South Carolina Curriculum Standards

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which South Carolina Curriculum Standards you can cover using PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE.

For additional South Carolina Curriculum Standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

Elementary Standards: Kindergarten,   First Grade,   Second Grade,   Third Grade,   Fourth Grade,   Fifth Grade
Middle School Standards: Sixth Grade,   Seventh Grade,   Eighth Grade
High SchoolGrades 9-12

Kindergarten

I. Inquiry

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses and simple tools to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use(qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to observable properties.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) and nonstandard whole units to estimate and measure mass, length, volume, and temperature (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

 

a. Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment that could start an investigation.

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hands-on
online

b. Use simple equipment and to gather data and extend the senses.

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hands-on
online


First Grade:

I. Inquiry

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses and simple tools to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use (qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to observable properties.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) and nonstandard whole units to estimate and measure mass, length, volume, and temperature (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

 

a. Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment.

video
hands-on
online

b. Employ simple equipment, such as hand lenses, thermometers, balances, etc., to gather data and extend the senses.

video
hands-on
online


III. Earth Science
Unit of Study:
Things in the Sky

A. Objects in the Sky

 

1. The sun, moon, and stars have properties, locations and movements that can be observed and described.

 

a. Observe and describe the basic relationships between the sun, moon, and Earth.

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b. Identify that the sun is a star and is the source of heat and light for Earth.

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B. Changes in the Earth and Sky

 

1. The sun and moon appear to move across the sky on a daily basis.

 

a. Observe and compare the day and night sky.

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b. Observe and describe changes in shadows over time.

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c. Observe and describe the phases of the moon over time, looking for patterns.

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hands-on
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Second Grade:

I. Inquiry

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses and simple tools to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use (qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to observable properties.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) and nonstandard whole units to estimate and measure mass, length, volume, and temperature (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

 

a. Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment.

video
hands-on
online

b. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

video
hands-on
online

c. Use simple equipment, such as hand lenses, thermometers, balances, rulers, etc., to gather data and extend the senses.

video
hands-on
online

d. Communicate investigations and explanations.

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hands-on
online


IV. Physical Science
Units of Study:
Changes in Matter
Magnets

Third Grade:

I. Inquiry

A. Property of Objects and Materials

 

1. Objects have many observable properties.

 

a. Examine and classify common physical properties of matter (solids, liquids, and gases).

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2. Materials can exist in different states - solid, liquid and gas. Some common materials, such as water, can be changed from one state to another.

 

a. Identify materials as solid, liquid, and gas.

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b. Demonstrate and describe how water and other materials change from one state to another.

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3. Properties of matter can be measured using tools, such as rulers, balances, and thermometers.

 

a. Measure length, mass, volume, and temperature of various materials in standard (U.S. Customary and Metric Systems) units.

video
hands-on
online

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use (qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to two attributes.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) to estimate and measure mass, length, area, perimeter, volume, and temperature to the nearest whole unit (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

5. Infer

 

a. Explain or interpret an observation based on data and prior knowledge.

video
hands-on
online

6. Predict

 

a. Use prior knowledge and observations to identify and explain in advance what will happen.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation

 

a. Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment.

video
hands-on
online

b. Plan and conduct a simple investigation - a fair test.

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hands-on
online

c. Use simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses.

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hands-on
online

d. Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.

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hands-on
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e. Communicate investigations and explanations.

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hands-on
online


IV. Physical Science
Units of Study:
Matter, Machines, and Motion
Heat

Fourth Grade:

I. Inquiry

2. Heat can be produced in many ways, such as burning and rubbing or mixing one substance with another. Heat can move from one object to another

 

a. Explore and identify things that give off heat, such as lights, appliances, running motors, polishing or sawing, sun, and animals.

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b. Explore and describe how heat spreads from one object to another.

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c. Give an example of how a warmer object can warm a cooler object by contact (conduction) or at a distance, such as heat of stove to pan, and heat of sun to Earth, etc.

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d. Investigate and describe what materials can be used to hold heat or shield things from it, such as insulators.

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hands-on
online

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses and simple tools to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use (qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to two attributes.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) to estimate and measure mass, length, area, perimeter, volume, and temperature to the nearest whole unit (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

5. Infer

 

a. Explain or interpret an observation based on data and prior knowledge.

video
hands-on
online

b. Discriminate between observations and inferences.

video
hands-on
online

6. Predict

 

a. Use prior knowledge and observations to identify and explain in advance what will happen.

video
hands-on
online

b. Discriminate between inferences and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

 

a. Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment.

video
hands-on
online

b. Plan and conduct a simple investigation-a fair test.

video
hands-on
online

c. Use simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses.

video
hands-on
online

d. Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.

video
hands-on
online

e. Communicate investigations and explanations.

video
hands-on
online


III. Earth Science
Units of Study:
Sky Patterns
Weather and Climate

A. Objects in the Sky

 

1. The sun, moon, and stars and planets, asteroids and comets all have properties, locations and movements that can be observed and described.

 

a. State that the sun produces its own light, while the moon reflects light from the sun.

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b. Describe the positional relationship between the Earth and the moon and their positional relationship to the sun.

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c. Observe and record phase changes of the moon over time.

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d. Observe and recognize the location and apparent movement of constellations throughout the seasons.

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e. Compare the properties, locations, and movements of the Earth and other planets.

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f. Research and describe the historical/cultural significance of astronomy, such as navigation and explorations (P, H, T, N)

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g. Explore and identify careers in space science. (P)

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2. Objects in the sky have patterns of movement. The sun, for example, appears to move across the sky in the same way every day, but its path changes slowly over the seasons.

 

a. Model and describe how the Earth's rotation on its axis produces day and night.

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b. Model and describe how the tilt of the Earth on its axis and its revolution around the sun produce seasonal changes.

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c. Describe how sunrise/sunset patterns change over time.

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d. Investigateand describe the sun's apparent movement related to the shadows of objects throughout the day.

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e. Identify safe ways to observe the sun.

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f. Research and compare the technology humans have used to measure time throughout history. (T, H)

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Fifth Grade:

I. Inquiry

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses and simple tools to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use (qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to two attributes.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) to estimate and measure mass, length, area, perimeter, volume, and temperature to the nearest whole unit (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

5. Infer

 

a. Explain or interpret an observation based on data and prior knowledge.

video
hands-on
online

b. Discriminate between observations and inferences.

video
hands-on
online

6. Predict

 

a. Use prior knowledge and observations to identify and explain in advance what will happen.

video
hands-on
online

b. Discriminate between inferences and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

7. Hypothesize

 

a. Devise a statement of assumption, based on observations, experiences, and research, that can be supported or refuted through experimentation.

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8. Define variables

 

a. Identify independent (manipulated), dependent (responding), and controlled variables in an experiment.

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hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

 

a. Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.

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hands-on
online

b. Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

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hands-on
online

c. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

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hands-on
online

d. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

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hands-on
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e. Use mathematical thinking in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

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f. Communicate outcomes and explanations.

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online

C. Abilities of Technological Design

 

1. Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

 

a. Identify a specific need for a product.

video
hands-on
online

b. Determine whether the product will meet the needs and be used.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design a solution or product.

 

a. Compare and contrast different proposals using selected criteria (e.g., cost, time, trade-off, and materials needed.

video
hands-on
online

b. Communicate ideas with drawings and simple models.

video
hands-on
online


III. Earth Science
Unit of Study:
Changes in the Earth's Surface

B. Earth in the Solar System

 

1. Gravity is the force that explains the phenomena of the tides.

 

a. Describe the effect of the positions of the sun and the moon on the ocean's tides.

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2. The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the Earth's surface.

 

a. Describe how changes in temperature produce currents.

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online

b. Identify the role of solar energy on wind and ocean currents.

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hands-on
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IV. Physical Science
Units of Study:
Mixtures and Solutions
Forces, Motion, and Design

B. Motions and Forces

 

1. The motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion and speed.

 

a. Investigate and describe the relative positions and movements of objects using points of reference.

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b. Define potential and kinetic energy.

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c. Demonstrate and describe the effect of potential and kinetic energy on an object.

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d. Record and graph in metric units distance vs. time of moving objects.

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e. Investigate the variables related to speed (distance and time). Examples might include: ramp height/length/surface, object size.

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2. If more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or cancel one another.

 

a. Describe gravity, friction, magnetism, drag, lift, and thrust as forces acting on moving objects.

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b. Investigate and describe how forces affect the motion of objects.

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c. Analyze a device with parts that move and determine the purpose of each moving part and the overall purpose of the device.

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d. Design and construct a device that moves. (T)

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Sixth Grade:

I. Inquiry

A. Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry

 

1. Identify process skills that can be used in scientific investigations.

 

a. Observe

 

1. Observe patterns of objects and events.

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2. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative observations.

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b. Classify

 

1. Arrange data in sequential order.

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2. Use scientific (field guides, charts, periodic tables, etc.) and dichotomous keys for classification.

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c. Measure

 

1. Select and use appropriate tools (e.g. metric ruler, graduated cylinder, thermometer, balances, spring scales, and stopwatches) and units (e.g. meter, liter, Celsius, gram, Newton, and second) to measure to the unit required in a particular situation.

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2. Select and use appropriate metric prefixes to include milli-, centi-, and kilo-.

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d. Infer

 

1. Make inferences based on observations.

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e. Predict

 

1. Predict the results of actions based on patterns in data and experiences.

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2. Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

 

a. Recognize potential hazards within a scientific investigation and practice appropriate safety procedures.

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b. Pose questions and problems to be investigated.

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c. Obtain scientific information from a variety of sources (such as Internet, electronic encyclopedias, journals, community resources, etc.).

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d. Distinguish and operationally define independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

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e. Manipulate one variable over time with repeated trials.

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f. Collect and record data using appropriate metric measurements.

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g. Organize data in tables and graphs.

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h. Analyze data to construct explanations and draw conclusions.

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3. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

 

a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as calculators, computers, probes, thermometers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, binoculars, and hand lenses) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.

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b. Analyze and interpret data using computer hardware and software designed for these purposes.

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4. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

 

a. Discriminate among observations, inferences, and predictions.

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b. Construct and/or use models to carry out/support scientific investigations.

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5. Think critically and logically to make relationships between evidence and explanations.

 

a. Review and summarize data to show cause-effect relationships in experiments.

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b. State explanations in terms of independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

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c. State hypotheses in ways that include the independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

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6. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.

 

a. Analyce different ideas and explanations to consider alternative ideas.

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b. Accept the skepticism of others as part of the scientific process. (N)

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7. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

 

a. Use drawings, written and oral expression to communicate information.

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b. Create drawings, diagrams, charts, tables and graphs to communicate data.

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c. Interpret and describe patterns of data on drawings, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

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d. Create and/or use scientific models to communicate information.

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8. Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

 

a. Use mathematics to gather, organize and present data.

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b. Use mathematics to structure convincing explanations.

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B. Abilities of Technological Design

 

1. Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

 

a. Identify a specific need for a product.

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online

b. Determine whether the product will meet the needs and be used.

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hands-on
online

2. Design a solution or product.

 

a. Compare and contrast different proposals using selected criteria (e.g., cost, time, trade-off, and materials needed).

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hands-on
online

b. Communicate ideas with drawings and simple models.

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3. Implement a proposed design.

 

a. Select suitable tools and techniques to ensure adequate accuracy.

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b. Organize materials, devise a plan and work collaboratively where appropriate.

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4. Evaluate completed technological designs or products.

 

a. Measure the quality of the product based on the original purpose or need and the degree to which it meets the needs of the users.

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b. Suggest improvements and try proposed modifications to the design.

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5. Communicate the process of technological design.

 

a. Identify the stages of problem design: (1) problem identification, (2) solution design, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation.

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C. Understandings about Science and Technology

 

1. Scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences.

 

a. Compare and contrast scientific inquiry and technological design.

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2. Many different people in different cultures have made and continue to make contributions to science and technology.

 

a. Describe examples of contributions people have made to science and technology. (H, N

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3. Science and technology are reciprocal.

 

a. Explain how science and technology are essential to each other. (T)

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4. Perfectly designed solutions do not exist.

 

a. Discuss factors that affect product design and alter the original design. (T)

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b. Discuss risk versus benefit factors in product design. (P)

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5. Technological designs have constraints.

 

a. Describe examples of constraints on technological designs. (T)

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b. Explain why constraints on technological design are unavoidable. (T, N)

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6. Technological solutions have intended benefits and unintended consequences.

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IV. Physical Science
Unit of Study:
Physical Properties and Changes of Matter

2. Substances often are placed in categories or groups if they react in similar ways; metals is an example of such a group.

 

a. Distinguish among elements, compounds, and mixtures.

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b. Use the periodic table to identify common elements in their groups.

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c. Distinguish metals from non-metals based on observed characteristics.

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d. Create models of atoms representing common elements by identifying the location and charges of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in the models.

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e. Distinguish between acids and bases using indicators.

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3. There are more than 100 known elements that combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds, which account for the living and nonliving substances that we encounter.

 

a. List the most common elements found in living organisms.

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b. Interpret labels on foods, household chemicals, and over-the-counter medicines to identify common elements and compounds present.

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IV. Physical Science
Unit of Study:
Machines and Work

A. Motion and Forces

 

1. Motion can be measured and represented on a graph.

 

a. Measure force required to move an object using appropriate devices (e.g., spring scale, rubber band and ruler).

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b. Manipulate and graph force vs. distance required to move an object using a lever, pulley, or inclined plane without changing the total work involved.

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IV. Physical Science
Unit of Study:
Forms and Transfer of Energy

A. Energy is transferred in many ways.

 

1. Energy is a property of many substances and is associated with heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound, and the nature of a chemical.

 

a. Identify sources of heat, light, sound, electrical and chemical energy, and mechanical motion.

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b. Recognize and identify heat, light, sound, electrical and chemical energy, and mechanical motion as forms of energy.

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2. Energy is transferred in many ways.

 

a. Demonstrate the transfer of energy when mechanical motion is changed to sound (e.g., vibrations).

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b. Demonstrate and identify factors that influence the pitch of a sound (e.g., length and diameter).

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c. Demonstrate chemical energy transferred to light energy (e.g., light wands, lightning bugs, batteries, and bulbs, etc.).

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3. Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer to cooler objects, until both reach the same temperature.

 

a. Predict and demonstrate the effect of the flow of heat in solids, liquids, and gases.

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b. Investigate the effects of temperature differences on the movement of water.

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c. Design an experiment that reduces the rate at which a substance melts.

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d. Observe and compare the melting time of a substance in an insulated container vs. an open container.

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e. Explain how insulating factors affect the flow of heat.

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f. Relate insulating factors to real life applications (e.g., building construction, clothing, animal covering, etc.).

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g. Explain by using examples how conduction, convection, or radiation factors enhance the flow of heat.

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4. Light interacts with matter by transmission (including refraction), absorption, or scattering (including reflection). To see an object, light from that object - emitted by or scattered from it - must enter the eye.

 

a. Distinguish between objects producing light and objects reflecting light.

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b. Investigate the reflection of light.

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c. Observe and explain the refraction of light.

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d. Illustrate the image formation using convex lens.

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e. Classify objects as opaque, transparent, or translucent.

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f. Describe how the parts of an eye interact with light to enable a person to see an object.

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5. Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy when heat, light, sound, and chemical changes are produced. Heat, light, mechanical motion, or electricity might be involved in such transfers.

 

a. Design and build an electrical circuit to demonstrate energy transfer.

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b. Relate electricity to magnetism (e.g., constructing electromagnets and simple electric motors).

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c. Use an electric motor to demonstrate energy transfers (e.g., chemical to electrical to mechanical motion).

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d. Explain how generators produce electricity from mechanical motion.

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6. The sun is a major source of energy for changes on the Earthís surface.

 

a. Measure temperature differences as the sun or a model of the sun warms different surfaces.

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b. Graph time vs. temperature of different surfaces exposed to the sun and interpret the graphs to infer factors that affect heat absorption.

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online

c. Investigate and describe practical uses of solar energy (e.g., solar ovens, water heaters, calculators, etc.).

video
hands-on
online

7. The sunís energy arrives as light with a range of wavelengths, consisting of visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation.

 

a. Use prisms and diffraction gratings to refract light and observe the colors in the visible spectrum.

video
hands-on
online

b. Differentiate infrared, colors of visible light, and ultraviolet radiation by wavelengths (e.g., heat lamps, greenhouse effect).

video
hands-on
online

c. Draw and label a diagram to illustrate wavelengths of radiant energy.

video
hands-on
online

d. Explain rainbow phenomena in terms of refraction of sunlight by water droplets in the sky.

video
hands-on
online

e. Relate the importance of using sunscreen to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin.

video
hands-on
online


Seventh Grade:

I. Inquiry

A. Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry

 

1. Identify process skills that can be used in scientific investigations.

 

a. Observe

 

1. Observe patterns of objects and events.

video
hands-on
online

2. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative observations.

video
hands-on
online

b. Classify

 

1. Arrange data in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

2. Use scientific (e.g., field guides, charts, periodic tables, etc.) and dichotomous keys for classification.

video
hands-on
online

c. Measure

 

1. Select and use appropriate tools (e.g., metric ruler, graduated cylinder, thermometer, balances, spring scales, and stopwatches) and units (e.g., meter, liter, Celsius, gram, Newton, and second) to measure to the unit required in a particular situation.

video
hands-on
online

2. Select and use appropriate metric prefixes to include milli-, centi-, and kilo-.

video
hands-on
online

d. Infer

 

1. Make inferences based on observations.

video
hands-on
online

e. Predict

 

1. Predict the results of actions based on patterns in data and experiences.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

 

a. Recognize potential hazards within a scientific investigation and practice appropriate safety procedures.

video
hands-on
online

b. Pose questions and problems to be investigated.

video
hands-on
online

c. Obtain scientific information from a variety of sources (such as Internet, electronic encyclopedias, journals, community resources, etc.).

video
hands-on
online

d. Distinguish and operationally define independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

video
hands-on
online

e. Manipulate one variable over time with repeated trials.

video
hands-on
online

f. Collect and record data using appropriate metric measurements.

video
hands-on
online

g. Organize data in tables and graphs. h. Analyze data to construct explanations and draw conclusions.

video
hands-on
online

3. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

 

a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as calculators, computers, probes, thermometers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, binoculars, and hand lenses) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.

video
hands-on
online

b. Analyze and interpret data using computer hardware and software designed for these purposes.

video
hands-on
online

4. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

 

a. Discriminate among observations, inferences, and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

b. Construct and/or use models to carry out/support scientific investigations.

video
hands-on
online

5. Think critically and logically to make relationships between evidence and explanations.

 

a. Review and summarize data to show cause-effect relationships in experiments.

video
hands-on
online

b. State explanations in terms of independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

video
hands-on
online

c. State hypotheses in ways that include the independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

video
hands-on
online

6. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.

 

a. Analyze different ideas and explanations to consider alternative ideas.

video
hands-on
online

b. Accept the skepticism of others as part of the scientific process.

video
hands-on
online

7. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

 

a. Use drawings, written and oral expression to communicate information.

video
hands-on
online

b. Create drawings, diagrams, charts, tables, and graphs to communicate data.

video
hands-on
online

c. Interpret and describe patterns of data on drawings, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

video
hands-on
online

d. Create and/or use scientific models to communicate information.

video
hands-on
online

8 Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

 

a. Use mathematics to gather, organize, and present data.

video
hands-on
online

B. Abilities of Technological Design

 

1. Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

 

a. Identify a specific need for a product.

video
hands-on
online

b. Determine whether the product will meet the needs and be used.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design a solution or product.

 

a. Compare and contrast different proposals using selected criteria (e.g., cost, time, trade-off, and materials needed).

video
hands-on
online

b. Communicate ideas with drawings and simple models.

video
hands-on
online

3. Implement a proposed design.

 

a. Select suitable tools and techniques to ensure adequate accuracy.

video
hands-on
online

b. Organize materials, devise a plan, and work collaboratively where appropriate.

video
hands-on
online

4. Evaluate completed technological designs or products.

 

a. Measure the quality of the product based on the original purpose or need and the degree to which it meets the needs of the users.

video
hands-on
online

b. Suggest improvements and try proposed modifications to the design.

video
hands-on
online

5. Communicate the process of technological design.

 

a. Identify the stages of problem design: (1) problem identification, (2) solution design, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation.

video
hands-on
online

C. Understandings about Science and Technology

 

1. Scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences.

 

a. Compare and contrast scientific inquiry and technological design.

video
hands-on
online

2. Many different people in different cultures have made and continue to make contributions to science and technology.

 

a. Describe examples of contributions people have made to science and technology.

video
hands-on
online

3. Science and technology are reciprocal.

 

a. Explain how science and technology are essential to each other.

video
hands-on
online

4. Perfectly designed solutions do not exist.

 

a. Discuss factors that affect product design and alter the original design.

video
hands-on
online

b. Discuss risk versus benefit factors in product design.

video
hands-on
online

5. Technological designs have constraints.

 

a. Describe examples of constraints on technological designs.

video
hands-on
online

b. Explain why constraints on technological design are unavoidable.

video
hands-on
online

6. Technological solutions have intended benefits and unintended consequences.

 


III. Earth
Unit of Study:
Ecology - The Abiotic Environment
IV. Physical Science
Unit of Study:
Chemical Nature of Matter

5. The sun is a major source of energy for changes on the Earthís surface. Energy is transferred in many ways. (Transfer of Energy: Physical Science)

 

a. Describe the greenhouse effect and its consequences. (P)

video
hands-on
online

b. Specify ways that humans may be influencing or contributing to global warming. (P)

video
hands-on
online

6. For ecosystems, the major source of energy is sunlight. Energy entering ecosystems as sunlight is transferred by producers into chemical energy through photosynthesis. That energy then passes from organism to organism in food webs. (Populations and Ecosystems: Life Science)

 

a. Describe how sunlight, through photosynthesis, is transferred by producers into chemical energy.

video
hands-on
online

b. Trace the path of solar energy through a simple food chain and food webs that include humans.

video
hands-on
online

c. Explain how energy is transferred through an ecosystem.

video
hands-on
online

d. Explain how energy is distributed in an energy pyramid.

video
hands-on
online

A. Properties and Changes of Properties in Matter

 

1. Chemical elements do not break down during normal laboratory reactions involving such treatments as heating, exposure to electric current, or reaction with acids. Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances (compounds) with different characteristic properties.

 

a. Distinguish between physical and chemical properties.

video
hands-on
online

b. Distinguish between physical and chemical changes.

video
hands-on
online

c. Describe various means by which chemical reactions occur (such as heat, light, and electricity).

video
hands-on
online

d. Cite examples of chemical changes in matter (e.g., rusting [slow oxidation], combustion [fast oxidation], and food spoilage).

video
hands-on
online

2. In chemical reactions, the total mass is conserved.

 

a. Recognize chemical symbols and chemical formulas of common substances such as NaCl (table salt), H20 (water), C6H12O6 (sugar), O2 (oxygen), CO2 (carbon dioxide), and N2 (nitrogen).

video
hands-on
online

b. Identify evidences of chemical reactions (e.g., gas evolved, color and/or temperature change, precipitate formed).

video
hands-on
online

c. Identify the reactants and products in simple chemical reactions such as photosynthesis (plants) and respiration (plants and animals).

video
hands-on
online

d. Explain the role of the enzymes as catalysts.

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hands-on
online

e. Use balanced chemical equations such as photosynthesis and respiration to support the law of conservation of matter.

video
hands-on
online


Eighth Grade:

I. Inquiry

A. Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry

 

1. Identify process skills that can be used in scientific investigations.

 

a. Observe

 

1. Observe patterns of objects and events.

video
hands-on
online

b. Classify

 

1. Arrange data in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

2. Use scientific (field guides, charts, periodic tables, etc.) and dichotomous keys for classification.

video
hands-on
online

c. Measure

 

1. Select and use appropriate tools (e.g. metric ruler, graduated cylinder, thermometer, balances, spring scales, and stopwatches) and units (e.g. meter, liter, Celsius, gram, Newton, and second) to measure to the unit required in a particular situation.

video
hands-on
online

2. Select and use appropriate metric prefixes to include milli-, centi-, and kilo-.

video
hands-on
online

d. Infer

 

1. Make inferences based on data (measurements and observations).

video
hands-on
online

e. Predict

 

1. Predict the results of actions based on patterns in data and experiences.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

 

a. Recognize potential hazards within a scientific investigation and practice appropriate safety procedures.

video
hands-on
online

b. Pose questions and problems to be investigated.

video
hands-on
online

c. Obtain scientific information from a variety of sources (such as Internet, electronic encyclopedias, journals, community resources, etc.).

video
hands-on
online

d. Distinguish and operationally define manipulated (independent) and responding (dependent) variables.

video
hands-on
online

e. Manipulate one variable over time with repeated trials.

video
hands-on
online

f. Collect and record data using appropriate metric measurements.

video
hands-on
online

g. Organize data in graphical representations.

video
hands-on
online

3. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data

 

a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as calculators, computers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.

video
hands-on
online

b. Analyze and interpret data using hardware and software designed for these purposes.

video
hands-on
online

4. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

 

a. Discriminate among observations, inferences, and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

b. Construct and/or use models to carry out/support scientific investigations.

video
hands-on
online

5. Think critically and logically to make relationships between evidence and explanations.

 

a. Review and summarize data to form a logical argument about the cause-effect relationships in experiments.

video
hands-on
online

b. State explanations in terms of the relationship between two or more variables.

video
hands-on
online

c. State hypotheses in ways that include the manipulate (independent) and responding (dependent) variables.

video
hands-on
online

6. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

7. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

 

a. Use drawings, written and oral expression to communicate information.

video
hands-on
online

b. Create drawings, diagrams, charts, tables and graphs to communicate data.

video
hands-on
online

c. Interpret and describe patterns of data on drawings, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

video
hands-on
online

d. Create and/or use scientific models to communicate information.

video
hands-on
online

8. Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

 

a. Use mathematics to gather, organize and present data.

video
hands-on
online

b. Use mathematics to structure convincing explanations.

video
hands-on
online

B. Understandings about Scientific Inquiry

 

1. Different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigations.

 

a. Relate how the kind of question being asked directs the type of investigation conducted (e.g. observing and describing, collecting, experimenting, surveying, inventing, and making models).

video
hands-on
online

2. Current scientific knowledge and understanding guide scientific investigations.

video
hands-on
online

3. Mathematics is important in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

video
hands-on
online

4. Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results.

 

a. Compare and contrast the quality of data collected with and without technological devices.

video
hands-on
online

5. Scientific explanations emphasize evidence, have logically consistent arguments and use scientific principles, models and theories.

 

a. Discuss how scientific knowledge advances when new scientific explanations displace previously accepted knowledge.

video
hands-on
online

6. Science advances through legitimate skepticism.

video
hands-on
online

7. Scientific investigations sometimes result in new ideas and phenomena for study.

video
hands-on
online

C. Abilities of Technological Design

 

1. Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

 

a. Identify a specific need for a product.

video
hands-on
online

b. Determine whether the product will meet the needs and be used.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design a solution or product.

 

a. Compare and contrast different proposals using selected criteria (e.g. cost, time, trade-off, and materials needed).

video
hands-on
online

b. Communicate ideas with drawings and simple models.

video
hands-on
online

3. Implement a proposed design.

 

a. Select suitable tools and techniques to ensure adequate accuracy.

video
hands-on
online

b. Organize materials, devise a plan and work collaboratively where appropriate.

video
hands-on
online

4. Evaluate completed technological designs or products.

 

a. Measure the quality of the product based on the original purpose or need and the degree to which it meets the needs of the users.

video
hands-on
online

b. Suggest improvements and try proposed modifications to the design.

video
hands-on
online

5. Communicate the process of technological design.

 

a. Identify the stages of problem design: (1) problem identification, (2) solution design, (3) implementation, (4) evaluation.

video
hands-on
online

D. Understandings about Science and Technology

 

1. Scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences.

 

a. Compare and contrast scientific inquiry and technological design.

video
hands-on
online

2. Many different people in different cultures have made and continue to make contributions to science and technology.

 

a. Describe examples of contributions people have made to science and technology.

video
hands-on
online

3. Science and technology are reciprocal.

 

a. Explain how science and technology are essential to each other.

video
hands-on
online

4. Perfectly designed solutions do not exist.

 

a. Discuss factors that affect product design and alter the original design

video
hands-on
online

b. Discuss risk versus benefit factors in product design.

video
hands-on
online

5. Technological designs have constraints.

 

a. Describe examples of constraints on technological designs

video
hands-on
online

b. Explain why constraints on technological design are unavoidable

video
hands-on
online

6.; Technological solutions have intended benefits and unintended consequences.

video
hands-on
online


III. Earth
Unit of Study:
Earth and Space Systems

A. Earth in the Solar System

 

1. The earth is the third planet from the sun in the system that includes the moon, the sun, eight other planets and their moons, smaller objects, such as asteroids and comets. (solar system)

 

a. Describe features of the planets in terms of size, composition, relative distance from the sun, and ability to support life.

video
hands-on
online

b. Compare and contrast the Earth to other planets in terms of size, composition, relative distance from the sun, and ability to support life.

video
hands-on
online

c. Describe features and explain the origins of asteroids, comets, and meteors.

video
hands-on
online

2. The sun, an average star, is central and largest body in the solar system.

 

a. Describe and classify the four layers of the sunís atmosphere (corona, chromosphere, photosphere, and core).

video
hands-on
online

b. Evaluate how phenomena on the sunís surface affect Earth (e.g., sunspots, prominences, and solar flares).

video
hands-on
online

c. Apply how the sunís solar wind affects Earth (i.e., auroras, interference in radio, and television communication).

video
hands-on
online

3. Energy is a property of many substances and is associated with nuclei. (Transfer of Energy: Physical Science)

 

a. Explain the process by which the sun produces energy (fusion).

video
hands-on
online

b. Describe nuclear fission.

video
hands-on
online

c. Distinguish between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission.

video
hands-on
online

4. Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion which explains such phenomena as the day, the year, phases of the moon, and eclipses.

 

a. Compare and contrast the Earthís rotation and revolution as they relate to daily and annual changes.

video
hands-on
online

b. Sequence and explain the phases of the moon (e.g., waxing, waning, crescent, new, and full).

video
hands-on
online

c. Demonstrate the arrangement of the sun, the moon and the earth during solar and lunar eclipses (including partial eclipses).

video
hands-on
online

5. Gravity alone holds us to the earthís surface and explains the phenomena of the tides.

 

a. Compare and contrast the contributions of Copernicus and Galileo. (H)

video
hands-on
online

b. Diagram the relative position of the sun, the moon, and the earth during tides.

video
hands-on
online

c. Describe the effect of the sun and moon on tides.

video
hands-on
online

6. Seasons result from variations in the amount of the sunís energy hitting the surface, due to the tilt of the earthís rotation on its axis and the length of the day.

 

a. Summarize how the parallel rays of the sun effect the temperature of Earth and produce different amounts of heating on Earthís surface.

video
hands-on
online

b. Diagram how the tilt of Earthís axis affects the seasons and the length of day.

video
hands-on
online

c. Relate the seasons to the tilt of the earth and the angle of the sunís rays.

video
hands-on
online

7. Gravity is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the sun and governs the rest of the motion in the solar system.

 

a. Examine the role of gravity in keeping the sun and solar system in orbit.

video
hands-on
online

b. Relate qualitative force to mass and distance.

video
hands-on
online

8. Unbalanced forces will cause changes in the speed or direction of an objectís motion. (Forces and Motion: Physical Science)

 

a. Apply Newtonís Laws of Motion to the way that a rocket works.

video
hands-on
online

b. Explain how satellites are placed in orbit around Earth.

video
hands-on
online

c. Describe the motion of an object in free fall.

video
hands-on
online

d. Summarize some of the programs that have allowed people to explore space. (H)

video
hands-on
online

e. Analyze the benefits generated by space explorations (e.g., food preservations, fabric, and insulation materials). (T)

video
hands-on
online

f. Predict future space missions and the contributions of those missions. (H)

video
hands-on
online

9. Light interacts with matter by refraction and reflection.(Transfer of Energy: Physical Science)

 

a. Identify and distinguish the components of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., infrared, visible light, and ultraviolet).

video
hands-on
online

b. Compare and contrast the characteristics of waves in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

video
hands-on
online

c. Explain and diagram how images are formed on mirrors.

video
hands-on
online

d. Describe images formed from convex and concave lenses.

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hands-on
online

e. Compare and contrast reflecting and refracting telescopes. (T)

video
hands-on
online

f. Compare and contrast radio telescopes and light telescopes. (T)

video
hands-on
online

g. Explain how space probes, satellites, light and radio telescopes, and spectroscopes have increased our knowledge of the solar system and the universe. (T)

video
hands-on
online


Ninth to Twelfth Grade:

I. Inquiry

Inquiry is not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas.

 

The nature of science and technology are incorporated within this area.

 

A. Identify Questions and Concepts that Guide Scientific Investigations

 

Experimental design should demonstrate logical connections between a knowledge base and conceptual understanding.

 

1. Formulate a testable hypothesis based on literary research and previous knowledge.

video
hands-on
online

2. Identify and select experimental variables (independent and dependent) and controlled conditions.

video
hands-on
online

B. Design and Conduct Investigations

 

Prior knowledge about major concepts, laboratory apparatus, laboratory techniques and safety should be used in designing and conducting a scientific investigation.

 

1. Design a scientific investigation based on the major concepts in the area being studied.

video
hands-on
online

2. Select and use appropriate instruments to make the observations necessary for the investigation, taking into consideration the limitations of the equipment.

video
hands-on
online

3. Identify technologies that could enhance the collection of data.

video
hands-on
online

4. Select the appropriate safety equipment needed to conduct an investigation (e.g., goggles, aprons, etc.).

video
hands-on
online

5. Suggest safety precautions that need to be implemented for the handling of materials and equipment used in an investigation.

video
hands-on
online

6. Describe the proper response to emergency situations in the laboratory.

video
hands-on
online

7. Conduct the laboratory investigation with repeated trials and systematic manipulation of variables.

video
hands-on
online

8. Identify possible sources of error inherent in the experimental design.

video
hands-on
online

9. Organize and display data in useable and efficient formats, such as tables, graphs, maps, and cross sections.

video
hands-on
online

10. Draw conclusions based on qualitative and quantitative data.

video
hands-on
online

11. Discuss the impact of sources of error on the experimental results.

video
hands-on
online

12. Communicate and defend the scientific thinking that resulted in the conclusions.

video
hands-on
online

C. Use Technology and Mathematics to Improve Investigations and Communications

 

Scientific investigations can be improved through the use of technology and mathematics. While it is acknowledged that the SI system is the accepted measurement system in science, opportunities to use the English System are encouraged.

 

1. Select and use appropriate technologies (computers, calculators, CBLís) to enhance the precision and accuracy of data collection, analysis and display.

video
hands-on
online

2. Discriminate between data that may be valid or anomalous.

video
hands-on
online

3. Select and use mathematical formulas and calculations to extend the usefulness of laboratory measurements.

video
hands-on
online

4. Draw a "best fit" curve through data points.

video
hands-on
online

5. Calculate the slope of the curve and use correct units for the value of the slope for linear relationships.

video
hands-on
online

6. Calculate interpolated and predict extrapolated data points.

video
hands-on
online

7. Perform dimensional analysis calculations.

video
hands-on
online

D. Formulate and Revise Scientific Explanations and Models Using Logic and Evidence

 

Scientific explanations and models are developed and revised through discussion and debate.

 

1. Construct experimental explanations or models through discussion, debate, logic and experimental evidence.

video
hands-on
online

2. Develop explanations and models that eliminate bias and demonstrate the use of ethical principles. (P)

video
hands-on
online

3. Revise explanations or models after review.

video
hands-on
online

E. Recognize and Analyze Alternative Explanations and Models

 

Scientific criteria are used to discriminate among plausible explanations.

 

1. Compare current scientific models with experimental results.

video
hands-on
online

2. Select and defend, based on scientific criteria, the most plausible explanation or model.

video
hands-on
online

F.; Communicate and Defend a Scientific Argument

 

1. Develop a set of laboratory instructions that someone else can follow.

video
hands-on
online

2. Develop a presentation to communicate the process and conclusion of a scientific investigation.

video
hands-on
online

G. Understandings about Scientific and Technological Inquiry

 

Historical scientific knowledge, current research, technology, mathematics and logic should be the basis for conducting investigations and drawing conclusions.

 

1. Analyze how science and technology explain and predict relationships.

video
hands-on
online

a. Defend the idea that conceptual principles and knowledge guide scientific and technological inquiry.

video
hands-on
online

b. Explain how historical and current scientific knowledge influences the design, interpretation, and evaluations of investigations.

video
hands-on
online

1. Discuss the reasons scientists and engineers conduct investigations.

video
hands-on
online

2. Defend the use of technology as a method for enhancing data collection, data manipulation and advancing the fields of science and technology.

video
hands-on
online

3. Explain how mathematics is important to scientific and technological inquiry.

video
hands-on
online

4. Explain why scientific models and explanations need to be based on historical and current scientific knowledge.

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hands-on
online

5. Understand that scientific explanations must be logical, supported by the evidence, and open to revision.

video
hands-on
online


III. Earth

C. The Origin and Evolution of the Earth System

 

1. Scientists theorize that the sun, the Earth, and the rest of the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago. The early Earth was very different from the planet we live on today.

 

a. Describe how scientists theorize that the Solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas.

video
hands-on
online

b. Describe changes in atmospheric conditions over time and explain possible causes including the greenhouse effect and ice age cycles.

video
hands-on
online

2. Geologic time can be estimated by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations. Current methods include using the known decay rates of radioactive isotopes present in the rock to measure the time since the rock was formed.

 

a. Trace the historical development of relative dating using rock sequences and fossils including the contributions of Hutton (uniformitarianism) and Lyell (crosscutting relationships and inclusions). (H, N)

video
hands-on
online

b. Describe techniques of relative dating using rock sequences and fossils to establish a sequence of geologic events, including the age of fossils.

video
hands-on
online

c. Describe radioactive decay as a means of dating events in the Earthís history.

video
hands-on
online

3. Interactions among the solid Earth, the oceans, and organisms have resulted in the ongoing evolution of the Earth system. We can observe some changes such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on a human time scale, but many processes such as mountain building and plate movements take place over hundreds of millions of years.

 

a. Explain how scientists conclude that processes take place and change occurs, even when the change is too slow to observe directly.

video
hands-on
online

b. Infer from surface features shown on aerial, satellite, and topographic maps the underlying subsurface conditions resulting from past geologic events. (T)

video
hands-on
online

c. Explain how interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and solid Earth result in the formation of sedimentary rocks.

video
hands-on
online

d. Predict changes in the Earthís surface based on past and current geologic events (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain building, weathering, erosion, and impact craters). (N)

video
hands-on
online

e. Trace the historical development of the theory of plate tectonics including the contributions of Wegener. (H, N)

video
hands-on
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4. Evidence for one-celled forms of life--the bacteria--extends back more than 3.5 billion years. The evolution of life caused dramatic changes in the composition of the Earthís atmosphere, which did not originally contain oxygen.

 

a. Relate the dramatic changes in the composition of the Earthís atmosphere (introduction of oxygen) to the evolution of single-celled life forms.

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D. The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

 

1. The origin of the universe remains one of the greatest questions in science. The "Big Bang" theory places the origin between 10 and 20 billion years ago, when the universe began in a hot dense state; according to this theory, the universe has been expanding ever since.

 

a. Trace the historical development of scientific theories for the formation of and changes in the universe including the contributions of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. (H, N)

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b. Discuss the evidence for an expanding universe.

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c. Give examples of the technology used to provide evidence about the history and origin of the universe. (H, N, T)

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2. Early in the history of the universe, matter, primarily the light atoms hydrogen and helium clumped together by gravitational attraction to form countless trillions of stars. Billions of galaxies, each of which is a gravitationally bound cluster of billions of stars, now form most of the visible mass in the universe.

 

a. Describe how gravity and motion affect the formation of different types of galaxies.

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b. Identify the location of our Sun in the Milky Way galaxy.

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3. Stars produce energy from nuclear reactions, primarily the fusion of hydrogen to form helium. These and other processes in stars have led to the formation of all the other elements.

 

a. Describe the life cycles of stars.

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b. Explain the formation of elements by fusion in stars and supernova explosions.

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IV. Physical Science (CHEMISTRY)

A. Structure of Atoms

 

1. Matter is made of minute particles called atoms, and atoms are composed of even smaller components. These components have measurable properties, such as mass and electrical charge. Each atom has a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The electric force between the nucleus and electrons holds the atom together.

 

a. Trace the historical development of the model of the atom including the contributions of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr. (H, N)

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b. Infer the existence of atoms from physical and chemical evidence.

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c. Compare and contrast the component particles of the atom.

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2. The atomís nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons, which are much more massive than electrons. When an element has atoms that differ in the number of neutrons, these atoms are called different isotopes of the element.

 

a. Trace the development of nuclear models including the contributions of the Curies, Meitner, and Fermi. (H, N)

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b. Identify the charge, component particles, and relative mass of the nucleus.

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c. Explain that elements exist as isotopes, which may be stable or unstable (radioactive).

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3. The nuclear forces that hold the nucleus of an atom together, at nuclear distances, are usually stronger than the electric forces that would make it fly apart. Nuclear reactions convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy, and they can release much greater amounts of energy than atomic interactions. Fission is the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller pieces. Fusion is the joining of two nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure, and is the process responsible for the energy of the sun and other stars.

 

a. Explain why like charges are able to remain in close proximity in the nucleus.

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b. Contrast the energy released by nuclear reactions to that released by chemical reactions.

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c. Define fission and fusion reactions showing how they are processes that convert matter to energy.

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d. Describe fusion as the process that fuels the sun and other stars.

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e. Debate the consequences of the development of nuclear applications such as the atomic bomb, nuclear power plants, and medical technologies. (P)

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4. Radioactive isotopes are unstable and undergo spontaneous nuclear reactions, emitting particles, and/or wavelike radiation. The decay of any one nucleus cannot be predicted, but a large group of identical nuclei decay at a predictable rate. This predictability can be used to estimate the age of materials that contain radioactive isotopes.

 

a. Explain that unstable isotopes undergo spontaneous nuclear decay, emitting energy or particles and energy.

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b. Apply the predictable rate of nuclear decay to estimate the age of materials.

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A. Structure and Properties of Matter

 

1. Atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing electrons that are furthest from the nucleus. These outer electrons govern the chemical properties of the element.

 

a. Predict the charge a representative element will acquire based on its outer electron arrangement.

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2. An element is composed of a single type of atom. When elements are listed in order according to the number of protons (called the atomic number), repeating patterns of physical and chemical properties identify families of elements with similar properties. This "Periodic Table" is a consequence of the repeating pattern of outermost electrons and their permitted energies.

 

a. Trace the historical development of the periodic table including the contributions of Mendeleev. (H, N)

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b. Explain the arrangement of elements within a group on the periodic table based on similar physical and chemical properties.

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c. Explain that property trends on the periodic table are a function of the elementsí atomic structures.

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d. Identify atomic number, mass number, # protons, # neutrons, # electrons for given elements.

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3. Bonds between atoms are created when electrons are paired up by being transferred or shared. A substance composed of a single kind of atom is called an element. The atoms may be bonded together into molecules or crystalline solids. A compound is formed when two or more kinds of atoms bind together chemically.

 

a. Trace the historical development of the systematic approach to the study of matter by including the contributions of Lavoisier (Law of Conservation of Matter) and Dalton (atomic theory). (H, N)

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b. Compare and contrast elements and compounds.

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c. Classify compounds as being crystalline solids (ionic) or molecules (covalent) based on transfer of sharing of outer electrons.

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d. Predict the ratio by which the representative elements combine to form ionic compounds expressing that ratio in a chemical formula.

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4. The physical properties of compounds reflect the nature of the interactions among its molecules. These interactions are determined by the structure of the molecule, including the constituent atoms and the distances and angles between them.

 

a. Explain how the physical properties of compounds are related to their type of bonding.

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b. Analyze the physical properties of water as they relate to waterís bonding and molecular shape.

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c. Describe how solubility varies among different solutes and for the same solute at different temperatures.

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d. Analyze the behavior of polar and nonpolar substances in forming solutions.

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e. Identify factors that affect the rates at which substances dissolve.

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f. Compare the amount of solute and solvent in concentrated and dilute mixtures.

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5. Solids, liquids, and gases differ in the distances and angles between molecules or atoms and therefore the energy that binds them together. In solids the structure is nearly rigid; in liquids molecules or atoms move around each other but do not move apart; and in gases molecules or atoms move almost independently of each other and are mostly far apart.

 

a. Compare and contrast solids, liquids, and gases in terms of particle arrangement and the energy that binds them together.

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6. Carbon atoms can bond to one another in chains, rings, and branching networks to form a variety of structures, including synthetic polymers, oils, and the large molecules essential to life.

 

a. Analyze how carbon atoms bond to one another in a variety of structures.

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b. Describe polymers as molecules bonded together.

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c. Identify uses of aromatic compounds and polymers in everyday life. (P)

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d. Explore, investigate, and list some common uses of petroleum products, including manufacturing and medical applications.

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A. Chemical Reactions

 

1. Chemical reactions occur all around us, for example in health care, cooking, cosmetics, and automobiles. Complex chemical reactions involving carbon-based molecules take place constantly in every cell in our bodies.

 

a. Explain the process of rusting in terms of electron transfer and debate the economic impact of rusting.

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b. Describe how metabolism is an inter-related collection of chemical reactions.

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1. Explain that food is composed partially of large complex molecules that are broken down into simpler molecules. (P)

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2. Describe how these simpler molecules are rearranged into new molecules within living things. (N)

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c. Explain the sources and environmental effects of some inorganic and organic toxic substances, such as heavy metals and PCBís. (P)

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2. Chemical reactions may release or consume energy. Some reactions such as the burning of fossil fuels release large amounts of energy by losing heat and by emitting light. Light can initiate many chemical reactions such as photosynthesis and the evolution of urban smog.

 

a. List evidences that identify a chemical change by recording systematic observations, such as change in color, odor, and temperature for various chemical reactions. (N)

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b. Recognize balanced chemical equations.

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c. Classify reactions as energy-absorbing (endothermic) or energy-releasing (exothermic) based on temperature measurements.

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d. Conclude from experimental evidence that mass is neither created nor destroyed based on mass measurements. (N)

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3. A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reaction ions, molecules, or atoms. In other reactions, chemical bonds are broken by heat or light to form very reactive radicals with electrons ready to form new bonds. Radical reactions control many processes such as the presence of ozone and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, burning and processing of fossil fuels, the formation of polymers, and explosions.

 

a. Differentiate between acids and bases.

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1. Identify the physical characteristics of acids and bases.

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2. Identify acids and bases in terms of their pH.

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3. Describe neutralization reactions.

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4. Explain how acid rain is formed and discuss its effects on the environment. (P)

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5. Evaluate the role pH plays in the development of consumer products. (N, P)

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6. Analyze the color changes of some common indicators to distinguish among the ranges of acidic, basic, and neutral solutions.

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b. Identify the role of free radicals in atmospheric changes, cellular changes, and processes such as organic synthesis and burning. (N, P)

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4. Chemical reactions can take place in time periods ranging from the few femtoseconds (10-15 seconds) required for an atom to move a fraction of a chemical bond distance to geologic time scales of billions of years. Reaction rates depend on how often the reacting atoms and molecules encounter one another, on the temperature, and on the properties Ė including shape Ė of the reacting species. Catalysts, such as metal surfaces, accelerate chemical reactions. Chemical reactions in living systems are catalyzed by protein molecules called enzymes.

 

a. Describe how reaction rates are a function of the collisions among particles.

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b. Analyze the effects of temperature, particle size, stirring, concentration, and catalysts on reaction rates.

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c. Apply reaction rate concepts to real life applications such as food spoilage, storage of film and batteries, digestive aids, and catalytic converters. (P, T)

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IV. Physical Science (PHYSICS)

A. Motions and Forces

 

1. Objects change their motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to calculate precisely the effects of forces on the motion of objects. The magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F = ma, which is independent of the nature of the force. Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object.

 

a. Trace the historical development of the understanding of forces including the contributions of Galileo, Newton, Franklin, and Coulomb. (H, N)

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b. Describe the motion of an object in terms of Newtonís three laws of motion.

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c. Solve uniformly accelerated, linear motion problems quantitatively and graphically.

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d. Generate and interpret graphs of linear motion.

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e. Cite evidence to justify the use of auto safety devices, including seat belts, air bags, bumpers and head rests, in terms of Newtonís laws. (P, T)

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2. Gravitation is a universal force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational attractive force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

 

a. Describe quantitative changes in gravitational attraction in terms of changes in distances between masses.

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b. Describe quantitative changes in gravitational attraction in terms of changes in the masses.

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3. The electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel. The strength of the force is proportional to the charges, and, as with gravitation, inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Between any two charged particles, electric force is vastly greater than the gravitational force. Most observable forces such as those exerted by a coiled spring or friction may be traced to electric forces acting between atoms and molecules.

 

a. Demonstrate the interactions of like and unlike charges.

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b. Describe changes in electrostatic attraction in terms of changes in distances between two point charges. (NOTE: May consider this as too difficult for all learners -- exit exam.)

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c. Describe changes in electrostatic attraction in terms of changes in the charges.

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d. Compare the magnitudes of electrical and gravitational forces.

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e. Discuss the role of static electricity in disruptions and damage to electrical devices. (N, P, T)

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4. Electricity and magnetism are two aspects of a single electromagnetic force. Moving electric charges produce magnetic forces, and moving magnets produce electric forces. These effects help students to understand electric motors and generators.

 

a. Describe how moving electrical charges produce magnetic fields.

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b. Describe how moving magnets produce electrical fields.

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c. Compare and contrast electrical motors and electrical generators in terms of energy transfers. (N, T)

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d. Examine the effects of the advent of electricity on individuals and society. (H, N, P, T)

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5. Analyze electrical circuits that obey Ohmís Law. (Not an NSES standard)

 

a. Construct and schematically diagram simple series circuits and parallel circuits.

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b. Use an electric meter to measure the voltage and resistance. (T)

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c. Compare and contrast series and parallel circuits.

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d. Perform calculations using Ohmís Law. e. Explain how fuses, surge protectors, and breakers function. (T)

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B. Conservation of Energy and the Increase in Disorder

 

1. The total energy of the universe is constant. Energy can be transferred by collisions in chemical and nuclear reactions, by light waves and other radiations, and in many other ways. However, it can never be destroyed. As these transfers occur, the matter involved becomes steadily less ordered.

 

a. Examine and describe transformations between potential and kinetic energies and other forms of energy.

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b. State quantitative relationships between energy, work, power, and efficiency.

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c. Cite or identify examples of how the disorder of matter changes with energy changes. (N)

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2. All energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion; potential energy, which depends on relative position; or energy contained by a field, such as electromagnetic waves.

 

a. Classify energy types as potential, kinetic, or electromagnetic.

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3. Heat consists of random motion and the vibrations of atoms, molecules, and ions. The higher the temperature, the greater the atomic or molecular motion.

 

a. Predict and measure the effects of varying the temperature, pressure, and volume of gases. (N)

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b. Assess particle motion and distance as they relate to temperature and phase changes.

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c. Assess the hazards of handling and storing pressurized gases. (P, T)

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4. Everything tends to become less organized and less orderly over time. Thus, in all energy transfers, the overall effect is that the energy is spread out uniformly. Examples are the transfer of energy from hotter to cooler objects by conduction, radiation, or convection and the warming of our surroundings when we burn fuels.

 

a. Compare and contrast the environmental impact of power plants that use fossil fuels, water, and nuclear energy to produce electricity. (P, T)

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C. Interactions of Energy and Matter

 

1. Waves, including sound and seismic waves, waves on water, and light waves, have energy and can transfer energy when they interact with matter.

 

a. Identify and show relationships among wave characteristics such as velocity, period, frequency, amplitude, phase, and wavelength.

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b. Compare and contrast models of longitudinal and transverse waves.

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c. Identify examples of the wave behaviors of reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, polarization, and Doppler effect.

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d. Compare light and sound in terms of wave models.

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e. Distinguish between the electromagnetic spectrum, seismic waves, water waves and sound waves based on their properties and behaviors.

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f. Describe the energy of a wave in terms of amplitude and frequency.

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g. Apply wave behavior to health issues such as skin cancer, cataracts, medical diagnostics, and treatment. (P, T)

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h. Apply wave behavior to communication issues such as cellular phones, satellites, and animal communication. (P, T)

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i. Apply wave behavior to optical and sonic devices such as optic fibers and motion detectors. (P, T)

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2. Electromagnetic waves result when a charged object is accelerated or decelerated. Electromagnetic waves include radio waves (the longest wavelength), microwaves, infrared radiation (radiant heat), visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays. The energy of electromagnetic waves is carried in packets whose magnitude is inversely proportional to the wavelength.

 

a. Compare and contrast the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of energy.

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3. Each kind of atom or molecule can gain or lose energy only in particular discrete amounts and thus can absorb and emit light only at wavelengths corresponding to these amounts. These wavelengths can be used to identify the substance.

 

a. Describe how the absorbing and releasing of energy by electrons produces light.

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b. Explain that each element has its own configuration of electrons and has a unique line spectrum that can be used to identify that element.

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c. Discuss the application of emitted colors by certain substances in such areas as fireworks and light sources. (P,T)

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4. In some materials, such as metals, electrons flow easily, whereas in insulating materials such as glass they can hardly flow at all. Semiconducting materials have intermediate behavior. At low temperatures some materials become superconductors and offer no resistance to the flow of electrons.

 

a. Compare insulators, conductors, and semiconductors.

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b. Describe the conditions under which superconductivity exists. (H, P, T)

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