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LIVE FROM MARS 2001: Mars Conference

Mars Virtual Teacher Training Conference

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:05AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [4 ] Good morning distinguished guest. My name is and our partners JPL welcome to the Mars Exploration program here in the national capital and also this will be the first in a series . The District of Columbia more than our ambassadors our team mate for the long term in his exciting to excellence in education so I will not repeat

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [5 ] T goals of excel and then you will be willing to join our team and them our vision is that of a permanent network university across the country at least one in each state industry, could, etc. a Network which I'm not thinking of gender only, the way each child develops. Curriculum developers in the form of an advisory board - entered into partnerships, one per state,

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [7 ] Some partners are here today - will introduce as program proceeds. Thank you for coming and have fun.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [8 ] Passport to Knowledge - electronic field trip. It's an exciting prospect - not possible without partners - NASA, Nat'l Science Fdnt. will make video part of national schedule. Today's schedule is to have mission described first - materials available, then fieldtrips

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [9 ] 100 educators together in Wash. - all over America and around the world. In the auditorium are computers - WebChat - to monitor what's being said, with transcribers trying to monitor people speaking too fast. CU-SeeME, also 9 other computers, as simple as e-mail. Welcome Australia, Japan, Germany and the Republic of Ireland. 65 sites hosting up to 25 teachers each - that's very exciting. 25 individual participants

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [10 ] Not as much an experiment as sending spacecraft, but go with the flow - enjoy a chance to interact with us. It's a very exciting opportunity - here or virtually - collaborate with us. Thanks for being here.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [12 ] 10 year program to explore - the red planet - Mars. Exciting and resilient - here to tell you what we intend to do. On behalf of NASA, welcome to NASA headquarters - you've already heard quite a bit - and today is the last day.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [14 ] Of the different bodies, Mars has a special attraction - it is similar to Earth - poses scientific questions. Potential of human exploration in the not so distant future. Space agencies involved have a plan to observe, study Mars. Declining budgets cause these agencies to not explore independently, but to increase effectiveness by eliminating duplication, sharing costs, pool resources for large projects they could not afford, and s

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [16 ] know-how and expertise. Studies observed polar caps and many countries made major observation. In 1877, two satellites discovered. In all upcoming Mars missions, from Russian 1996 to the four missions in 96 and 98, there are something like 12

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:15AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [17 ] countries involved. Mars exploration is done in a United Nations mode. Unfortunately, there's not as much money as the United Nations. It's a pleasure having you here.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [19 ] In the audience, is Bill Gutch, who will interview teachers and scientists and reporting over NASA TV. Good morning - we have an exciting morning coming up - we will continue to hear from project managers.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:17AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [22 ] We will hear from virtual conference participants soon. At 11:30, we will hear from project Red Rover, Red Rover. We will rerun the synopsis information later this morning. Back to you, Sheik.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:17AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [23 ] Introducing - Donna Shirley. She will talk to you about strategy and exploration - she is dynamic and a lot of interests, among playing guitars, etc. For those of you who think engineers do nothing but

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:18AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [24 ] We've been going to Mars since 1964, people saw it through telescopes. When we actually flew by Mars, we saw a dead, lifeless planet, like the moon, lots of craters, no canals. We sent 2 missions in 64, in 69 another 2, and in 71, we orbited for the first time. All we could see was a fuzzy ball. As the storm

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:20AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [25 ] sat for 90 days, then strange features poked out of the dust. As the dust settled, giant canyons, it had been live and active, not dead. In 76 we put two orbiters and landed - looking for life, didn't find any. Everybody was sure if we scooped up dust and fed it nutrients, that life would spring forth - it didn't. We got discouraged about the search for life. We lost Mars observers on the next trip.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:20AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [26 ] The Mars Surveyor Program is based on the idea that you don't put all your eggs in one basket and send it to Mars. In addition to Surveyor, we have Mars Pathfinder - you'll see a movie on that later.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [27 ] [She is now describing items from a graphic being shown here in Washington.] Pathfinder is part of discovery family. Surveyor and Pathfinder don't look alike, act alike, but both are going to Mars. Pathfinder being launched in September. We can't fly big rocket, sending little cheap rocket - eliminates amount of stuff

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [28 ] We use little rockets and get into big loose orbit around Mars, skimming through atmosphere, until we reach mapping orbit. Camera, laser altimeter will be on board. We'll measure magnetic field, and find out more than we know today.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [29 ] Missions in 98, an orbiter and lander. Orbiter will carry instruments lost earlier. Lander will land on south pole, digger arm will put dirt into instrument, measure water content -- what kind of water, characteristic of Mars in ancient history. Microprobes will also accompany 98 mission, to help us see what Mars is like underground. We expect to find "tree rings" of history. Dust and ice, dust and ice. What happened to Mars - cold what year, warm what year?

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:25AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [31 ] 2001 missions -- carrying Gamma Ray Spectrometer. We're looking at landing a rover in the ancient highlands. If there was ever life on Mars, it was probably in the lake beds - searching for fossils - best place to look, unless we find a hot spring. In 2001, we're going with Russians - international aspect. In 1996, we're sending an instrument - two small stations and two small penetrators. Two on Pathfinder

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:27AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [32 ] German, Finnish and Danish participation. There's a laser experiment on the Lander provided by Russians. We're very international in exchanging instruments and information. We're trying to do the joint mission with the Russians - working with them to determine if we and they can afford. Trying to do joint mission with Europeans, not selected by them. We'll try to bring back a sample of Mars. We'll launch in 2005, but it takes two years up and back - do we have the

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:28AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [33 ] Cost of movie "Waterworld" is same as cost of Surveyor or Pathfinder. Next is same price as "Jurassic Park" ride. NBC is paying $456 million to broadcast Olympic games. 10 year Mars program is same price as military bomber. Plenty of money, problem is to get it to go to Mars.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:29AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [34 ] [DC conference attendees watching Pathfinder movie - done by students at Ga. Tech.]

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:30AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [38 ] At Cape Canaveral, Mars Pathfinder waits to launch - the Delta. After clearing lower atmosphere, the shroud will fall away, exposing spacecraft - will orbit

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:31AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [41 ] briefly before going on. With conical heat shield pointing way, it will begin it's 7 month journey to Mars. 5 days before arrival at Mars, it will turn to entry position.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:32AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [42 ] The atmosphere friction will create fountain of sparks. Descending on night side of Mars. Heat shield will be released.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:33AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [43 ] Lander will separate on bridle 18 meters long. Few seconds before landing, bags will be deployed to cushion impact. Retro rockets will suspend craft in air just before landing. Mars has only 1/3 gravity as earth, will bounce about 10 stories before landing.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:34AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [44 ] After airbags stop rolling, they will be deflated and retracted, exposing lander. Small motor engines will drive open landers petals, like flower, standing it upright revealing instruments.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:35AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [46 ] The lander's camera will take first look and locate sun. The communications atennaes will be deployed. The Rover, Sojourner, will rise to full height. Imager will scan horizon. Sojourner will then power up and venture onto surface for closer look.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:36AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [50 ] Chassis will be able to scale rocks half its height. Objects too big to drive over will be circumnavigated. It's power source is top-mounted solar panel. Once Rover has found rock of interest, the spectrometer will be placed against rock. Determination will take 10 hours.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:37AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [51 ] Back to speaker --- Surveyor will get there in September. We'll then send missions every opportunity. Eventually, if we find water, resources, then we'll send people.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:37AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [52 ] 2018 is scheduled date for manned mission. end of that speaker.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:39AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [53 ] 777 9938384 for video. Dr. Mark will come and speak next. Mark is a member of the advisor board. Project Scientist for the mission. Mark is the first guy who actually talks about Mark.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:40AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [54 ] what mars is about why its an interest place spend dollars there. Showing slide. Mars interesting. 4th planet from the sun. Surface temp is 63 degrees. Rotates in a 24 hour period.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [55 ] The tilt effects the climate. Distance from sun varies. From 1.35 to 1.76.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [56 ] Its farther from the sun. Produces bizarre seasons. More extreme farther from the sun. North moderate, South warm. Difference in temperature produces extremes in the atmosphere. Polar caps, water in one of them c02 in both. Next slide. Mars history have been thinking about mars for some time.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:44AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [57 ] civilization on Mars. Built canals to transport water on mars. planet getting drier. Mars named after the god of war. Radio program by Orsen Wells where America being invaded by martians. Next slide: most of knoweldge have come from space craft. Science rather than speculation.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:45AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [58 ] picture of polar bears and snow storms. Pictures mars two, three and four, Viking 1 and 2 in 1976 has given us the most information about mars. There are two Viking 1 and 2 was to determine was there life on mars. Two orbiters had two cameras took pictures 50,000 pictures obtained.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:46AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [60 ] Next: There was activity to determine if there was life on Mars. Took soil and looked for photosynthetic activity. Looked for gases, found none. Looked for organic molecules. No molecules could exist.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:47AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [62 ] Pictures will show images: Mars is red, dark streaks, craters. Next: Straw color rather than red.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:48AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [63 ] Next: Mars has 3 or 4 basic geology types. Southern 2/3 of plants 3 or 4 million years. Northern low lands and Southern highlands, red spot is know as Thoraces. The red is young volcano rocks. Covers about 1/4 of the planet.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [64 ] Whole area is uplifted to 10 kilometers. Mars is the lumpiest planet in the solar system. Next: On the province 27 kilometers high, top of surface have no craters on top. This tells us that volcano has been active in the past. No other planet has been recorded on the surface. Mars rocks are there to explore.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:52AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [65 ] Next: Valis Marnaris has largest rift in the atmosphere. Extends a few thousand kilometers.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:53AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [66 ] See surface is down dropped. Next: VM to our own grand canyon. You can see fault scars. See large craters. The surface is the same as the top and downdropped.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [67 ] Next: Map of what Scaperali saw. Did not try to interpret what he saw. Next: The view was a red baked parched desert on mars. Viking two just rock and soil. Next:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:55AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [68 ] where is the water on Mars? Polar cap frozen. Next: Polar layer deposits, layer that will be sampled. See white and dark layers. Warmer times would produce a red strip. Cold a whiter strip. See fine layering. May indicate a climate change. Next:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:57AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [69 ] We think some of the water is locked up as ground ice. The surface of mars is below mars in gaseous state. Life can only exist if there is liquid water. You see a splash crater. Something hit surface, produced appearance. Mars is a rust pit. Most of surface if likely to be oxidized material.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 6:58AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [70 ] We think there is some water locked up in Mars. Liquid water once existed on the surface. Next: Lava formed features. Next: See dindritic channels. See large craters. Water may have been in liquid state on Mars. Next:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 7:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [72 ] See large trofs. Next: See clearer islands, large 20 kliometers. Next: Looking a crator terraine. Planet next to ours 3 ro 4 billion years ago had water on it.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 7:01AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [73 ] Could life have started on Mars. Are we a specialized occurrence? Life will start any where where water is present. ARe we alone in the universe? Next: Evidence that water was there, water stood on Mars. This is a lake bed. See a series of channels that drain into a depression. What that means is that water filled up despression. Then flowed away in a stream.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 7:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [74 ] Most earth like of all planets. Only planet that can support life. Other not livable. Next:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 7:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [75 ] Kinds of science to do with first two missions: (1) goal to provide global understanding of mars. Climate, look at geology. To start in 1997. Pathfinder will land 7/4/97. Has 4 science instruments. Rover, imager, alpha proton, chemical analysis instruument, has weather station.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 7:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [76 ] rocks soils and atmospheric science. Next: Pathfinder we should be able to determine rotation of Mars. Define an arch, you can define the pole of rotation. Last time we looked, we determine the rotation of mars. Now is another location. Taking today we can determine a procession constant. Determine a number of the internal distribution density. This information if very poorly known now. WE think by tracking Pathfinder, we can determine the moment of inersia. If we take for a long time, will see changes in the length of day.

7:08 Will be able to determine the co2 in the atmosphere. Next: pathfinder starts the insight investigation into Mars. Look at viking, focused on life detection. Rocks form in particular in minerals and particular ways in which the rock forms. Determine the temperature and material it froze from. Can determine the condition. Wet, dry, how did that material get to be there. Interesting because if we find ancient rocks of Mars 3 to 4 billion in age, we would be able to say something definitive about Mars.

7:11 See other rock and things. Next: Pathfinder: rover can go and see what there. We have samples of mars. Meteorites are melted from the surface of the planet. Common on Moon. Would like to find other rocks. What you can see a errorelispe is about 100 by 200 klimeters. This outflow channel is unusual on Mars. This event was great, deposited all material in mouth of channel. a place where we would have rover to go and look.

7:13 See material to left is smooth and flat on mars. its a place where all rocks have been dumped. We would like to learn: how did surface differenciate? Highest resolution we can see. Will land in one pixel, will spend entire time in that pixel.

7:15 Will have the panel for questions and answers: Sending someone to fix the dish: Dr. Boyce will be speaking next. Will monitor questions for the next 20 minutes:

7:19 Q: ARe we drop something in 96 that will measure moisture: A: Yes neutron Q: Can weeds live on Mars? A: We can't contaminate mars, all spacecraft must be sterilized so we would mess up the planet. There was nothing living on lander. Q:

7:20 Q: Do scientist know why the northern hemispher of Mars is more active? A: Internal activity. Early impact could have hit mars and moved material and scattered it.

7:20 BillBourn..... Is an operating model of the sojourner rover available for purchase?

7:22 Q: What is the second pathfinder? A: No name yet. Q: Is there a measurement of windspeed. A: Report the range of low and high. Q: what else is frozen into the cap. A: Just water.

7:24 Q: How early should we teach space to students? A: As early as their understanding will let them. Q:

7:26 Q: What happens to the rockets that come off the pathfinder? A: They fall off and drop into the ocean. Q: How come mars has the same length of earth days, but a longer year? A: Because Mars is farther away from Earth. Q:

7:27 BillBourn Is there a operating model of the Sojourner rover available to purchase?

7:31 Q: What season will it be with pathfinder lands? A: Before the nominal dust season about September. Q: Talk about types of landings? A: Viking used a propulsion system to land, Pathfinder used airbag system. Q: What do you think that caused different age related features. A: Vulcanism. Erosion. Q: Is there a way we can share with parents this information? A: Through townhall meetings,

7:32 program in 10 states, talk to universities and colleges.

7:36 Q: What evidence exists that Mars does not have a hot liquid core? A: No it has no hot liquid core. Q: How were rocks formed on the surface image of Mars A: Lava flow, crators,

7:39 Q: 1998 a probe will land at a polar cap, which one? A: South pole, 80 degrees south. Q: How deep is the cap? A: a kilometer, maybe 10 centimeters. Q:

7:41 Q: What is the cause of Mars highly eliptical orbit. A: Unknown

7:44 While Washington conference is breaking for coffee, we'll talk to some of the teachers here.

7:46 Kids will get to do what scientists do. Allows students enough knoweldge and data to analyze, but not to conclusions. URL:

7:48 Questions on WebChat and didn't have time to answer - let's ask a few: Q: When it lands, during time of year, what is likely to be the differenc ein temp. from day/night? A: During high noon on summer day - gets up to about freezing (water). At night, -100 C. Air is thin, and when sun goes down it instantly gets cold. Mars atmosphere is carbon dioxide - produce greenhouse? Yes, but it's so thin, but it's not very much because of thinness. You have to have solar energy coming in for greenhouse. Becasue of thinness, there's black body radiation. As NASA Scientist Admin. What's your personal reaction to Passport to Knoweldge? A: It's absolutely great - we work for American public. We work for public of world.

7:50 Techno. and scientifically literate in global warming, etc. We have Cheick doing outreach program. We are going to use internet, TV, every means possible to get info. out. On internet as soon as callibrated. We have curriculum writers, to get to students, teacher. How soon might teachers and students be able to extract Mars images. A: Once in mapping orbit in Jan., as soon as pictures are taken, they'll come down on Internet.

7:51 Dataflow wil start on first day - data about going through atmostphere. Pathfinder to prove we can land cheaply. Windsocks for wind measurement. We have pressure guages. Temp, pressure, windspeed and direction. We'll be able to put together surface map, surface conditions - good bet it won't rain. On Viking, it actually snowed. We don't expect any frost on the rocks.

7:52 On Mars today, H2O, goes directly from solid to gaseous state, why is that true on Mars today? Why can't liquid water exist? A: It can't exist now because pressure is so low. When molecules of solid start to turn into water, they immediatley burst forth as gas. Pressure is so low that stuff vaporizes - i.e., dry ice, moth balls.

7:54 Real gulf between haves and have nots - those with or without computers. Those on the net have world plugged in. Those that don't, don't have it. How can we get word out to small towns? Companies that have demo. materials can be borrowed and shown to classrooms. Citizens who know and understand to be demonstrators for others.

7:56 If you want to see how wonderful it is - some students stood in front of WebPage and wondered why they couldn't have this -- they were awed. Please share with school boards. Is problem of such magnitude - if you've got spare time and you talk computer tech, please volunteer your time. Go to local PTA meetings - get teachers together and communicate. 1 - go to Benton homepage - KickStart. 2- Tech Corp. homepage and sign in to share and show. Write letters to Congress.

7:56 Unusued computers to libraries - the more kids hooked on- instant knowledge - instant opportunity. Plug in to the rest of universe. 4th grader wanted to take hamburgers to Mars.

7:59 Those who know technology can use search engine - other who don't know - ask someone. Everett Washington teacher - the driver of Mars rover was driving illegally - students fined him and charged him 30 Mars bars - designed Martian driver's license - students got D.O.T. (Wash. State) - sanction license, sent governer to school - Brian Cooper was tested. First Martian driver's license. Brian Cooper's name, code number, landing site for Mars Pathfinder.

8:01 Kids had great fun with Martian Driver's License. We're going back to Cheick Diarra. Cheick: Hello and welcome to the second part of our meeting. With partners at GA. Tech, especially Prof. Grammall, have we developed CD-ROM to enable everyone to take quick flight and he will demonstrate CD-ROM.

8:03 Dr. Grammall: Delighted to be here - the presentation starts with slides to give overview. [Kurt Gramoll, GA Tech Engineered Multimedia.] If we want good college students, must have good educational opportunities. Great opp. to interact with NASA, but never let info. out to public, or K-12, where it can be used extensively -- main purpose for CD.

8:04 CD Mascot is "Marvin the Martian." CD was originally thought of as something to enhance ability to lecture at schools. Students were going to sleep - so needed jazzing. Lab equipment helped make movie. Animation keeps students awake. Fully functional mutlimedia lab at GA Tech helped. 

8:06 Implementing this type of technology over last 5 years has improved greatly. Most schools have a number of computers. Money was coming in for education - put into hardware. We needed software. School struggled for software. Helped fill void in Georgia. We needed to run on 46 machine or Pentium or Apple MacIntosh. Both types common.

8:07 Playback on both necessary. Let students go through and experiment. In packet of info., you've received copy of CD. Like to acknowledge many students - Jason, Justin, Kelvin, Mike - all put in long hours - had fun, but without their help and assistance and dediction - not possible. CD in two parts - Mars Pathfinder mission - first CD - talks mainly about Pathfinder - has mission and lecture module.

8:08 Allows flexibility, shows what rocket looks like, able to turn it around, move around in info. when student need 

8:09 Surveyor Mission - before we can talk about given mission - questions such as what is a spacecraft, heatshield, etc. A lot of background info. was missing - step back and go through basics. Organized as planned trip. First, know something about solar system, what's beyond? What about destination planet? Something we're looking for? Why wanting to go? How are we going to get off? What about journey itself?

8:10 What are some instruments? Can we build our own? Let's look at solar system first. This would take about 6-7 hours, maybe more, so we'll pass off to you to take CD and explore. In each major topic, you have subtopics. Try to time with what Web people are seeing. You can actually see how planets move around in real time. Pluto is hardly moving?

8:12 Different pages given different info. Pop-up diagrams on covered topic. Also movies to further explain text. Second topic - constellations. Where different stars are - constellation finder. As you move around - fabulous graphics - [DC audience applauds]. How do planets really move around sun? What happens if velocity of Earth changes - play God for a while. Allow students to play around with parameters. In this case, I have four planets, call them anything you want. Turn them on and off, and edit each one.

8:15 Given positions and velocities, you can plot those out. Turn on grid to show circulars and put tracer on. You can actually plot movement. Escape velocity sends it into never-never land. You can play around with velocity. Earth year half of Mars year - you'd find out. Some instructions on panel to scroll through. What about Mars itself? What about past missions, geological, topology, unanswered questions? Where's the face come from on Mars. NASA doesn't like to discuss, students love. Natural occurrence, suppose faces were different shape, it would mean nothing. No reason why you can't have something like that. Students have prelim. info., want more.

8:16 Take closer look at Mars ourselves - we've sent probes, orbiters, know a lot about pictures. I can actually simulate what Mars is like. Something left up there - a previous mission [graphics show]. Hot spots -

8:17 Data taken from US geo. survey of data - we extruded, painting picture around it - gives sense to student of spinning, looking at planet. Further explanation given in window on-screen. How are we going to get there? Planning launch. Reference systems

8:18 3 dimensions in space - planning Earth trip, 2 dimensions. Which way is up, left or right. If you show students, pictures, illustrations, they can understand. Planning Mars mission - what if we were to try to understand how JPL planned mission - info. capsulated on CD.

8:19 One of things we must be careful of is time to communicate. One problem, the Rover. Remote controls here move forward instantly. Mars takes 5-10 minutes. Delay in signal from 0-10 seconds. Has yet to see someone complete missions in 0-10 seconds.

8:20 Control here moves wheels on Rover on Mars - like a tank where tracks move one side or the other. Video game effects.

8:21 Orbit change - going Earth to Mars. Allows you to chance launch date - position of planets on particular dates. Students will put Earth next to Mars, real close, crank up speed and launch right away. The MGS gets in front of Mars - so students must realize that you can't launch at closest point, but around Nov., Dec. with correct Delta V. Less propulsion to have and carry.

8:23 If right Delta V chosen, they'll coincide. Some databases show gravitational pull [showing movie]. Info on past rockets - proton rocket, comparison to Shuttle? Simple, yet effective database. I can take rocket, spin it around, look at top and bottom [applause]. Computer tech. is wonderful - up to us to apply so students have better environment. Learn about JPL. Let's bring up Wayne Lee again.

8:23 Students want to know how to become engineer - there are 8 thousand people at JPL, correction, 6,000 - not all scientists. Vast number are tech. related, manufacturers of components, very important to projects.

8:24 What do you do at JPL? What is your education background? A: electrical engineering. Learning to communciate and work with other people is essential. Must teach our students how to communicate. What about past missions? Pathfinder - able to work with collegeagues to put movie on CD.

8:26 Rover deployment - portions of movie - accompanied by music [audience loves it]. Learn about different planets - contact satellites - left info in GA. Connect to Saturn - graphics give info. - makes it fun for students. Entertainment factor keeps students interested. Must compete with M-TV. Engineering based mutlimedia helps.

8:28 Questions: Jim from Kingsport, Tenn. Appreciation for CD both MacIntosh and Windows. Are plans available to get info out. A: We are trying to find low-cost methods of distribution. Cheick - you have heard about budget constraints - what we can do is produce maybe 5,000 at most, which we give out with my telephone number. AFter that, if you need a copy, call my number. I'll tell you where it's being printed, and you can call the printer directly. Under $10.

8:29 On WebChat: Q: Bill wants to know hardware requirements for CD-Rom. A: Runs sufficiently on 486 or Pentium, or MacIntosh non-power or power. 8 megabytes, most come with 16. Color monitor. Self-contained on CD - loads nothing on harddisk. QuickTime for Mac or Windows. On CD if you want to install from CD.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:30AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [125 ] Q: Comment for Kurt - used Pathfinder - 3rd grade through high school. Kids facilitate learning of other children. - mutli-grade learning - fantastic.

[Image] : . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:32AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [128 ] E-mail address - URL more info can obtained: info@engmm.dom [e- mail]. Just released - please give week or two to put on that site. First public release of CD - still in formative stage of trying to figure out how to distribute. Web question: How can we, listening in, find out who their state's teachers are? A: We'r egoing to put list of teacher participants on-line. Hope teachers here will do their own workshops - we'll support all teachers here with CDs.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:34AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [130 ] Coming up next, Red Rover, Red Rover. Another partner is the Planetary Society (non-governmental). Carl Sagan sick at home in Washington State. Planetary Society has program going taking issues, Rovers, control, -- made practical, hands-on. George Powell has day-job at JPL. His night- time job is volunteer for Planetary Society - Red Rover.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:35AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [131 ] George is an engineer - not an educator. Leading an edu. project - looking to you to help us to make Red Rover meaningful. First slide - Imagine coming into classroom - not average Thursday - explore Mars. Not activity in fantasy, a real-life event. Your students from your classroom will explore Mars. Probably not Mars Pathfinder will explore, but to your kids, it will be a true planet.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:36AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [132 ] Imagine your students exploring a Mars terrain - what Red Rover's about - bring exploration into the classroom. Actual hands-on activity.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:37AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [133 ] To bring planetary exploration into classroom - Mars picked because there's a lot of activity going to Mars. Robotic activity is practical. Both in classroom and things going on in real world for students to relate to. This technology is applicable to moon and other planetary bodies. Next slide: Basic concept - pictorial that shows basic elements of Red Rover - one side, students invovled in focused educational project. MarsScape on right side. Not picture of Viking - actual MarsScape in Denmark with artistic help.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [134 ] Next slide - hands-on education - first thing students will do is learn about Mars. They will have mission scenario: search for fossils - try to determine if catastrophic flood plain. Telerobotic program provides large basis for teaching science and technology. Next slide:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:39AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [135 ] Kids are creative in building their MarsScapes. Terrain built by students in L.A. The kids are getting the message and have spent time to.. most is painting on back of wall, styrofoam rocks, etc.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [136 ] Teleoperation - allow you to explore Mars - most exciting thing about Red Rover. Students have to come up with robotic vehicle, which will have to be able to traverse terrain, gear ratios, etc. As complicated as you wish - big gear to little gear makes it go slower. We give you the tools in a practical sense to allow this to happen in your classroom. We attach digital camera to rover. You've got Mars, vehicle, camera - all necessary for exploration.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [137 ] Denmark students built Rover from truckload of Legos. Rovers can be very simple. Gear ratio to be determined can be very simple.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [138 ] Live link from vehicle at NASA front entrance. Very simple control given to students, left, right, backwards, forward. Simple, plug and play, for you and students. Once students are confident, they can go ahead and move forward and make it more complicated - robotic arm, etc.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:44AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [139 ] Internet plays important part in Red Rover. Your Red Rover site is also an Internet server. When you log in, locate other sites. Using Internet you can cheaply control a Rover in Germany, for example. Red Rover project allows planetary exploration, also communication and knowledge in a practical sense. Next slide:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:47AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [140 ] Educational material being created - not curriculum material - not at that depth yet, however it will given Mars exploration data, etc. Written for student level. Targetting middle school, although applicable to other grades. Educational material will include mission scenarios to allow you to go through it with your studenst. Education themes - astronomy, robotics control, navigation, teaming and interacting among students. Linkup with DC and Denmark, kids about halfway through stopped exploring and started chatting (text-chat). They were so excited about chatting with foreign students.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:48AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [141 ] Different types of sites, different levels of activity. If you just want to participate, EarthSite, NetScape. You don't get any ability to build local Rover - but low-cost entry into program.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:49AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [142 ] Next site is kind of core element of Red Rover - Mars Site. Mars Site is the meat and potatoes of program. You build rover, build Mars terrain, locally control your own Rover or distant rover at another Mars Site.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:52AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [143 ] "Mars Site" concept - mechanics, gears, mobility, all involved in participating as Mars Site. Next slide: higher level, Mars Base - like planetarium, science center, full Internet capability that Earth and Mars sites can communicate with. Adler Museum in Chicago probably by December. Museum in Arkansas by Dec. So Students can control other small sites and can also control much larger site in both the US and around the world. We have a plantarium in Denmark, which is also a Red Rover site. Mars Base has same capabilities as a Mars Site, but is larger organization, Planetary Society assistance. Still working bugs out of software. We have plans to network this in a very non-formal way.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [144 ] Self-organizing network, like the Internet. We have 20-some sites already active. Hoping to grow to several hundred next year. You organize who you want to contact. We'll try to make that easier by suppling info (e- mail address), if you want to contact Denmark, you determine if site is available. Send e-mail - between teachers - organizing required. If you're a Mars Site, you always have ability to control locally.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:55AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [145 ] If school doesn't have internet, you'll have to pay long-distance phone charge. Talking with LegoLand - hoping to put Mars base at LegoLand. Having Russian scientists and engineers work with programmers to link up and drive Russian rover in Moscow. Not every Red Rover site will be able to do that, but some kind of lottery most likely will determine.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 8:57AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [146 ] This is not a video arcade game, it is real. We're running out of time and won't be able to cover all. Educational material put in booklet. Question: WebChat - teachers here will get into, but thousands by TV, if you could give URL or address: 1 - call Planetary Society 1-800-969-MARS, ask for Cindy Halife (sp?). URL - During lunchbreak, hands-on opportunity to drive Rover in England, at Epcot, and Pasadena will be available. Thank you .

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [147 ] Remote watchers - we'll tape teachers' driving. the intenrational sites that have logged on - Ireland, UK, South Africa, Japan, Canada, Hungary, New Zealand, Italy, Spain participating with you in DC. We will rerun first hour of this morning's material. We'll be back in an hour - 1:00 EST.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [148 ] At 1 - we'll look at strategy, plus hands-on demo. More Q and A. After that, teachers here will work in smaller discussion groups and give reports. Followed by coming decade of Mars exploration - only the beginning of our return to the red planet. It's lunchtime!! Come back in about an hour, please.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:18AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [149 ] Movie currently showing example of Mars landing.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:19AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [150 ] gigantic airbags provide a soft landing for the lander. The airbags will then deflate and be gathered, exposing the lander. As the sun rises, the spacecraft will power up, displaying solar panels, bringing lander to life.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:30AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [151 ] Dr. Mark Grumbeck is coming on next. My idea is to give you an intro to Mars. First Slide: What is so interesting about Mars. 4 planet, 60 degree temperature. Rotates in a 24 hour period. Orbit is elipitical. The tilt effects the rotation. Its year is two earth years. Produces bizzare seasons. More extreme seasons. North you get moderate heat, north cold. Difference in temperature produces extremes in atmosphere. Polar caps, water in one c02 in both. Next slide: History of Mars Scaparilli first to explore mars. Proposed civilation on Mars. Mars named after the God of War. Orson Wells television program prompted awareness of civilation. Mariner 9 went into orbit in 1979. Took pictures of snow storms, provided 7,300 picture to review. Mars 3 and 4, Viking 1 and 2 in 1976 has given us the most information about Mars. The sole purpose of the landers was to determine was there life on Mars. Orbiters had two cameras. Obtain 50,000 pictures. Next slide:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:34AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [152 ] Took soil added moisture, looked to photosynthetic activity. Found no activity. Had a mass spectrometer. Found surface was UV rich. No organic molecules. Next slide: information from Viking orbiters have given us the most information. Planet is red, white polar caps. Next: This view is straw colored, dark areas are surface coverings. Spots are of volcanos. Next: Mars has 3 or 4 basic geology types. (1) crators 3 to 4 billion years old. Yellow surface 1/3 of planet known as Northern lowlands. Big red spot is a large provience known as Tharsus. They cover about 1/4 of the planet. Here we have techtonic features. Mars is the lumpest planet in the solar system. Next: Volcanic provience largest on planet with no crators

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:36AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [153 ] We have rocks on Mars that span the entire age of the solar system. Next: Just shows big volcanos. Next: Salt volcanics are the size of Olympus Mons. Next: Here is avalis Marinaris extents a few thousand in length. Next: See other activity beside techtonics. Fault scarps. Next

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:39AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [154 ] This slide shows you fault scarps. Walls along the edge of the canyon. The surface at the bottom is roughly the same as the top and that surface has downdropped about ten kilometers. Next: Scarpilli's maps are what he thought to be vegetated things. Next: Surface of Mars, red baked parched desert. Next: where is the water. Water frozen along cap. Polar layer deposits will be sampled by next exploration.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [155 ] Record of climate change locked in the poles. Next: Some the water is locked up as ground ice. The surface of Mars is below the triple point, frozen or gaseous state. Life can only exist with liquid water. Impact has come in and hit the crust to produce this appearance. Water locked up in the clays of Mars. Most of the surface is oxizied water. Water locked in the soil of Mars. When you look closer, liquid water once existed on the surface. Next: Well lava formed features.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:45AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [156 ] Islands on Mars are huge are about 20 kilm. across, having teardrop shapes. Craters contain what looks like a stream channel. If water rained from sky or at equilibrium near surface, then water was at eliquibrium early in the planet's history. When did life start on Earth. 3.8 billion years ago date the oldest rocks we can find. Here's our neighboring planet, that has evidence for similar climatic regime at the same time life started on Earth. It cries out - could life have started on Mars. Are we a specialized occurrence

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:47AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [157 ] There is evidence not only that water flowed across the surface, but also that water stood for an extended period of time. Pictures show water bed - channels that drain to a depression. Single channel emanates from depression. Hypothesize that it flowed over dam. Mars is the most earth-like, has all the same things we have here, next planet that man will step on. Evidence indicates that early conditions could have been conducive to life.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:48AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [158 ] Kinds of science we hope to do with the first two missions. Global Surveyors - sensing instruments on board - global understanding of Mars. It will airbreak into circular orbit - will arrive in September '97. Mars Pathfinder will land on Mars on July 4, 1997 - the British also felt that date was significant in their history. Pathfinder has 4 science instruments, 3 instruments and a Rover.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [159 ] It also contains a weather station. What science will we do with Pathfinder - try to understand surface minerology, learn something about atmospheric science. Next slide: By tracking Pathfinder from surface, we hope to define the pole of rotation of Mars. The pole wobbles around the ecliptic. It's been 20 years and the whole planet has wobbled since that time, and we hope to now determine the procession constant. We need this info to determine the moment of intertia. The density of the planet - governs how the planet rotates. This is poorly known on Mars. We have no idea of whether Mars has a metallic core.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:52AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [160 ] If we can track Pathfinder for a Mars year, we'll see changes in the length of day. Effect like an ice skater who pulls her arms in during a spin, in the winter, we hope to see the mass of the CO2 in the atmosphere that's freezing out at the poles. Next graphic: The Viking landers focused mostly on life detection. We've finally gotten around to the rock part. Rocks form, and when they form, they form in particuolar minerals.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:53AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [161 ] The forming of the rocks tell us the atmosphere in which the rock was formed. Sand blowing, water, etc. Rocks are indicators, which is interesting to geologists. If we can find rocks from the beginning of Mars' history, we'd be able to say something about environment at that point, more than water flow.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:55AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [162 ] The idea for Pathfinder - we land, have the Rover look closely at rocks, determine forming environment. We now know nothing about the rocks on Mars. We think we have samples of Mars, meteorites, which are basalt (fine grain rock) - primary volcanic rock. The most common rock type on Earth. 3/4 of the Earth is covered with basalt. That's the rationale behind selecting landing spot.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:57AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [163 ] The catastrophic outflow channel is an unusual feature. Water that today fills our Great Lakes, filled the feature in two weeks. It carved a huge channel, 100 km across, deposited material in channel. We can land here and get a smorgasbord of rocks and determine Mars' early history. There's one particular flat surface where we'd like to land to determine how did crust differentiate.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 9:58AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [164 ] We will spend our entire time on the surface and determining the landing location was interesting indeed.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:05AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [165 ] Signing back on! Live From Mars! Good Afternoon. Before we start, I would like to pass the mike to Bill. Look at the Mars Program, Education and Outreach, Hands. on strategy. Q and A. What Lies Ahead. On the Net Activities. Participants are teachers will break up in groups and we will wrap up activities. Before we start, let me introduce to you students from Goddard. Jacob,

[Image] : . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [166 ] We appreciate everyones comments about the Mars robot. Introducing Meredith Olson in Seattle, Washington. Talking about the philosophy of science education.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [167 ] Will take about the philosophy about JPL Mars Outreach. Will also teach a lesson andhave you participate. Would like you to determine if philosophy is in the lesson. NASA is interested in education in our country. The thinking about JPL Education Program is to use Mars exploration as a tool for an improviment of science education.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [168 ] People have talked about Mars, presented activities. Seen fewer teach about Mars. I've taught for 37 years. A lot of work. You have an understanding of what it means to teach. Teachers teach students. Good teaching requires understanding of the child and his potential. Understand how students learn. Teach about Mars you need understanding. A great revolution about Mars is unfolding. A major strand in the revolution is the emphasis of students experienceing science. Inqurity is a step beyond science as process. The new vision includes students interaction with reasoning.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [169 ] These concepts serve as filter for their understanding. Left unexamined will interfere with learning. Lessons reveal concepts. Scienfitic literate socity is built from exposure from crafted lessons. Reveal gently to the students. Reconstruct understanding. 3 publications Focusing on Theroritcieal, Science for all Americans, National Science Education Standards form the foundation of what it means to teach for understanding. Current methods of teaching science need improvement. Students cannot construct coherent explanation. Most research has been done in physics. Very little has been done on the process that shape the earth. A window of opportunity exists through Mars. There is interest in science instruction.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:17AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [170 ] We will build project addressing them. Mars Ed. Office works with teacher, schools to develop ways to examine how students comprehend how do we deal with Mars. How do we take this information and capitalize on its potential for education. The vision is not just to teach about Mars. Lessons willnot start with Mars. Will bring Mars in at appropriate times. Want to promote habits of mind. Fundamental task is how to we help students make meaning of Mars data. How do we inspire confidence and joy in their own abilities. How do we teach without telling. Students are experimentalist. We don't start with theories, we collect data, find patterns then focus a strategy.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:18AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [171 ] Science for all americans. Tells us sound teaching usually begins with questions. Ask to assess the state of a childs concepts.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:19AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [172 ] what is the simple question, building understanding, what modalities do we use to promote learning styles. Will be changing modes to fit students. A simple question to produce a participatory mindset. WE look forward to creative change.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [173 ] Dan Barstow will be speaking next, highly recommended from NASA, explain processes of educational material. What we have done is collect ideas. Work with others to create learning modules. First, intro module for students to learn background about Mars in the context of discovery approach. Ask students their interpretation. This moduel is on the WEB can be downloaded. Second, Canyons and Valleys--important valis Marineris relationship, along with Viking images.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [174 ] Slide Mars Educational Modules: 1-introductory, 2-theme based modules, canyons and valley, atomosphere and seasons, etc., 3-Mission based modules, Pathfinder understand instruments . Next: 3 types of activities: 1- Classroom experiments 2- Mars/Earth comparison, 3-Use of real data and real images. Dan Golden, head of NASA, wait until July 4, when Pathfinder lands. The test will be whether the students will be excited about the outcome. These are draft modules. These are field tests, we need feed back. New ideas and activities come from you.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:25AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [175 ] We have talked about it, now we will have hands-on activities.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:28AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [176 ] First thing should have a bag, distribute them to the audience. Bag should contain protractor and paper clip, 2 pieces of paper, a petree and a baggie and disgusting stuff to use to our project. I'm going to alternate between treating you like students and then like teachers. Workshops are imporant so you can feel what your students feel. On the adult side 2 pieces of paper. On the adult side a larger piece. Sometime during the period, hand this to one of the people in the isle. Can you figure out the overarching concept I'm doing, when you have figured it out, write down the time you discovered the overarching concept.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:29AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [177 ] The smaller piece of paper is where I'm going to begin. What I'm doing will take 2 weeks in a classroom. The first day, I do not tell them what we're going to study.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:32AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [178 ] I say, what's the steppest hillside you've ever climbed? Would please write down a number of degrees and give it to the people in the isle. In this kind of inquiry question should lead you to talk to your others friends to talk about it. You cannot talk, this is a test. You have to make your own assessment. What is your prior conception about the steepest hill you could walk up? How many degrees.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:34AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [179 ] Turn that paper in and never get it back. You and I know what you wrote down. Should bring anticipation. I live in Seattle, where is the picture of my city? We now must learn how to use the protractor. We have a string on the protractor. The most important thing is to get the knot right at the hole, hold it upside down that the string is hanging across 90 degrees. Must be exact. If this is a hillside, how steep is the hill.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [180 ] Even fourth graders can see that swinging the protractor the distance between 90 degrees here and vertical and up there. Read the number of degrees from 90 and that will tell us the angle above the horizontal. I teach on a very steep hill in Seattle. How steep is the hill outside. Queen Ann hill must be 60 degrees. Seattle has steep hill. I just happen to have a picture of my kids and shadow sticks data. What is the angle of that hillside? 11 degrees. It's one of the steepest hill in Seattle. We have our own conception of the steepness of the hill. Next, given that info, how steep a board can you walk up? (Participants enter) You can't make a running start.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:39AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [181 ] Students will take measurements, read the angle about 5 degrees over. Walk up steps. Turning board over.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [182 ] Angled board at another level and read it. Angle is now 10 degrees. Now walking up 10 degrees. Next step, how steep is that, (say it aloud) now tell me. About 17 degrees (guessing), now the actual measurement-- (students walking up board).

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [183 ] Now guessing new angle between 27 and 32. We're after a range. The exact range is 25 degrees. Taking the board up another level. Students walking up board. Going to another level. Guessing degree 27. Type protractor and count over from 90. Actual degree angle is 35. Student typing to walk up board. Student walked up board.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:45AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [184 ] Student going for another angle. 38 degrees--will try 40 to see if he can walk up--he slipped off. Good try! Our misconception to everyday things no even knowing we don't know. Must engage a child's attention.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:48AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [185 ] All those mountains erupted and fell from the sky. In the package there are 3 kinds of packages. Please be careful not to drop package, 3 substances in package, salt, kitty litter, magic mix of Mars soil. Take out notebooks and make flat table. Take turns with a partner. Open the baggie and not try to pour out of this corner, pour out the middle of the side, set it on desk top and carefully figure out how to pour this into a mountain making it steep with the substance that you have.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [186 ] Now you will measure the angle with the protractor. Mars soil, salt, cat litter. As soon as you get it measurment, report the data.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:52AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [187 ] Salt - 30/38; Cat litter-40/42; Mars soil - 41/45 (measuring both sides) Students calling out different measurements.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 10:56AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [188 ] It is very important that you get every data point from every student. Averaging data, the child's ending emotion is "my wasn't validated" so get every child's data. The next day they would write all this down in their journal books. Start next days class with conclusion of all data

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [189 ] What's the trend? What's the best number. Get group consensus on data conclusion. 39 for Mars, 34 for salt, 36 for kitty litter. Put substances back in the big baggie. Give it to someone in the isle. Keep protractor

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:05AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [190 ] Deciding what to do with substance, some want to keep others don't. Please wait. The question now is: Does the size of the pile matter? The next day, the kids know what you're talking about, does the size of a pile matter? I have here an oven liner and some kitty litter, squint from where you are, and yell out your range (now pouring kitty litter on the floor to get a "mountain like" pile, now calling out angles of the mountain now hearing various numbers. Still pouring, now yelling out possible angles 30's possible 40's. Pouring more kitty litter, now yelling out new angles, low 30 to 40's.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [191 ] Now showing mountain slides: taking the angle of the mountain, guessing, 33-35, take both sides, let go to the next mountain give me both sides, give me both numbers 29/30; next slide

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:09AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [192 ] angle should be 35/40, next slide doesn't look like a real mountain. Now looking at Mt. St. Helens, calling out measurements, 32, 39, 33, 32, etc. next slide: shows the nature of this kind of eruption. Next slide: What's the largest mountain on earth? Hawaii. Shows a picture of Hawaii, asked to measure it. Next slide. shows another side of Hawaii.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [193 ] Using National Geographic picture of mountain measuring with protractor. Showing how mountains form from falling substance from the sky. 75 percent is covered with salt flows, all lie at 0 to 2 degrees. Next slide: here is Olympus Mons, the largest montain in the solar system is 2 degrees. What is the overarching idea is: if you just take the extreme pyroclastic and just the lava fire fountains you can make sense of pyroplastics.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:17AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [194 ] Forum concluded. Next we will introduce Dan Barstow. Question from home - why didn't you tell us to gather our materials, so we could do experiment. A: We're learning our lessons. For the activity now, you'll be able to be a part in a variety of ways. Asking if everyone comfortable, asking what temperature participants think the room is. Wants TV audience to think as well. Human being is great weather instrument, measure temperature, humidity, barometric pressure. Mars' barometric pressure is extremely low 1/100th of that on Earth.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:19AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [195 ] Temperature experiment with audience. People provided with digital thermometers, with remote probe and readout. Stage is 72.5 degrees. Variety around room - 71.4, 71.2, 72.1, 22 C (colleague from France) - there is at least a degree different. When I calibrated thermometers last night, as when preparing mission to Mars, you have to make sure all register same numbers. How much variation do you think there is in this room - we've gotten already at most a degree - now how about the entire room. Yelled out - 40 degrees - explained under light would be hot, under air conditioner would be cold.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:20AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [196 ] Asking participants to go around room and find coldest and warmest places. In TV audience, go and take your "human being" go try different places and get temperature measurements. While that's being done- we'll talk about the temp. sensor on the Pathfinder. When the PF lands, there's 2 ways it takes temp. One is during descent, second is on ground.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [197 ] A mast rises up (using car antenna to simulate). The probe extends a full meter in height. Why was this kind of extension chosen? Offered answer: they carefully placed it to avoid temperature from lander itself. Another reason for vertical extension - they expect to see differences at different heights. The scientist who has responsibilty for this is Jim Tillman from University of Washington. What Jim is interested in is the boundary layer - what temp at the very lowest of the atmosphere. Volunteer coming forward to demonstrate (Fran O'Rourke) - she went out earlier to measure, and will go back out now to see if there's a difference. In order to determine that sun did not affect earlier reading, a cup was used to cover end of probe. Same cup applied now. Asking for differences around room - 85 right in front of light.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:25AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [198 ] Asking TV audience to use Web to check in. Name place where especially warm. By the air conditioner, it was 60 degrees. In front of light it was 98.4. On the floor it's 70.2 on the floor - different from standing height of half meter.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:26AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [199 ] Volunteer going outside to check varying temperatures at different heights just like the Pathfinder does. Video being shown shows different levels selected on antenna, measurements taken from each level. Pathfinder will not get reading from soil, although our experiment started there. 68.9 at soil, using protection from sun, gets reading above soil level of 72.9.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:28AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [200 ] She also got another reading at ground level of 69.3. On top of car, the reading was 113.9. Ground level about 68, at 25 centimeters it was 1 degree warmer, 50 cent. it was 3 degrees warmer. Biggest variation occurs close to the ground. The boundary between atmosphere and land is where they're expecting to find most interesting measurements.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:30AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [201 ] Very important to place instrument in correct position. Pathfinder will be launched and shortly after it lands, will begin to transmit data. Students will have sense of what to expect on Earth and on Mars. Warmer, colder? Significantly colder. The next slide shows temp. readings from Viking. On slide, the graph indicates the temp. readings averaged out over the course of one day - coldest time is at sunrise (students will find same on Earth). Warmest is late afternoon (couple of hours before sunset). Cycle continues throughout year. The readings shown on graph from Earth were taken from desert (closest to Mars as possible). The different between the two measurements is a greater degree of variation on Mars. Definintely cooler on Mars.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:32AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [202 ] When students gets data, you can have students create own graph and monitor changes. We've never measured changes at 3 different heights - job of Pathfinder. Next graph shows part of Martian year. Sol is name of Martian day. Graph shows extreme variation. Next slide shows dust storm on Mars - dust is both blanket and shade.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:33AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [203 ] Our interest is not a single temp. reading, but the variance. Another experiment - the shoebox explorer. Any shoebox will do. One student will act as rocket and carry shoebox to particular location. Inside box are instruments you will select. Student will write down info from instruments and bring data back. Other students will try to determine where the "landing" was. Using the Net, they can share the information with the rest of the world. What is going on? Where is the location? - What info. could you get from putting something in little box and sending to location? Audience answer - measurements over period of time

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:36AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [204 ] Take some pictures, temperature and wind info., altitude. Next questions are engineering questions - what could you fit into box that is within size, cost and weight constraints? What would you put in? Audience answers: windsock, camera, solar panel, thermometer, protractor. Cheick will assist Dan in writing down suggestions. Other suggestions: orbiter, stopwatch, sampling equipment (scoop), digital camera, paper to write down info, tape recorder, spectrascope - engineering challenge, how do you make a spectrascope that's inexpensive?

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [205 ] GPS - global positioning system - nobody mentioned that. Press button and it tells you precise location on Earth. It could go into the shoebox. No one mentioned scale to measure weight. Measuring tape not mentioned. Light meter, magnifying glass, wristwatch (offered from audience). No one mentioned flag - why bring flag?

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:40AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [206 ] To detect speed and direction of wind. CBL (calculator-based laboratory), pendulum of known length to measure gravity (from Web). Remote sensors. I think you get the idea that there's an incredible amount of things that can be put into shoebox. Point is not to tell students, but let students think it up, send students off, collect data, submit data to WebPage. The teacher's guide has list of suggested materials. Teachers admonistered not to suggest materials to students, let students do thinking.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [207 ] After such presentations, you might have questions (Cheick speaking). Q: from audience - Bonnie - appreciates science demonstration - how do we show things to administrators without getting into trouble? A: (Olson) - invite principal and parents to demonstration. Invite superintendent - get people in classroom. Adults haven't worked it through and will have as much fun as students. We have tool - National Science Education standards - call to action to Nation's schools to change approach to science. How do we go about doing this? Mars learning opportunities fit quite well into this category.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:44AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [208 ] Q: from remote site - relative to hardware - will Rover have tmep. probe , what's timeline for Pathfinder to send data back - for how long? A: Rover will not have temp. probe, probe will be on lander, 1-1/2 meter high with windsock. Attached to cylin

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:46AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [209 ] One week timeframe for measurements. Or as long as it lasts. Expecting dust storm covering solar panels and other problems. We are expected to land July 4, 1997, after bags deflated, and on-board checking, power up Rover, we should receive image at 5 p.m. local time on West coast (about time fireworks going off in Washington, DC). Lander's nominal mission is about a month. Rover is about a week. They may even last a year - seasons may put equipment to sleep with possibility of springing back to life with next season.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:49AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [211 ] Aircraft like Voyager is still sending back info. and could possibly for next 20 years. CJ from Pittsburgh - how to incorporate this into teaching colleges? A from Olson: the program includes universities in 10 states and intends to have in all states. Now we're working with engineering departments, museums. That's the key to all of this - figure out how to do that. Cheick - LeeAnn Martinez from University in Pueblo - what they have is school system from K- end of college, they are all in same school system. They know what needs to be implemented in grades below. Picking up information from these schools and putting into program.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:51AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [212 ] There is a wall between science and education. Our experience in working with scientists to get their help shows that there is tremendous cooperation from planetary scientists. Your own efforts might succeed through scientists and then through universities. Question from Janet - Do you have a Website or address from Midge (Olson)? A: yes and no - personal problem is that local high school providing connectivity is stopping connection in next couple of weeks. Working with NASA to get new address: (but that might not last very much longer).

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:52AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [213 ] Q for Dan: substituting pictures on Website with older pictures (so older kids can identify). Additional activities are planned for older and younger - originally made for middle school children. Intro. module currently on Web. All posted through JPL on their Website and accessible. Q from remote site -

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [214 ] Cloud observations was done before - wanting to do same for Mars - kids from all over country could pool data to come up with something - please help us come up with something neat. A: (Olson) Geo. teachers really don't know the meaning of Tropic of Cancer, Capricorn. Connecting shadow data, you can figure out your latitude, etc. Then, if we could get shadows from Mars, the kids may be able to plot some shadows on a few days, and make their own assessment of where the Rover or lander is.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:56AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [215 ] Then everyone pool their data without a determination of right and wrong. There's a "Globe Program". The idea is to have world-wide students do environmental measurements using scientific-designed protocol (hydrology, etc.) and submitted to scientists. This is not only for kids, but is also real science, with real data being provided to scientists. A: Steven from Florida - in astronomical distances, the Hubbel was designed for far away - has the Hubbel provided anything regarding Mars. A: During the Pathfinder missions, as we get close to launchtime, we hope to get Hubbel schedule time to detect local dust storms. Those are the kinds of things we expect from Hubbel.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 11:58AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [216 ] Q from Clarence from Billou in Washington, DC - we know that different pavement surfaces have different temperatures - we could have created our own dust storm by having everyone move around here - what simulatiosn are we working on that will help kids understand dust storms? A: Right now, we're not working on anything specific to dust storms.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:00PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [217 ] A: Olson - people around the country are developing curriculum projects and would be interested in answering that question. One never know where wonderful things may come out. Remote questions:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:01PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [218 ] WebChat q: What actions can students take to involve their schools in "Live" projects. A - we'll make a "Live" presentation in a few minutes, so dates, times, URL's will be made in about 20 minutes.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:03PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [219 ] DC conference attendees breaking for coffee.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:06PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [220 ] Interview in lobby - pulling teachers aside - Rhonda from Georgia. You have done neat work with surveys - before and after - how they feel, how they perceive themselves - tell us about it. When students first get into her class, she asks them "Are you a scientist", last question, "Can you name a scientist." And compares answers from beginning of year to answers at end of year. Some students listed their classmates as scientists by the end of the year. Her students were 4th and 5th graders and they also worked with a "buddy" class of kindergarteners.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:10PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [221 ] Will you continue surveys? A: yes - it is rewarding to see change and growth in kids. Q: you're just beginning to see this program on Mars, from what you've seen, what gets you the most excited? A: the hands-on activities, the excitement - of being "there." It is a situation like I've never experienced before. Next from Minneapolis - MJ Saviano - you've been working with "NASA's Newest". She brought along a brochure to share with teachers. It changes the way you do science. Address from brochure: Nat'l Science Teacher Assn. Space Science Program, 1840 Wilson Blvd. Arlington VA 22201. Send application - due in February.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:14PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [222 ] Engineer - Wayne Lee - Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena. Q: People watching Star Trek - push buttons, you're there. You can't do that in reality. Talk about why we can't just go straight to Mars. How good of a billiard shot is that? How big is Mars? A: In terms of pool shot, its the equivalent of standing in SF and putting it through a window on the Empire State Building. We don't cost much more than Shaq's salary. To go in a straight line takes a lot of energy - try jumping straight up while standing. We use the sun's gravity to sling us along. We're coasting all the way to Mars. Q: "Live from Mars" program - program next March, possibly called "Cruisin'" Talk about challenges you guys face. The further it gets, the harder is communication. A: Technically, we have four chances to communicate.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:15PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [223 ] If I could gather energy from Earth's surface, it would take 30 million years to charge watch battery. I was 7 when Viking went up. It's really exciting to be a part of this.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:18PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [224 ] Kids who are 7 today could conceivably be in the right age range to put the first footprints on Mars. Sherry from Idaho - eastern Washington state similar to where Pathfinder going on Mars. The place on Mars where landing was a catastrophic flood plain. Same kind of occurrence in Wash. State. As a teacher, I was able to spend a week with the scientists. We came away from the meeting so energized that it's very hopeful for the future. As educators,

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:20PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [225 ] the scientists said they knew when they were grade school age that they wanted to be scientists. It also tells the kids that it's never too early to dream. Now - Shirley from Maryland. Teaches at Cardoza. Teaches mathematics. Language of science is math. Math is queen of sciences.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:25PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [226 ] Back to Cheick Diarra - the virtual workshop is heating up - questions coming via WebChat and e-mail. I'm here to tell you about "Live from Mars." Plans to bring to life the exciting missions you've been hearing about. Part of Passport to Knowledge program. Live from Mars: 7/4/97 Pathfinder update; July 5, 1997 Touchdown PBS NASA-TV and/or Channels TBD. Due live cut in from landings. Will see some exisiting TB coverage. 1 hour special Live from JPL Planetfest" a celebrantion of Earth's achievements in space. From Earth to Mars MPF Launch through landing & MGS progress distributed on tape; october 1997 Today on Mars 13:00-14:00 Eastern, PBS and NASA TB Live from JPL.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:29PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [227 ] Virtual visits: with working scientists at exciting real-world locations; students interactingon camera with real scientists; real science seen on camera parallels activities; videos formated to work live or on tape, in 15-20 minute segments; videotaped Q&A and hands-on activities show diversityof sites participating; live e-mail Q&A highlights internet resources; student online collabration featured; beind the scens on Cap canaveral as pathfinder' is readied; rocketry and the launchof Global Surveyor; How we get from Earth to Mars; this week's trajactory correction maneuver and mission updates; the men and women who fly the missions; building and controll access; first all materials are part of Passport to Knowledge; see WebSite for additional information

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:31PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [228 ] Project is video and hands-on and on-line Pat Hadden is speaking now. Hands-on teachers guide will be the bases for kids interactive collaberative effort. The guide will come out that the mission planners have already gone through. They are used to intergrate the on-line activities.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:34PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [229 ] Mark Siegel on-line director from NASA will be speaking next. The philosophy of on-line: it can work if you are a beginning internet teacher. Explaining on-line resources: WEB address: Http:quest.are.nasagov/Mars, get on mailing list. quest.arc.nasagov/mars will stay up to date on activities. Three types of info online 1. information kinds of info. real focus on people,

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:36PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [230 ] will take about the team who puts this on-line information together. Will have field journals. describing what was done, yesterday, today and tomorrow. Will have bios of all individiuals outlinging their experiences, personal as well, this information brings project to live. Project News is a project that has information re guides, TV programs.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:38PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [231 ] Internet lets us get interactive with individuals, experts interaction through e-mail. We use volunteer to respond, called Smart Filters who will answer e-mail questions. Live, chat with experts, two other parts connecting teacher to teacher;

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:39PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [232 ] teachers with passport to Knowledge team. Collaborationa and sharing: counting stars, weather and finally, what to feature students work on-line. Sign up for mail list.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:42PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [233 ] Look at the Live from the Hubble site is where you can find an overview of the upcoming information on Mars. Outside evaluators will be speaking next regarding assessment: Bob Speilvogel: We take teachers evaluation forms, student evaluations, telephone interviews, to come up with analysis as to why the Passport to Knowledge program should continue. Kinds of assessments: what works and what doesn't. Why they work and how they can be improved. Feed back comes from you and students. The most important--what's the impact on students. What do they get out of it. What's the impact on you as a teacher. Third area in Live from Mars, how can be help you with materials, on-line materials, etc. Design teachers guide will incorporate analysis of this data.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:44PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [234 ] Will send you questionnaries throughout the year so we can track your progress. One feature that sticks out is the stories you have to contribute. Give testimonies about what happens in your classrooms. It helps us evaluate the progress. Write up off the top reactions to video programs, guide, etc. Send them to us. Send both success and not so successful stories.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:46PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [235 ] We are truly at a exceptional moment in history could be one of your students. Transition: panel with answer questions from remote site and from here in D.C. The non-virtual sessions. Will now break into small groups.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:49PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [236 ] Q: From Ireland: congratulations on this program today. Q: Any conjecture as to why the atmospheric density is so low in Mars? A: There is no c02 in the atmosphere getting recycled back. The distance from the sun has a lot to do with it too.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:52PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [237 ] Another possibility that there might have been a huge impact that blew the atmosphere into space. Much colder temperature. Q: Will students have the opportunity to go to camps or visits sites. A: Yes. A program SSIP. Each year students will compete for this programs.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 12:57PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [238 ] Give all students via e-mail, and programs like this to be a part of the program. Q: What kind of encouragement for inner city kids. A: Advise students to attend college with engineering majors, encourage them in math courses. Q: If our school signs on at Rover, we will be the only ones on or will be in competition. A: You will be the only one driving at that time. Q:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:03PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [239 ] Q: Has Mars ever had an earth-like atmosphere? A: Possibly if it had the right gases it could have been. Q: What are Mars missions scheduled every two years? A: We cannot travel to Mars in a straight line. Minimum energy opportunity. Q: Could we address the issue of life on Mars. A: We are now being able to look for planets around other stars. Trying to answer the question of has there ever been life on Mars. Could possible aid the evolution theory. The discovery of some other intelligent being besides us. Q: Do we have capable hardware. A: Yes, but we must curb costs. Q:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:06PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [240 ] Q: Those who are not on-line, how do we get materials. A: Cu-Se-Me, PO Box 1520, Summit, New Jersey Q:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:09PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [241 ] Cheick - lot of community involvement such as Rotary Club can assist those who are not on-line. There are teacher resource centers where you can make copies. Available through NASA. Q: How are we going to find out the age of Mars. A: Comparing the number of crators. Q: Tim in DU: How many sites involved in RedRover program. A: 20 active sites world wide.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:14PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [242 ] Q: Given the atmospheric pressure, can we use winged aircraft? A: Balloons may be used. Q to Dr. Olson: Has there been any follow-up on student performance? Will there be assessment instruments used by all teachers? A Olson: We have beta tested two of the modules and are in for review. I would like to see two kinds of assessments. 1. Assessment of content and 2. Find a vehicle for everyone. Q What is the status of the sample return mission and will it use MC2. A Shirley: We will do a sample return in 2005 to make oxygen and methane determinations.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:16PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [243 ] Q: What material is used to construct the airbags A: Cheick: much like nylon, at least four layers so the rocks will not tear it apart. Q: What gas is being used in airbag, has JPL filed an environmental impact statement? A: Shirley: Most of the gas is contained, we have filed an environmental assessment finding was no significant impact.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:19PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [244 ] Q: Why not build probes in orbit then launch A: Wayne: our best technology is to build small and launch them from earth. Q: What are the high and low wind speeds on mars: A: Wayne: high 20 meter per second. The winds that occur in dust storms would be higher. The figures I'm quoting are at normal temperature.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:23PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [245 ] Q: What other elements than CO2. A: argon, nitrogen, oxygen, CO2 is 99.5 percent (Shirley). Northern icecap is CO2 and water. Q: D.C. - Robbie from Cheyenne, teaches Jr. High - how do you plan to control the Rover once it lands and how are you going to control maneuvers? A: (Shirley) - the lander has a camera that pops up - like your eyes - two lenses -- that image is sent to Earth and reassembled on Earth to picture in stereo. Brian Cooper (Rover Driver) puts on 3-D goggles, takes icon of Rover with mouse and puts it where it's to go, and clicks. Coordinates get sent to lander, then to Rover and coordinates of rock, and the Rover goes in that direction, counting wheel revolution until it thinks it's gone enough. Lander then takes another picture. If Rover is next to rock, OK, then tell it to turn around and measure. If she didn't make it, wheel slippage, etc., we might have to send her further. If Sojourner runs into obstacle, the Rover has laser light stripes, and tiny camera. If stripes are flat, Rover knows its safe and continues. If the light wrinkles up, they know it's a rock. If it wrinkles down, it's a depression.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:28PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [246 ] Q: from WebChat and e-mail (life-related). Marilyn from North Dakota. Should we continue if life is found and what impact if answer is yes. and, why do we want to believe in life on Mars so badly despite the lack of evidence? A: (Diarra) Last question first - 20 years ago when we landed Viking, it was like some alien landing on Earth on the Sahara - didn't find life and didn't continue searching. The evidence shows that life may have existed and we haven't done any investigation yet - we've just looked at two spots - difficult to conclude one way or the other. Human nature dictates leaning one way or another. A: (Shirley) Our strategy is to understand Mars - how it evolved. What happened to the water - that might have implications on our planet. Climate models on Mars applicable to Earth. We're interested in whole planet, not just life. As part of determining direction if it evolved, are we alone in the universe - we'd like to know? We're not spending a lot of money looking for life - we're trying to understand planet. Going to best places to find life, if it exists. General exploration. A: (Diarra) Went to Venus on Magellan spacecraft - opposite of Mars where you have runaway greenhouse effect. Temps at 700 degrees. In the middle of planet without atmostphere. We hope to better understand what will happen to us.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:33PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [247 ] Q from audience: Chris from Texas (teacher - elementary) - how many different design Rover configurations - why this design? A: (Shirley) - we looked at a lot (Lockheed Martin, etc.). Looking at designs for 20 years - wheels, legs, combinations, completely artificial intelligence, hopping Rovers. Narrowed down by what's most likely to work and cost least. We had pick-up size Rovers with not much money and we were working with scale models. When money was discussed, we decided scale models might have to be actual size because of the budget constraints. If you have legs, you have to devote a lot of computer memory to legs, so wheels were more economic. We arrived at current config. because it seemed best compromise. We had Rocky 2, 3 and 4, and once we demo'd Rocky 4 with kind of brain described earlier, we had 6 different configurations before we decided. As we built them up, it helped us understanding other system configurations. Q: Katrina from West Virginia - we noticed in film that ramps rolled out and : 1) what keeps ramp from buckling from weight of Rover, and 2) why both sides if it only goes off one side. A: - Shirley - works like party toys you blow into. When you unroll it, the sides roll up and make it stiff. The Rover doesn't collapse. The compromise between the stiffness and ability to unroll took the engineers a lot of work - special Velcro. Reason there is 2 - if we were close to big rock blocking one direction, we'd want to be able to move in other direction. Rover can see backwards, it wouldn't be as good, but could be done. Woudln't it be awful to get to Mars and not be able to get off.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:35PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [248 ] Haines-Stiles: WebChat and E-mail is still on line and we've archived a lot of great material - other questions will be answered in due time. Breakout leaders have reassembled and teachers will report: Thanks to Sandy and Linda for keeping e-mail questions in order. Marc Siegel - the teachers in my group had a lot of ideas and had to come back way too soon and this is only the start.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:36PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [249 ] On-line field trips - confusing to everyone - a lot of talk on that. Good ideas of putting things on-line for starting teachers. We definitely want to do that - after struggling with that, Janet summarized it: Janet from Toledo: My suggestion was to have new teachers sign up and one of the experts would b eassigned to teacher as mentor to help that person via e-mail (chat). Marc: I really support that - friendly mentors, one-on- one. We'll try to put info on-line to support that.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:39PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [250 ] Marc: We do work with science museums - no comprehensive list on- line. We can do that to get you connected locally or put pressure on locals. Another good idea - on-line pointers for issues dealing with technology. Help teachers move along a more sophisticated path. Charlotte - registering teachers so you can find other teachers in your area. Norma brought to light collaborative activity. Norma from Stratford Schools, Missouri - collaborative projects, data collection. One idea was to have students involved in problem solving activity wher ethey would be given scenario, say year 2000, here are habitate facts, then either NASA could give underlying problem or solve, then with further research, a couple of months later, they could come back with their solutions, based on what they had learned. Teachers could be provided with research and printed material so each teacher would not have to do so much looking. Marc: We tried to do that, but we want to work on that idea more and have research done upfront.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:40PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [251 ] Marc; I hope this is the start of a process of your giving us ideas. Haines-Stiles: We will put on WebSite an address where people here can have their say. Pat Hadden - curriculum materials, teachers' guides. Pat:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:41PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [252 ] Pat: JoLynn, and Ruth Wall, and Stacy (standing). Mentorship idea came up in our group, also.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:42PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [253 ] More lead time on collaborative activities. Putting out a timeline on how to implement project - excellent idea. Glossary of on-line technical terms (i.e., URL's) for people new to project. More details in teacher's guide. Jo Lynn - intro to guide - I don't think we can put in too m interuch information for sign on, how to get into discussion. Those of us who are familiar need to remember that not everyone else is. Stacy:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:43PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [254 ] Stacy from Alburquerque - what's wrong with a science teacher assigning a novel to read? What's wrong with the integration of curriculum? ush: Pat: getting into high school is a push. R

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:45PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [255 ] Pat - I hope everyone with an idea will get them out. We'd like to get them into the teacher's guide next month. Haines-Stiles - wonderful on- line reading in terms of cross-disciplinary materials. Jan (major force in pulling conference together):

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:48PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [256 ] Jan: talk about live broadcasts to make them more effective - a lot of issues - use of interactive e-mail, invovlement of students (effective use of time), in what way would we use them more effectively. Send questions prior to broadcast? CJ from Pittsburgh - why do we have hour long program? You can do e-mail before and after - we need to focus specifically on scientists. Other things seemed to detract. Pre-film things. What is driver, focus for whole mission, providing resource we could find no where else. Jan: interactive e-mail We begin program with main scientists with panel of colleagues - then panel will step off and lead scientists will handle some WebChat questions - other panel will step off all other questions. So students get immediate response but not necessarily during live broadcast. Rose:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:49PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [257 ] Rose: my suggestion was to make montage of activities that occur during year and then in June, distribute a tape showing activities all around country - different Rover designed, different activities throughout - to motivate kids. We can use tape as quick start in September for kids to see what had been and what they may become involved in. Jan:

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:51PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [258 ] Jan: We do want to feature student work. We'll close with that because time is drawing near. We'll continue the discussion on-line. Haines-Stiles - many teachers want to know (remote/virtual teachers) can they fill in an evaluation form on conference - will post one on-line. Local participants have them. We prepared one and it must be lost in copying machine. Jan and Marc said what we all feel. Donna and Cheick have a spacecraft to launch, and this is only the beginning of the process. Materials will be available. We hope you will continue to get involved. Cheick will discuss how this is just the beginning of decades of exploration. Thanks to some unsung heroes from NASA Info. division

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:52PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [259 ] Every minute a new page has been published on the Net so you can get some sense of what's been happening. the list of names of international site and number of international participants really makes us happy.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:54PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [260 ] Cheick - want to acknowledge two members of Advisory Board. Also in room are partners from France who have come to participate. Of course, I want to thank my colleagues here. Starting November this year til 2005, every

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:56PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [261 ] In 1998, we'll have another lander and orbiter, but that will be defined later - we're on a faster, cheaper track. During that decade of Mars exploration, we hope to put to rest a lot of myths and increase our library. Donna has already gone through objectives - understanding of climate, see if life has existed and what happened to it - if not, why not. While we're doing that, excellence in education is something that is very dear to NASA. We would like to work hard with partners such as yourselves to help the nation get closer to that goal. When we started this morning, we asked you to become my ambassadors in your state. Please talk to your local universities who are dynamic in outreach and education and help bring them into our program, so their sites, manpower, grad students, professors can be available to you when you conduct your own workshops.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 1:58PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [262 ] On top of that, we will put our WebPage on screen and when you access HomePage, you will see the "Martian Chronicle" which gives status on project. On same HomePage, we have cameras that are looking directly into spacecraft assembly room, updated every four minutes. button button button We will pass question to engineering or try to answer them myself. Within one week, we can answer your questions. We're working on a better use for CU-SeeMe.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 2:00PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [263 ] Being a provider of information is a position of power - we don't want the power - we want to give you the power. It has always been public domain, but we want to go beyond making info available on Net. There might be a time when we can make available the series of pictures for your analysis, and your students can do essays, etc. Once the primary mission is done, and an extended mission is done, we'll ask permission to have students to indicate places where they want Rover navigated. Thank you.

: . . . . Sat, Jul 20, 2:01PM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [264 ] Haines-Stiles - there are so many people in this room, behind scenes, comments virtually, -- all we can say is thanks to all of you. Conference broadcast has concluded. Good-day from Washington. button