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Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the developer, PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.

New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards

The New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for science you can cover using "To MARS with MER" are listed below. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities planned for "To MARS with MER".

New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards

STANDARD 5.1 (SCIENTIFIC PROCESSES) ALL STUDENTS WILL DEVELOP PROBLEM-SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING AND INQUIRY SKILLS, REFLECTED BY FORMULATING USABLE QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES, PLANNING EXPERIMENTS, CONDUCTING SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS, INTERPRETING AND ANALYZING DATA, DRAWING CONCLUSIONS, AND COMMUNICATING RESULTS.

Descriptive Statement: Students best learn science by doing science. Science is not merely a collection of facts and theories but a process, a way of thinking about and investigating the world in which we live. This standard addresses those skills that are used by scientists as they discover and explain the physical universe-skills that are an essential and ongoing part of learning science.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

By the end of Grade 4, students will:

A. Habits of Mind

1. Raise questions about the world around them and be willing to seek answers through making careful observations and experimentation.

2. Keep records that describe observations, carefully distinguish actual observations from ideas and speculations, and are understandable weeks and months later.

3. Recognize that when a science investigation is replicated, very similar results are expected.

4. Know that when solving a problem it is important to plan and get ideas and help from other people.

B. Inquiry and Problem Solving

1. Develop strategies and skills for information-gathering and problem-solving, using appropriate tools and technologies.

2. Identify the evidence used in an explanation.

C. Safety

1. Recognize that conducting science activities requires an awareness of potential hazards and the need for safe practices.

2. Understand and practice safety procedures for conducting science investigations.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:

A. Habits of Mind

1. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of data, claims, and arguments.

2. Communicate experimental findings to others.

3. Recognize that the results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same and that replication is often necessary.

4. Recognize that curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness, and honesty are attributes of scientists.

B. Inquiry and Problem Solving

1. Identify questions and make predictions that can be addressed by conducting investigations.

2. Design and conduct investigations incorporating the use of a control.

3. Collect, organize, and interpret the data that result from experiments.

C. Safety

1. Know when and how to use appropriate safety equipment with all classroom materials.

2. Understand and practice safety procedures for conducting science investigations.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:

A. Habits of Mind

1. When making decisions, evaluate conclusions, weigh evidence, and recognize that arguments may not have equal merit.

2. Assess the risks and benefits associated with alternative solutions.

3. Engage in collaboration, peer review, and accurate reporting of findings.

4. Explore cases that demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of the scientific enterprise.

B. Inquiry and Problem Solving

1. Select and use appropriate instrumentation to design and conduct investigations.

2. Show that experimental results can lead to new questions and further investigations.

C. Safety

1. Understand, evaluate and practice safe procedures for conducting science investigations.

STANDARD 5.2 (SCIENCE AND SOCIETY) ALL STUDENTS WILL DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF HOW PEOPLE OF VARIOUS CULTURES HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, AND HOW MAJOR DISCOVERIES AND EVENTS HAVE ADVANCED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.

Descriptive Statement: Science is a human endeavor involving successes and failures, trials and tribulations. Students should know that great numbers of people from many cultures have contributed to our understanding of science and that science has a rich and fascinating history. This standard encourages students to learn about the people and events that have shaped or revolutionized important scientific theories and concepts.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

By the end of Grade 4, students will:

A. Cultural Contributions

1. Describe how people in different cultures have made and continue to make contributions to science and technology.

B. Historical Perspectives

1. Hear, read, write, and talk about scientists and inventors in historical context.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:

A. Cultural Contributions

1. Recognize that scientific theories:

develop over time,
depend on the contributions of many people, and
reflect the social and political climate of their time.

2. Know that scientists are men and women of many cultures who often work together to solve scientific and technological problems.

3. Describe how different people in different cultures have made and continue to make contributions to science and technology.

B. Historical Perspectives

1. Develop a time line. Describe the impact of major events and people in the history of science and technology, in conjunction with other world events.

2. Describe the development and exponential growth of scientific knowledge and technological innovations.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:

A. Cultural Contributions

1. Recognize the role of the scientific community in responding to changing social and political conditions and how scientific and technological achievement effect historical events.

B. Historical Perspectives

1. Examine the lives and contributions of important scientists who effected major breakthroughs in our understanding of the natural and designed world.

2. Discuss significant technological achievements in which science has played an important part as well as technological advances that have contributed directly to the advancement of scientific knowledge.

3. Describe the historical origin of important scientific developments such as atomic theory, genetics, plate tectonics, etc., showing how scientific theories develop, are tested, and can be replaced or modified in light of new information and improved investigative techniques.

STANDARD 5.3 (MATHEMATICAL APPLICATIONS) ALL STUDENTS WILL INTEGRATE MATHEMATICS AS A TOOL FOR PROBLEM-SOLVING IN SCIENCE, AND AS A MEANS OF EXPRESSING AND/OR MODELING SCIENTIFIC THEORIES.

Descriptive Statement: Science cannot be practiced or learned without appreciation of the role of mathematics in discovering and expressing natural laws. This standard recognizes the need for students to fully integrate mathematics skills with their learning of science.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

By the end of Grade 4, students will:

A. Numerical Operations

1. Determine the reasonableness of estimates, measurements, and computations of quantities when doing science.

2. Recognize and comprehend the orders of magnitude associated with large and small physical quantities.

3. Express quantities using appropriate number formats, such as:

integers.
fractions.

B. Geometry and Measurement

1. Select appropriate measuring instruments based on the degree of precision required.

2. Use a variety of measuring instruments and record measured quantities using the appropriate units.

C. Patterns and Algebra

1. Identify patterns when observing the natural and constructed world.

D. Data Analysis and Probability

1. Use tables and graphs to represent and interpret data.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:

A. Numerical Operations

1. Express quantities using appropriate number formats, such as:

decimals.
percents.
scientific notation.

B. Geometry and Measurement

1. Perform mathematical computations using labeled quantities and express answers in correctly derived units.

C. Patterns and Algebra

1. Express physical relationships in terms of mathematical equations derived from collected data.

D. Data Analysis and Probability

1. Represent and describe mathematical relationships among variables using:

graphs.
tables.

2. Analyze experimental data sets using measures of central tendency:

mean.
mode.
median

3. Construct and use a graph of experimental data to draw a line of best fit and identify a linear relationship between variables.

4. Use computer spreadsheets, graphing and database applications to assist in quantitative analysis of data.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:

A. Numerical Operations

1. Reinforce indicators from previous grade level.

B. Geometry and Measurement

1. When performing mathematical operations with measured quantities, express answers to reflect the degree of precision and accuracy of the input data.

C. Patterns and Algebra

1. Apply mathematical models that describe physical phenomena to predict real world events.

D. Data Analysis and Probability

1. Construct and interpret graphs of data to represent inverse and non-linear relationships, and statistical distributions.

STANDARD 5.4 (NATURE AND PROCESS OF TECHNOLOGY) ALL STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOP A CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE NATURE AND PROCESS OF TECHNOLOGY.

Descriptive Statement: This standard focuses on developing studentsí understanding of the interrelationship between science and technology. It introduces students to and expands their understanding of the nature of technology. In addition, it introduces and develops studentsí abilities with technological design including experiences in predicting, decision making, critical thinking, and problem solving.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

By the end of Grade 2, students will:

A. Science and Technology

1. Indicators for this strand are introduced at a higher grade level.

B. Nature of Technology

1. Select and use simple tools and materials to complete a task.

C. Technological Design

1. Make a plan in order to design a solution to a problem.

2. Describe a toy or other familiar object as a system with parts that work together.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will:

A. Science and Technology

1. Distinguish between things that occur in nature and those that have been designed to solve human problems.

B. Nature of Technology

1. Demonstrate how measuring instruments are used to gather information in order to design things that work properly.

C. Technological Design

1. Describe a product or device in terms of the problem it solves or the need it meets.

2. Choose materials most suitablebased on their characteristics to make simple mechanical constructions.

3. Use the design process to identify a problem, look for ideas, and develop and share solutions with others.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 6, students will:

A. Science and Technology

Reinforce indicators from previous grade level.

B. Nature of Technology

Reinforce indicators from previous grade level.

C. Technological Design

1. Select a technological problem and describe the criteria and constraints and criteria that are addressed in solving the problem.

2. Identify the basic components of a technological system:

input.

process.

output.

feedback.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:

A. Science and Technology

1. Compare and contrast science with technology, illustrating similarities and differences between these two human endeavors.

B. Nature of Technology

1. Analyze a product or system to determine the problem it was designed to solve, the design constraints, trade-offs and risks involved in using the product or system, how the product or system might fail, and how the product or system might be improved.

C. Technological Design

1. Recognize how feedback loops are used to control systems.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:

A. Science and Technology

1. Know that scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the natural world and seeks to answer questions that may or may not directly influence humans, while technology is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems.

B. Nature of Technology

1. Assess the impacts of introducing a new technology in terms of alternative solutions, costs, tradeoffs, risks, benefits and environmental impact.

C. Technological Design

1. Plan, develop, and implement a proposal to solve an authentic, technological problem.

STANDARD 5.7 (PHYSICS) ALL STUDENTS WILL GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF NATURAL LAWS AS THEY APPLY TO MOTION, FORCES, AND ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS.

Descriptive Statement: Basic principles of physics emerge in this standard, where the study of force and motion leads students to the concept of energy. All forms of energy are introduced and investigated, and principles of transformation and laws of conservation are developed.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

By the end of Grade 2, students will:

A. Motion and Forces

1. Distinguish among the different ways objects can move such as:

fast and slow.

in a straight line.

in a circular path.

back and forth.

2. Show that the position and motion of an object can be changed by pushing or pulling the object.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will:

A. Motion and Forces

1. Recognize that changes in the speed or direction of a moving object are caused by force and that the greater the force, the greater the change in motion will be.

2. Recognize that some forces can act at a distance.

gravity
magnetism
static electricity

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 6, students will:

A. Motion and Forces

1. Recognize that an object at rest will remain at rest and an object moving in a straight line at a steady speed will continue to move in a straight line at a steady speed unless a net (unbalanced) force acts on it.

2. Recognize that motion can be retarded by forces such as friction and air resistance.

3. Recognize that everything on or near the earth is pulled toward the earth's center by gravitational force.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:

A. Motion and Forces

1. Use quantitative data to show that when more than one force acts on an object at the same time, the forces can reinforce or cancel each other producing a net (unbalanced) force that will change speed and/or direction of the object.

2. Recognize that every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object, and that the force depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are.

Recognize that the sun is a major source of the Earth's energy and that solar energy includes visible, infrared and, ultraviolet radiation.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:

A. Motion and Forces

1. Apply the mathematical relationship between the mass of an object, the net force exerted on it, and the resulting acceleration.

2. Explain that whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal and opposite force is exerted on the first object.

3. Recognize gravity as a universal force of attraction between masses and that the force is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

4. Recognize that electrically charged bodies can attract or repel each other with a force that depends upon the size and nature of the charges and the distance between them and know that electric forces play an important role in explaining the structure and properties of matter.

4. Explain the nature of electromagnetic radiation and compare the components of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays.

STANDARD 5.9 (ASTRONOMY and SPACE SCIENCE) ALL STUDENTS WILL GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE ORIGIN, EVOLUTION, AND STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE

Descriptive Statement: The study of science should include a study of the planet Earth and its relationship to the rest of the universe. This standard describes what students should know about astronomy and space science.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

By the end of Grade 2, students will:

A. Earth, Moon, Sun System

1. Recognize that the sun supplies light and heat to the Earth.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 4, students will:

B. Solar System

1. Describe Earth as one of several planets that orbit the sun and the moon as a satellite of the Earth.

D. Galaxies and Universe

1. Recognized that images of celestial objects can be magnified and seen in greater detail when observed using binoculars and light telescopes.

2. Observe and record short-term and long-term changes in the night sky.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 6, students will:

B. Solar System

1. Using models, demonstrate an understanding of the scale of the solar system that shows distance and size relationships among the sun and planets.

2. Recognize that the sun's gravitational pull holds the planets in their orbits and that the planetsí gravitational pull holds their moons in their orbits.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:

B. Solar System

1. Describe the physical characteristics of the planets and other objects within the solar system and compare Earth to the rest of the planets.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:

D. Galaxies and Universe

1. Describe data gathering and observation technologies and explain how they are used to explore the solar system and beyond.

2. Cite evidence to describe the scientific theory of the origin of the universe and the current explanations of its evolution.