LIVE FROM THE STORM program 1
The Who, What, Where, When and Why of Weather
March 7, 2000 13:00-14:00 El Niño, La Niña
NARRATION AND ANNOUNCER IN CAPS
sync in lower case
WILL IT RAIN TODAY?
WILL IT BE SUNNY?
IS THERE SNOW IN THE FORECAST?
WILL A HURRICANE CLOSE SCHOOL?
WEATHER AFFECTS THE WAY WE LIVE OUR LIVES, EVERY DAY.
WILL THIS WINTER BE DRY OR WET?
SHOULD WE EXPECT FLOODS NEXT SPRING WHEN THE SNOW PACK MELTS?
WILL FARMERS IN AMERICA FACE DROUGHT?
WILL FISHERMEN OFF SOUTH AMERICA FIND FEAST OR FAMINE IN THE SEA?
GLOBAL CLIMATIC EVENTS LIKE EL NIÑO AND LA NIÑA SHAPE THE SEASONS, THE YEARS, THE DECADES IN WHICH WE LIVE.
THESE PROGRAMS LOOK AT SOME OF THE MOST EXTREME WEATHER EVENTSHURRICANES, TORNADOES, AND WINTER STORMSAND THE UNDERLYING FORCES WHICH SHAPE ALL EARTH'S WEATHER...
THE SUN, THE WAY THE OCEANS STORE AND RELEASE HEAT, THE GEOGRAPHY OF WHERE WE LIVE.
IN THEM YOU'LL SEE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES COME TO LIFE.
HOT AIR RISES THROUGH CONVECTIONAND WARM AIR IN VIOLENT UPWARD MOTION TRIGGERS THUNDERSTORMS AND LIGHTING.
CONCEPTS LIKE "THE CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM" MEAN SMALLER STORMS LIKE TORNADOES PACK FASTER WINDS THAN HURRICANES.
IN THE NEXT HOUR YOU'LL SEE MORE THAN WILD WEATHER AND THE FORCES WHICH POWER IT... YOU'LL MEET THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO TRAVEL OUR NATION AND AROUND THE PLANET TO UNDERSTAND THEM BETTER.
THEIR MISSION? TO TRANSFORM RESEARCH INTO FORECASTS THAN KEEP US SAFE, DAY BY DAY, SEASON BY SEASON.
TITLES (00:45) [02:43]
music and natural sounds of weather
"PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE" AND "MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY" PRESENT "LIVE FROM THE STORM", AN EXCITING LOOK AT THE SCIENCE, PEOPLE AND TECHNOLOGY THAT HELP US LEARN MORE ABUT THE UNPREDICTABLE FORCES OF NATURE THAT CREATE SEVERE WEATHER
AND NOW, PROGRAM ONE
"THE WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN AND WHY OF WEATHER."
PROGRAM SET UP (02:30) [05:13]
THIS VIDEO IS PART OF THE PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE PROJECT WHICH ALSO OFFERS ONLINE RESOURCES AND HANDS-ON EXPERIENCES.
WHEN YOU SEE THIS ICON, YOU'LL KNOW YOU CAN GO ONLINE TO THE LIVE FROM THE STORM WEBSITE AND FIND OUT LOTS MORE ABOUT WHAT YOU'VE JUST BEEN WATCHING
USING INTERACT YOU CAN SEND E-MAIL TO MANY OF THE RESEARCHERS YOU SEE ON CAMERA, AND GET BACK INDIVIDUAL ANSWERS.
IN CLASS OR AT HOME, YOU CAN BRING WEATHER AND CLIMATE TO LIFE THROUGH MORE THAN 30 HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES THAT ARE BOTH FUN AND INFORMATIVE.
The orange things are clogging.
MAKE CLOUDS... OR LIGHTNING... OR A TWISTER IN A BOTTLE!
TEST A MODEL HOUSE AGAINST HURRICANE FORCE WINDS...
BUILD A DOPPLER RADAR IN A SHOEBOX...
IN THIS VIDEO YOU'LL RIDE THROUGH A HURRICANE AND GO BEHIND THE SCENES AT NOAA'S NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER...
GO ON LOCATION OFF AFRICA AND IN THE MID-PACIFIC TO SEE HOW NOAA AND NASA ARE TRYING TO WIRE THE WORLD TO BRING YOU BETTER FORECASTS...
AND VISIT THE AMERICAN WEST TO EXPERIENCE "OPERATION MOUNTAIN STORM."
Weather and climate, the ocean and the atmosphere and all the living things are very important to society, and as population grows and as we use more energy to improve our standard of living, were all affected by the environment.
National Weather Service Forecast Office, Norman, OK
NOAAs responsible for providing weather forecasts and climate forecasts and other kinds of changes, and we do this in what we call an "operational system", that is we provide these forecasts everyday on a routine basis.
We have people that are operating looking at the surface of the Sun all the way down to the bottom of the ocean.
We fly satellites around the Earth to give us a picture of the atmosphere and we also have measurements in the ocean routinely available right up there on the Internet, so you can look at them yourself, and they are part of the forecast.
We have all kinds of researchers, men and women, who work in our research labs to help us understand whats happening in the atmosphere and the ocean.
We had researchers working for a couple of decades to try to understand what was happening in the tropical Pacific, and then they discovered that what happens in the tropical Pacific actually changes the position of the jet streams. So the forecasters were very interested in using that to forecast the position of he storms. And so we add that information in.
We also have been able to do a much better job of forecasting the landfall of hurricanes
Because if you can say where a hurricane is going to hit land you can prepare in that area and not have to prepare in other areas, saves a lot of money, about a million dollars per mile we save, of accurate forecasting of where the hurricane is going to make landfall.
Id like to invite
all of you to use the NOAA resources to learn more about the ocean and the
atmosphere and all the living things there to get involved with the environment,
and really understand it, and be better citizens as a consequence.
WILD WEATHER #1 (00:50) [06:03]
ALL NATIONS EXPERIENCE WILD WEATHER, BUT THE UNITED STATES IS HOME TO JUST ABOUT EVERY KIND OF SEVERE STORM.
HURRICANES SWEEP UP THE EAST COAST...
EL NIÑO'S FLOOD THE WEST.
AN AVERAGE YEAR BRINGS THE WORLD'S STRONGEST TORNADOES, IN RECORD NUMBERS.
THERE'S ARCTIC COLD AND MAJOR BLIZZARDS... AND TEMPERATURES OF MORE THAN 100 DEGREES.
WHY ALL THIS "WILD WEATHER"?
AMERICA IS THE BATTLE GROUND FOR BOTH TROPICAL AND POLAR WEATHER SYSTEMS, AND SITS BETWEEN TWO MIGHTY OCEANS, EACH BRINGING VAST AMOUNTS OF MOISTURE TO THE CONTINENT.
WITH ALL THIS WORLD-CLASS
WEATHER AT OUR DOOR, LET'S LOOK AT "WHAT'S MAKES EARTH WEATHER."
WHAT MAKES EARTHS WEATHER #1? (04:06) [10:09]
Research Meteorologist, NASA Goddard SFC
THE "SPACE AGE" AND THE "INFORMATION REVOLUTION" HAVE GIVEN WEATHER SCIENTISTS TOOLS TO SEE THINGS PREVIOUS GENERATIONS WOULD HAVE BELIEVED IMPOSSIBLE.
FROM SPACE, WE CAN GIVE HURRICANES A "CAT-SCAN" AND SEE THE CLOUDS THEY'RE MADE OF...
COMPUTERS LET US TEST IDEAS ABOUT WHAT MAKES THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOES...
AND LET US SEE TURBULENCE IN CLEAR AIR.
THE SEASONS PASS IN SECONDS, AND WE CAN SEE OUR EARTH AS A LIVING, BREATHING ORGANISM, A PLACE WHERE LAND, AND OCEAN, OUR PLANET AND LIFE ITSELF ARE SYSTEMS JOINED IN A SEASONAL DANCE.
POLAR CAPS GROW... AND SHRINK...
GREEN PLANTS BLOOM EACH SUMMER...
EVEN THE OCEANS BLOOM WITH MICROSCOPIC ORGANISMS...
MARSHALL SHEPHERD IS A RESEARCH METEOROLOGIST AT NASA'S GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER. HE WORKS ON THE US-JAPANESE "TROPICAL RAINFALL MEASURING MISSION", KNOWN AS TRMM (TRIM)
My job responsibilities include using new types of satellite, aircraft and other innovative instruments to study mesoscale weather processes. Now when I say "mesoscale" weather processes, I mean weather systems that have sizes from, say 10 to 200 miles. So things like, hurricanes, thunderstorms and cold front systems which produce tornadic activity.
What forces shapes the Earths weather?
Well its interesting to look at the Earth from a space-based perspective. You can really see the global circulation and the weather generating machine at work.
For instance, most of the heating from the sun is incident on the Earth near the equator at what we call the tropical region of the earth. Because of this excess heating this generally rising air which typically forms clouds, so youll notice a great deal of cloudiness near the equator or the tropics.
Now this rising air is often replaced by cooler air from the polar regions, the north and south pole so what you in effect generate is a circulation. The rotation of the Earth, the Coriolis Effect causes deflection of this general circulation to the west or the east depending on what latitude youre living in.
So, for instance, in the western and northern hemisphere, youll notice streaming white patterns or clouds along the northern part of the globe. These are manifestations of cold fronts, jet streams, high pressure systems and low pressure systems which create cold fronts and warm fronts which produce weather. So in effect these large scale weather systems have their origins or birth in this large scale imbalance of heating at the equator.
Whats the Water Cycle?
Watching the evolution of a hurricane as it moves from the tropics to the northern hemisphere is a perfect example of the water cycle in action.
The water cycle is an illustration of how water is transferred from gas to liquid to solid in our environment. Now in a hurricane water from the ocean is evaporated and provides water vapor in its gaseous phase to the atmosphere. This water vapor in turn condenses and releases energy. And its this energy released by condensation which forms clouds in the hurricane which provides the energy that drives the hurricane itself. In addition, great amounts of water vapor are condensed and form rainfall in the hurricane which in turn rains out and falls to Earth.
And weve seen one complete circuit of the water cycle.
BUT HURRICANES ARE MORE THAN SCIENCE IN ACTION. THEYRE DEADLY STORMS WHICH THREATEN CENTRAL AMERICA, THE CARIBBEAN AND THE EAST COAST OF THE UNITED STATES EVERY SUMMER AND FALL.
THIS IS THE STORY OF
HOW NOAA STUDIES HURRICANES IN ORDER TO MAKE EVER-MORE ACCURATE PREDICTIONS
OF WHERE AND WHEN THEYLL STRIKE
HURRICANE DENNISBLOW BY BLOW (13:33) [23:42]
ATLANTIC OCEANOGRAPHIC AND MARINE LABORATORY, OAR/NOAA, MIAMI, FL
Shirley Murillo giving
The Hurricane Center put out watches for Chicateague, VA
LATE AUGUST, 1999.
MONTH 3 OF A BUSY HURRICANE SEASON.
THE DAILY BRIEFING BRINGS TOGETHER VETERAN SCIENTISTS AND RECENT GRADUATES.
THEY'VE BEEN WORKING ROUND THE CLOCK, BUT THEY LOVE THEIR MISSION... UNDERSTANDING HURRICANES BETTER BY STUDYING THEM CLOSE-UP.
Hurricane researcher, AOML/OAR/NOAA
Flying storms... thats great! We love doing that, thats our favorite thing here. We were struck by lightning twice in the plane. And we hit about a 25 mph updraft, and that was extremely exciting.
Hurricane researcher, AOML/OAR/NOAA
Every storm is different and theyve got their own characteristics, and you think that OK, every time you go youre gonna see a clear eye and sometimes you dont
I could see the south swell, the swell heading towards Texas, just lines, like corduroy lines, just leaving the storm, just gorgeous.
HURRICANES FROM ABOVE MAY BE BEAUTIFUL
DOWN HERE ON EARTH, THEYRE DEADLY.
WINDS OF UP TO 150 MILES PER HOUR SHRED BUILDINGS.
STORM TIDES OF OVER 20 FEET, POWERED BY WAVES AND LOW PRESSURE, KILL BY FLOOD.
PROPERTY DAMAGE RUNS INTO THE BILLIONS.
AND OVER PAST DECADES MORE AND MORE AMERICANS HAVE MOVED TO THE COASTS IN SEARCH OF SEA AIR AND SUMMER FUN.
THIS IS THE STORY OF ONE TROPICAL STORM, HOW IT BEGAN AND DEVELOPED INTO A CATEGORY 3 HURRICANE.
THIS IS ALSO THE STORY OF THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO STUDY HURRICANES UP CLOSE, IN ORDER TO MAKE EVER-MORE ACCURATE PREDICTIONS, AND SAVE LIVES.
SOME OF THEM WORK FOR THE AIR FORCE, AND NOAAS HURRICANE RESEARCH DIVISION.
THEY PUT THEIR OWN LIVES ON THE LINE AND INVESTIGATE HURRICANES BY FLYING THROUGH THEM, IN SEARCH OF ESSENTIAL DATA TO ENABLE MORE ACCURATE PREDICTIONS ABOUT WHERE THE STORM WILL GO, AND HOW INTENSE IT WILL BECOME.
read on text over AOML exterior
NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER, NWS/NOAA, MIAMI, FL
OTHERS WORK DOWN ON THE GROUND, AT THE WEATHER SERVICES NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER.
HERE THEYRE SURROUNDED BY A CYCLONE OF INFORMATION, A SURGE OF DATA, WHICH THEY MUST TRANSFORM INTO TIMELY AND PRECISE PREDICTIONS FOR EMERGENCY MANAGERS AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC.
THIS IS SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AS HIGH ADVENTURE, AND WEATHER FORECASTING AS LIFE AND DEATH DRAMA.
montage of satellite images
ATLANTIC HURRICANES ARE BORN AS THUNDERSTORMS OFF THE COAST OF AFRICA...
MOVING WESTWARD, SOME OF THEM PICK UP ENERGY FROM WARM TROPICAL WATERS AND DEVELOP INTO "TROPICAL STORMS" WITH WINDS OF OVER 39 MILES PER HOUR.
SOME KEEP ON GROWING, DEVELOPING DEEP CONVECTION... "CIRCULATION"... AND AN EYE, BECOMING FULL-FLEDGED HURRICANES, WITH WINDS OF MORE THAN 74 MILES PER HOUR
THIS ONE IS GIVEN THE NAME PRE-ASSIGNED FOR THE 4TH STORM OF THE 1999 SEASON--"DENNIS."
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE FORECASTER JOHN GUINEY REPORTS FOR WORK AT THE NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER IN MIAMI.
A HURRICANE WATCH HAS ALREADY BEEN CALLED FOR THE BAHAMAS
AT THE AIRPORT, NOAAS NEW GULF STREAM 4 JET AND ITS CREW OF RESEARCHERS ALSO GO TO WORK.
WITH NO PERMANENT WEATHER STATIONS OUT IN THE OCEAN, PLANES ARE THE BEST WAY TO GET >THIS< HURRICANES VITAL STATISTICS.
Director, Hurricane Research Division, AOML/OAR/NOAA
"Youve got to know something about this storm, not about every storm and not about an average storm, but this particular storm.
FLYING AROUND THE STORM, ITS BRIGHT, CLEAR AND SUNNY.
BUT DOWN BELOW YOU CAN SEE THE THUNDERSTORMS THAT TRANSFORM HOT OCEAN WATER INTO SWIRLING CLOUDS AND VIOLENT WINDS.
Hurricane researcher, AOML/OAR/NOAA
A hurricane is really in a sense a collection of hundreds or thousands of these clouds, organized into bands. And they release tremendous heat. Its the release of that latent heat in the center of the storm that starts to warm the column in the center, and as that column warms the pressure drops. And as the pressure drops the hurricane gets stronger.
Hurricane researcher, AOML/OAR/NOAA
Neal Dorst sync:
OK, were looking back at Hurricane Dennis. Right now were passing over the cumulus streaks which are feeding bands into the storms. And if you look back aft you can see the thunderstorms and the high cirrus clouds which constitute the hurricane itself. But they are slowly curving, its kind of hard to tell, were on the periphery of the storm, but they are slowly curving into into the storm.
THE PLANE FLIES A SPECIAL PATTERN TO GET DATA ON WINDS ALL ROUND THE HURRICANE, TO HELP FIGURE OUT WHERE ITS GOING
voice of Jack Parrish
Flight Director, NOAA Corps
This is a flight track screen that shows where weve gone so far today. We left from Miami, went down by Cuba and then out to the Bahamas, and then up north on the east side of the storm which is actually right up about there. And now we are up just a bit due north of the storm. The little vectors you se are the winds. So we see very healthy outflow from the storm which is just what you would expect to see in a decent hurricane.
TO GET TO KNOW THIS HURRICANE IN DETAIL, NOAA'S PLANES SEND SPECIAL SENSORS DOWN THROUGH THE ATMOSPHERE
Systems Engineer, NOAA Corps
This is a GPS dropwindsonde which is for measuring temperature and humidity from this sensor here, and we launch this from the aircraft and it falls down to the surface
Capt. John Gordon
Air Force Reserve
The guy in the back releases this button BOOM comes out of the aircraft, 2500 feet a minute, deploys a parachute, comes back down, ya got temperature instruments in here, dew point, pressure and wind, and it constantly goes back on an antenna right back to the aircraft
And we get all the sonde data and just open and process it and were gonna send it out
We send it right here to this computer, and the person here quality controls it, and sends it right to the National Hurricane Center, which is right down the hall
Hurricane researcher, AOML/OAR/NOAA
So we are getting reports from all these different stations, and sometimes there are ships out there, and we go ahead and we analyze this
Hurricane researcher, AOML/OAR/NOAA
And so the forecasters can take that and as theyve done here in red and blue sketch in the critical wind speeds.
What the forecasters
here always want to know is the winds at the surface. Thats where
people live, people play and work, and thats where they want to know
where the winds are.
Its one of the first times we can actually get different winds from different locations and actually put it together as one picture.
Literally anybody in the world can see this data in a very short time. It goes over the Internet and people can access it and they do it.. maybe 10 minutes after I send this out.
THE LEAD FORECASTERS JOB IS TO TAKE ALL THE DATA, CHECK OUT ALL THE COMPUTER MODELS, AND THEN ADD HUMAN JUDGMENT.
THE HURRICANE CENTER THOUGHT DENNIS WOULD CURVE EASTWARD, AWAY FROM LAND... BUT AT THIS POINT WIND SPEEDS WERE STILL BUILDING.
FOR HUNDREDS OF MILES UP THE COAST, RESIDENTS WERE ALREADY LISTENING CAREFULLY TO THE LATEST ON TELEVISION.
MANY COMMUNITIES WERE BOARDING UP AND HEADING OUT.
TV weather report: Anchorman
Whats the latest in your location?
Reporter on the coast:
Well right now, very, very stiff winds, Id say gusting close to 50 miles per hour
BACK IN MIAMI AT THE HURRICANE CENTER, HUMANS HAVE TO CHOOSE BETWEEN COMPUTER MODELS PREDICTING SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT OUTCOMES.
Lead Forecaster, NHC/NWS/NOAA
Our forecast says it will turn in 12 hours to be east of 78 West, so thats key
voice of Hugh Willoughby
Hugh, voice over
The forecasters earn their money by worrying about these situations. Theres a real cost when you warn the coast line and people have to take action.
The Hurricane Warning remains in effect from Cape Lookout, North Carolina from to the North Carolina-Virginia border
HURRICANES ARE DYNAMIC AND ERRATIC, EVER-CHANGING.
THE FORECASTERS NEED PRECISE AND CURRENT DATA
Deputy Director, National Hurricane Center, NWS/NOAA
Max Mayfield sync
Although the hurricane is still moving northwards about 13 miles per hour. Were forecasting it to turn off to the North East and just skirt the coast of the Carolinas. Its not showing that turn yet. So were very, very concerned, if it doesnt do that, then the storm surge will be vastly different here on the North Carolina coast. If it parallels the coastline that will only ass 2-4 feet of storm surge. But if it plows in, they could add 8 feet or even higher in some areas.
BERMUDA, AUGUST 26.
RESORT HOTEL, BUT THIS WAS NO VACATION FOR THE CREW FROM THE HURRICANE RESEARCH DIVISION.
THEYD ARRIVED LATE THE NIGHT BEFORE, GRABBING COLD SNACKS, AND A FEW HOURS REST.
EARLY NEXT MORNING, THEY JUGGLED FLIGHT LOGISTICS.
Hurricane researcher, AOML/OAR/NOAA
Frank Marks sync:
Do we just go ahead and bring this crew on to McDill (Air Force base) and not worry about Miami so we dont have to fly 2 crews up to Miami?
voice of Hugh Willoughby
Hugh Willoughby (on
I think that makes a lot of sense we should just make reservations for you guys up there
THEY MIGHT NOT KNOW WHERE THEYD LAND
BUT THEY DID KNOW THAT THEIR MISSION WAS ONCE MORE TO FLY THROUGH "DENNIS" IN SEARCH OF THE LATEST DATA.
INSTEAD OF THE SPORTY G-4 JET, THIS TEAM WOULD WORK ON BOARD A 30-YEAR OLD TURBOPROP P-3, NICKNAMED "KERMIT".
THOUGH OLDER THAN MANY OF THE RESEARCHERS, KERMITS AIRFRAME IS STRONG, AND ITS ENGINES KEEP ON WORKING IN TORRENTIAL RAIN
JUST RIGHT TO PENETRATE THE EYE OF A HURRICANE
pilots voice on
Looks like its 205 OK 205
voice of Hugh Willoughby
voice over, Hugh Willoughby,
We get into moderate turbulencemoderate turbulence is kinda where the other passengers on the airplane get to be visibly nervous on a commercial airline flightwe get into that fairly often. And then every once in a while, we get into severe turbulence which really gets your attention. The pilot loses control of the airplane for brief intervals
P2K links bug during Jacks sync
Jack Parrish to camera
About once every 10 years we get a profound scare on the airplane. We get some weather that you really should not try to tangle with. Sometimes theres just no way to detect youre about to encounter it. When it happens, you just have to hang on til you get through it.
I think we do this in a safe way. The airplanes are well maintained, and flown by people who really know what they are doing
voice of P-3 pilots
Phil Kenul & Dave Tennyson
Weve got a visible hole coming up ahead slightly to the right of the aircraft Ah, there we go, kinda soupy but were in not that photogenic, but its clear aloft.
voice of Hugh Willoughby:
The airplane can fly into the center of the closed circulation. Wind blows around in a circle and theres a point right in the center where its calm. And thats the position you see on the Advisory. Its actually a "Center Fix." And they also notice how strong the wind is blowing, how low the pressure is.
PRESSURE IN THE EYE WAS LOW.
INSTRUMENTS PEERED DOWN AT THE WAVES, ASSESSING WIND SPEEDS...
THE OCEAN AHEAD OF THE STORM WAS VERY WARM, NEARLY 30 DEGREES CENTIGRADE.
DENNIS HAD PLENTY OF FUEL TO FEED ON IN THE COMING DAYS.
Female NHC staffer
But the wind direction is
Just keep everything the same 165, thats correct
AT THE NHC, THEYRE ALSO IN THE EYE OF A STORM.
THERES PRESSURE NOT TO EVACUATE TOO MANY MILESNOR CAUSE STATES TO CANCEL SCHOOL UNLESS ITS REALLY NECESSARY.
Steve England just called, hes working with the state of South Carolina.
NHC staffer (continues)
What theyd like, if its possible to drop everything from Eddystone South, along the south Carolina coast at 11 oclock tonight. They can have the schools go tomorrow.
THIS IS THE PLACE FROM WHERE, AT TIMES LIKE THIS, ALL THOSE HURRICANE BULLETINS YOU SEE ON TV ARE BROADCAST LIVE
super, Max Mayfield, as before
Maximum sustained winds of 105 miles per hour, we think that it does have some change to strengthen and become a category 3 hurricanesuper:
voice of John Gordon
It does get very tiresome. For most of the crew long, long hours. When we fly a storm at 1500 feet its very hot, The air conditioning does not work very well. You are 500-1500 feet off the water, any old thunderstorm could throw you down in the water, so you have to be very careful. You are hot drink a lot of water. I may drink about a gallon to a gallon and a quarter of water on a flight and go to the bathroom once. You cant keep up with the pressurization and the humidity
BY THE END OF AUGUST, HURRICANE DENNIS LOOKED TO BE HEADED OUT TO SEA
BUT FIRST IT STALLED AND APPEARED TO WEAKEN
THEN IT RE-GATHERED STRENGTH AND MADE LANDFALL AS A TROPICAL STORM
BRINGING 20 INCHES OF RAIN AND RESULTING IN 43 MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF DAMAGE TO NORTH CAROLINA ALONE.
A FEDERAL EMERGENCY WAS DECLARED THOUGH FORTUNATELY NO-ONE DIED.
DOWN IN MIAMI, NOAAS FORECASTERS AND RESEARCHERS, AND THE AIR FORCE HURRICANE HUNTER CREWS, HAD DONE THEIR JOBS.
ACCURATE PREDICTIONS WERE MADE AND PRECAUTIONS HAD BEEN TAKEN UP AND DOWN THE COAST.
EXPERIMENTAL INSTRUMENTS ALLOW RESEARCHERS TO CALCULATE SURFACE WINDS FROM HIGH ABOVE.
AND EACH NEW STORM PROVIDES NEW DATA, BETTER FORECASTS AND NEW ADVENTURES
John Gordon, sync:
I thrive on this. My blood pressure, my adrenaline gets cranking I just love to fly the storms. Id like to be out there right now.
TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO STUDY HURRICANES, CHECK OUT THE LIVE FROM THE STORM WEBSITE
IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT HURRICANES, OR THE PLANES AND SATELLITES WE USE TO STUDY THEM, GO TO INTERACT AND FOLLOW LINKS TO "ON-AIR" OR "RESEARCHER Q&A"
WHETHER ITS HURRICANE SEASON OR NOT, "PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE" WILL BRING YOU ANSWERS
Supers ONLY (no narration)
20th c. U.S. hurricane records
Andrew, 1992, $30.5 billion
greatest storm surge
Camille, 1969, 24 feet
Ginger, 1971, 21 days
unnamed, Galveston, 1900 6-8,000 killed
UNDERSTANDING WEATHER AND CLIMATE IN NEW WAYS TAKES SATELLITES
COMPUTERS, SMALL AND LARGE
AND SOPHISTICATED NEW VISUALIZATION TOOLS
ANDMOST IMPORTANTLYDEDICATED MEN AND WOMEN TO KEEP THEM OPERATIONAL.
MEET ONE OF NOAAS HURRICANE HUNTER PLANES AND ONE OF THE PEOPLE WHO KEEPS THEM FLYING!
Juan Carlos Pradas-Bergnes
Electronics Technician, NOAA
Hi, my name is Juan Carlos Pradas. Im an electronics technician with the Department of Commerce, NOAA. And Id like to introduce you to the aircraft, the WP3 aircraft. This aircraft flies through hurricanes. Now Id like to show you some of the interesting features of this aircraft
This is one of three radars we have on this aircraft. This aircraft goes through hurricanes horizontally. It has a range of about 300 kilometers and is one of the best things we have in this aircraft. They give a view of where we are going and how big the hurricane is.
We have 4 turboprop engines. The good thing about these engines is that they are propeller and they are jet engines at the same time. And they can take a lot of water and they will not shut down and that is very important to fly into the eye of a hurricane.
In this aircraft we have several probes. We probe the particles, the charge, the temperature and many other pressures in the atmosphere.
For example this is the charge probe that probes the electrical charges inside the clouds and the atmosphere.
In this aircraft we have several ejectable probes. For example, we drop dropsondes from here and all these different holes we can put sonobuoys that basically measure the temperature of the water.
We have experimental radars like this one that send frequencies down to the water surface. As they bounce and come back to the aircraft they can tell us, for example, the wind direction and the wind speed in the surface.
This is our NEX-doppler radar. They go through the hurricane basically vertically and give us the wind forces and the direction of the wind in the eye of the hurricane.
In NOAA we have had the chance of flying to many countries and flying many hurricanes. Here is from 1976 Bonnie was the first hurricane we flew to now 1999, Brett. Each one represents a hurricane, each one represents a country this aircraft has been.
The particle measuring system that we have here basically measures particles like rain particles, snow particles they will tell us a lot about what is the components of the clouds. As you can see this aircraft suffers a lot. Those are marks created by ice and rain as we go through the eye of the hurricane.
We have many probes and ways of testing the atmosphere with the aircraft. For example this is a gust probe that measures the pressure in the aircraft, temperature in the aircraft and we have a nose radar right here that basically tells the pilot what kinds of weather theyre going to encounter and how to get away from that weather.
Another instrument that we have here is the liquid content indicator. As the water hits the different cables, that changes the temperature of the cables and gives us an indication of how much water is in the cloud and how much water is around the hurricane.
This may look like a very simple aircraft, but in reality is a very complex scientific tool designed to help save lives in a hurricane.
THIS IS A COMPUTER MODEL OF THE GLOBAL CIRCULATION OF THE CLOUDS AND WATER VAPOR
JET STREAMS SWEEP ACROSS THE GLOBE, TRAVELING FROM ASIA TO AMERICA
WERE ALSO ALL CONNECTED.
THE GLOBAL CIRCULATION OF AIR MEANS THAT IN EVERY BREATH YOU TAKE, YOU INHALE AT LEAST A FEW MOLECULES THAT ONCE WERE BREATHED BY JESUS, MOSES AND MOHAMMED AS WELL AS NAPOLEON AND GHENGHIS KHAN.
NO SURPRISE, THEN, THAT THE STORY OF WEATHER AND CLIMATE KNOWS NO NATIONAL BOUNDARIES
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