careful and most alert
about when conducting these Mars experiments?
22) WRAP / LIVE (01:00) RT 58:15
WE SAID AT THE BEGINNING THAT IT WAS THE "WEBS, WAVES
AND WIRES" BEING CELEBRATED DURING SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY WEEK THAT MAKE POSSIBLE THIS NEW KIND OF
LEARNING, IN WHICH ALL OF US CAN GET UP CLOSE AND
PERSONAL WITH REAL SCIENCE AND REAL SCIENTISTS...
BUT IT'S NOT JUST ADVANCED TELECOMMUNICATIONS
TECHNOLOGY WHICH MAKES THIS POSSIBLE... IT'S THE
RESEARCHERS AND ENGINEERS WHO MAKE TIME TO WRITE
JOURNALS, ANSWER QUESTIONS AND PASS ON SOME OF
CAMILLE gestures to the Mars team...
WITHOUT THESE PEOPLE, AND THEIR WILLINGNESS TO SHARE
THEIR LIFE AND WORK, THEIR DREAMS AND HIGH HOPES, THE
INTERNET AND INTERACTIVE TV WOULD JUST BE "WIRES IN A
SO AS WE WRAP UP THIS SIMULATION OF JULY 8TH ON MARS...
AND LOOK FORWARD TO THE CHALLENGE AND HIGH DRAMA OF
THIS COMING JULY 4TH, LET'S HEAR IT FOR THE MEN AND
WOMEN OF NASA, AND THE MARS EXPLORATION DIRECTORATE...
FOR LIVE FROM MARS, I'M CAMILLE MOODY... BYE TO ALL,
THANKS FOR JOINING US... AND STAY COOL AND CONNECTED!
SEE YOU IN JULY... >LIVE --- FROM -- MARS!
23) CREDITS (01:00) RT 59:15
24) UNDERWRITER ANNOUNCE (00:15) RT 59:29