The Indiana Science Proficiency Guide

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which The Indiana Science Proficiency Guide standards you can cover using PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE.

For additional The Indiana Science Proficiency Guide standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE

Kindergarten,   First Grade,   Second Grade,   Third Grade,   Fourth Grade,   Fifth Grade,   Sixth Grade,   Seventh Grade,   Eighth Grade
High School: Biology,   Physics,   Earth

Kindergarten

Standard 1:
The Nature of Science and Technology

Students are actively engaged in beginning to explore how their world works. They explore, observe, ask questions, discuss observations, and seek answers.

 

Scientific Inquiry

 

K.1.1 Raise questions about the natural world.

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The Scientific Enterprise

 

K.1.2 Begin to demonstrate that everybody can do science.

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Standard 2:
Scientific Thinking

Students are actively engaged in beginning to explore how their world works. They explore, observe, ask questions, discuss observations, and seek answers.

 

Students use numbers, pictures, and words when observing and communicating to help them begin to answer their questions about the world.

 

Computation and Estimation

 

K.2.1 Use whole numbers*, up to 10, in counting, identifying, sorting, and describing objects and experiences.
*whole numbers: 0,1,2,3,etc.

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Communication

 

K.2.2 Draw pictures and write words to describe objects and experiences.

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Standard 3:
The Physical Setting

Students investigate, describe, and discuss their natural surroundings. They begin to question why things move.

 

Matter and Energy

 

K.3.1 Describe objects in terms of the materials they are made of such as clay, cloth, paper, etc.

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Forces of Nature

 

K.3.2 Investigate that things move in different ways such as fast, slow, etc.

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Standard 5:
The Mathematical World

Students use shapes to compare objects and they begin to recognize patterns.

 

Shapes and Symbolic Relationships

 

K.5.1 Use shapes, such as circles, squares, rectangles, and triangles, to describe different objects.

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Standard 6:
Common Themes

Students begin to understand how things are similar and how they are different. They look for ways to distinguish between different objects by observation.

 

Models and Scale

 

K.6.1 Describe an object by saying how it is similar to or different from another object.

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First Grade

Standard 1:
The Nature of Science and Technology

Students are actively engaged in exploring how the world works. They explore, observe, count, collect, measure, compare, and ask questions. They discuss observations and use tools to seek answers and solve problems. They share their findings.

 

Scientific Inquiry

 

1.1.1 Observe, describe, draw, and sort objects carefully to learn about them.

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1.1.2 Investigate and make observations to seek answers to questions about the world , such as
"In what ways do animals move?"

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Technology and Science

 

1.1.4 Use tools, such as rulers and magnifiers, to investigate the world and make observations.
*observation: gaining information through the use of one or more of the senses, such as sight, smell, etc.

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Standard 2:
Scientific Thinking

Students begin to find answers to their questions about the world by using measurements, estimation, and observation as well as working with materials. They communicate with others through numbers, words, and drawings.

 

Computation and Estimation

 

1.2.1 Use whole numbers*, up to 100, in counting, identifying, measuring, and describing objects and experiences.

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1.2.2 Use sums and differences of single digit numbers in investigations and judge the reasonableness of the answers.

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1.2.3 Explain to other students how to go about solving numerical problems.
*whole numbers: 0,1,2,3,etc.

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Manipulation and Observation

 

1.2.4 Measure the length of objects having straight edges in inches, centimeters, or non-standard units.

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1.2.5 Demonstrate that magnifiers help people see things they could not see without them.

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Communication Skills

 

1.2.6 Describe and compare objects in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion.

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1.2.7 Write brief informational descriptions of a real object, person, place, or event using information from observations.

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Standard 3:
The Physical Setting

Students investigate, describe, and discuss their natural surroundings. They question why things move and change.

 

The Earth and the Processes That Shape It

 

1.3.1 Recognize and explain that water can be a liquid or a solid and can go back and forth from one form to the other. Investigate by observing that if water is turned into ice and then the ice is allowed to melt, the amount of water is the same as it was before freezing.

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1.3.2 Investigate by observing and then describe that water left in an open container disappears, but water in a closed container does not disappear.

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Matter and Energy

 

1.3.3 Investigate by observing and also measuring that the sun warms the land, air, and water.

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Forces of Nature

 

1.3.4 Investigate by observing , and then describe how things move in many different ways, such as straight, zigzag, round and round, and back and forth.

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1.3.5 Recognize that and demonstrate how things near the earth fall to the ground unless something holds them up.

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Standard 5:
The Mathematical World

Students apply mathematics in scientific contexts. They begin to use numbers for computing, estimating, naming, measuring, and communicating specific information. They make picture graphs and recognize patterns.

 

Numbers

 

1.5.1 Use numbers, up to 10, to place objects in order, such as first, second, and third, and to name them, such as bus numbers or phone numbers.

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1.5.2 Make and use simple picture graphs to tell about observations.

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Shapes and Symbolic Relationships

 

1.5.3 Observe and describe similar patterns, such as shapes, designs, and events that may show up in nature, like honeycombs, sunflowers, or shells. See similar patterns in the things people make like quilts, baskets, or pottery.

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Standard 6:
Common Themes

Students begin to understand how things are similar and how they are different. They look for what changes and what does not change and make comparisons.

 

Models and Scale

 

1.6.1 Observe and describe that models, such as toys, are like the real things in some ways but different in others.

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Constancy and Change

 

1.6.2 Observe that and describe how certain things change in some ways and stay the same in others, such as in their color, size, and weight.

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Second Grade

Standard 1:
The Nature of Science and Technology

Students are actively engaged in exploring how the world works. They explore, observe, count, collect, measure, compare, and ask questions. They discuss observations* and use tools to seek answers and solve problems. They share their findings.

 

Scientific Inquiry

 

2.1.1 Manipulate an object to gain additional information about it.

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2.1.2 Use tools, such as thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, or balances, to gain more information about objects.

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2.1.3 Describe, both in writing and verbally, objects as accurately as possible and compare observations with those of other people.

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2.1.4 Make new observations when there is disagreement among initial observations.

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The Scientific Enterprise

 

2.1.5 Demonstrate the ability to work with a team but still reach and communicate one’s own conclusions about findings.

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Technology and Science

 

2.1.6 Use tools to investigate, observe, measure, design, and build things.

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2.1.7 Recognize and describe ways that some materials can be used over again such as recycled paper, cans, and plastic jugs.
*observation: gaining information through the use of one or more of the senses, such as sight, smell, etc.

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Standard 2:
Scientific Thinking

Students begin to find answers to their questions about the world by using measurement, estimation, and observation as well as working with materials. They communicate with others through numbers, words, and drawings.

 

Computation and Estimation

 

2.2.1 Give estimates of numerical answers to problems before doing them formally.

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2.2.2 Make quantitative estimates of familiar lengths, weights, and time intervals and check them by measurements.

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2.2.3 Estimate and measure capacity using cups and pints.

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Manipulation and Observation

 

2.2.4 Assemble, describe, take apart, and/or reassemble constructions using such things as interlocking blocks and erector sets. Sometimes pictures or words may be used as a reference.

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Communication Skills

 

2.2.5 Draw pictures and write brief descriptions that correctly portray key features of an object.

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Standard 3:
The Physical Setting

Students investigate, describe, and discuss their natural surroundings. They wonder why things move and change.

 

The Earth and the Processes That Shape It

 

2.3.2 Investigate, compare, and describe weather changes from day to day but recognize, describe, and chart that the temperature and amounts of rain or snow tend to be high, medium, or low in the same months every year.

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Standard 5:
The Mathematical World

Students apply mathematics in scientific contexts. They use numbers for computing, estimating, naming, measuring, and communicating specific information. They make picture and bar graphs. They recognize and describe shapes and patterns. They use evidence to explain how or why something happens.

 

Numbers

 

2.5.1 Recognize and explain that, in measuring, there is a need to use numbers between whole numbers*, such as 2 ½ inches.
*whole numbers: 0,1,2,3,etc.

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2.5.2 Recognize and explain that it is often useful to estimate quantities.

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Shapes and Symbolic Relationships

 

2.5.3 Observe that and describe how changing one thing can cause changes in something else such as exercise and its effect on heart rate.

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Reasoning and Uncertainty

 

2.5.4 Begin to recognize and explain that people are more likely to believe ideas if good reasons are given for them.

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2.5.5 Explain that some events can be predicted with certainty, such as sunrise and sunset, and some cannot, such as storms. Understand that people aren’t always sure what will happen since they do not know everything that might have an effect.

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2.5.6 Explain that sometimes a person can find out a lot (but not everything) about a group of things, such as insects, plants, or rocks, by studying just a few of them.

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Standard 6:
Common Themes

Students begin to observe how objects are similar and how they are different. They begin to identify parts of an object and recognize how these parts interact with the whole. They look for what changes and what does not change and make comparisons.

 

Systems

 

2.6.1 Investigate that most objects are made of parts.

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Models and Scale

 

2.6.2 Observe and explain that models may not be the same size, may be missing some details, or may not be able to do all of the same things as the real things.

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Constancy and Change

 

2.6.3 Describe that things can change in different ways, such as in size, weight, color, age, and movement. Investigate that some small changes can be detected by taking measurements.

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Third Grade

Standard 1:
The Nature of Science and Technology

Students, working collaboratively, carry out investigations. They question, observe, and make accurate measurements. Students increase their use of tools, record data in journals, and communicate results through chart, graph, written, and verbal forms.

 

The Scientific View of the World

 

3.1.1 Recognize and explain that when a scientific investigation is repeated, a similar result is expected.

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Scientific Inquiry

 

3.1.2 Participate in different types of guided scientific investigations such as observing objects and events and collecting specimens for analysis.

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3.1.3 Keep and report records of investigations and observations* using tools such as journals, charts, graphs, and computers.

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3.1.4 Discuss the results of investigations and consider the explanations of others. *observation: gaining information through the use of one or more of the senses, such as sight,
smell, etc.

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The Scientific Enterprise

 

3.1.5 Demonstrate the ability to work cooperatively while respecting the ideas of others and communicating one’s own conclusions about findings.

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Technology and Science

 

3.1.6 Give examples of how tools, such as automobiles, computers, and electric motors, have affected the way we live.

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3.1.7 Recognize that and explain how an invention can be used in different ways, such as a radio being used to get information and for entertainment.

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3.1.8 Describe how discarded products contribute to the problem of waste disposal and that recycling can help solve this problem.

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Standard 2:
Scientific Thinking

Students use a variety of skills and techniques when attempting to answer questions and solve problems. They describe their observations accurately and clearly, using numbers, words, and sketches, and are able to communicate their thinking to others.

 

Computation and Estimation

 

3.2.1 Add and subtract whole numbers* mentally, on paper, and with a calculator.
*whole numbers: 0,1,2,3, etc.

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Manipulation and Observation

 

3.2.2 Measure and mix dry and liquid materials in prescribed amounts, following reasonable safety precautions.

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3.2.3 Keep a notebook that describes observations and is understandable weeks or months later.

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3.2.4 Appropriately use simple tools, such as clamps, rulers, scissors, hand lenses, and other technology, such as calculators and computers, to help solve problems.

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3.2.5 Construct something used for performing a task out of paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal, or existing objects.

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Communication Skills

 

3.2.6 Make sketches and write descriptions to aid in explaining procedures or ideas.

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Critical Response Skills

 

3.2.7 Ask "How do you know?" in appropriate situations and attempt reasonable answers when others ask the same question.

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Standard 3:
The Physical Setting

Students observe changes of the Earth and sky. They continue to explore the concepts of energy* and motion*.

 

The Earth and the Processes That Shape It

 

3.3.5 Give examples of how change, such as weather patterns, is a continual process occurring on Earth.

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3.3.6 Describe ways human beings protect themselves from adverse weather conditions.

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3.3.7 Identify and explain some effects human activities have on weather.

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Standard 5:
The Mathematical World

Students apply mathematics in scientific contexts. Students make more precise and varied measurements when gathering data. Based upon collected data, they pose questions and solve problems. Students use numbers to record data and construct graphs and tables to communicate their findings.

 

Numbers

 

3.5.1 Select and use appropriate measuring units, such as centimeters (cm) and meters (m), grams (g) and kilograms (kg), and degrees Celsius (C).

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3.5.2 Observe that and describe how some measurements are likely to be slightly different, even if what is being measured stays the same.

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Shapes and Symbolic Relationships

 

3.5.3 Construct tables and graphs to show how values of one quantity are related to values of another.

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3.5.4 Illustrate that if 0 and 1 are located on a line, any other number can be depicted as a position on the line.

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Reasoning and Uncertainty

 

3.5.5 Explain that one way to make sense of something is to think of how it relates to something more familiar.

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Standard 6:
Common Themes

Students work with an increasing variety of systems and begin to modify parts in systems and models and notice the changes that result. They question why change occurs.

 

Systems

 

3.6.1 Investigate how and describe that when parts are put together, they can do things that they could not do by themselves.

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3.6.2 Investigate how and describe that something may not work if some of its parts are missing.

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Models and Scale

 

3.6.3 Explain how a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to learn something about the real thing.

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Constancy and Change

 

3.6.4 Take, record, and display counts and simple measurements of things over time, such as plant or student growth.

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3.6.5 Observe that and describe how some changes are very slow and some are very fast and that some of these changes may be hard to see and/or record.

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Fourth Grade

Standard 1:
The Nature of Science and Technology

Students, working collaboratively, carry out investigations. They observe and make accurate measurements, increase their use of tools and instruments, record data in journals, and communicate results through chart, graph, written, and verbal forms.

 

The Scientific View of the World

 

4.1.1 Observe and describe that scientific investigations generally work the same way in different places.

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Scientific Inquiry

 


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4.1.2 Recognize and describe that results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same. If differences occur, such as a large variation in the measurement of plant growth, propose reasons for why these differences exist, using recorded information about investigations.

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The Scientific Enterprise

 

4.1.3 Explain that clear communication is an essential part of doing science since it enables scientists to inform others about their work, to expose their ideas to evaluation by other scientists, and to allow scientists to stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world.

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4.1.4 Describe how people all over the world have taken part in scientific investigation for many centuries.

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Technology and Science

 

4.1.5 Demonstrate how measuring instruments, such as microscopes, telescopes, and cameras, can be used to gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects and events. Note that measuring instruments, such as rulers, can also be used for designing and constructing things that will work properly.

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4.1.6 Explain that even a good design may fail even though steps are taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure.

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4.1.7 Discuss and give examples of how technology, such as computers and medicines, has improved the lives of many people, although the benefits are not equally available to all.

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4.1.8 Recognize and explain that any invention may lead to other inventions.

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4.1.9 Explain how some products and materials are easier to recycle than others.

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Standard 2:
Scientific Thinking

Students use a variety of skills and techniques when attempting to answer questions and solve problems. They describe their observations* accurately and clearly, using numbers, words, and sketches, and are able to communicate their thinking to others. They compare, explain, and justify both information and numerical functions.

 

Computation and Estimation

 

4.2.1 Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities, such as length, area*, volume*, weight, or time, are reasonable.

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4.2.2 State the purpose, orally or in writing, of each step in a computation.
*observation: gain information through the use of one or more senses, such as sight, smell, etc.
*area: a measure of the size of a two-dimensional region
*volume: measure of the size of a three-dimensional object

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Manipulation and Observation

 

4.2.3 Make simple and safe electrical connections with various plugs, sockets, and terminals.

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Communication Skills

 

4.2.4 Use numerical data to describe and compare objects and events.

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4.2.5 Write descriptions of investigations, using observations and other evidence as support for explanations.

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Critical Response Skills

 

4.2.6 Support statements with facts found in print and electronic media, identify the sources used, and expect others to do the same.

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4.2.7 Identify better reasons for believing something than "Everybody knows that..." or "I just know" and discount such reasons when given by others.

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Standard 3:
The Physical Setting

Students continue to investigate changes of the Earth and sky and begin to understand the composition and size of the universe. They explore, describe, and classify materials, motion*, and energy*.

 

The Earth and the Processes That Shape It

 

4.3.2 Begin to investigate and explain that air is a substance that surrounds us, takes up space, and whose movements we feel as wind.

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4.3.4 Describe some of the effects of oceans on climate.

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4.3.8 Explain that the rotation of the Earth on its axis every 24 hours produces the night-and-day cycle.

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Standard 5:
The Mathematical World

Students apply mathematics in scientific contexts. Their geometric descriptions of objects are comprehensive. They realize that graphing demonstrates specific connections between data. They identify questions that can be answered by data distribution.

 

Numbers

 

4.5.1 Explain that the meaning of numerals in many-digit numbers depends on their positions.

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4.5.2 Explain that in some situations, "0" means none of something, but in others it may be just the label of some point on a scale.

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Shapes and Symbolic Relationships

 

4.5.3 Illustrate how length can be thought of as unit lengths joined together, area* as a collection of unit squares, and volume* as a set of unit cubes.

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4.5.4 Demonstrate how graphical displays of numbers may make it possible to spot patterns
that are not otherwise obvious, such as comparative size and trends.
*area: a measure of the size of a two-dimensional region
*volume: a measure of the size of a three-dimensional object

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Reasoning and Uncertainty

 

4.5.5 Explain how reasoning can be distorted by strong feelings.

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Standard 6:
Common Themes

Students work with an increasing variety of systems and begin to modify parts in systems and models and notice the changes that result. They question why change occurs.

 

Systems

 

4.6.1 Demonstrate that in an object consisting of many parts, the parts usually influence or interact with one another.

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4.6.2 Show that something may not work as well, or at all, if a part of it is missing, broken, worn out, mismatched, or incorrectly connected.

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Models and Scale

 

4.6.3 Recognize that and describe how changes made to a model can help predict how the real thing can be altered.

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Constancy and Change

 

4.6.4 Observe and describe that some features of things may stay the same even when other features change.

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Fifth Grade

Standard 1:
The Nature of Science and Technology

Students work collaboratively to carry out investigations. They observe and make accurate measurements, increase their use of tools and instruments, record data in journals, and communicate results through chart, graph, written, and verbal forms. Students repeat investigations, explain inconsistencies, and design projects.

 

The Scientific View of the World

 

5.1.1 Recognize and describe that results of similar scientific investigations may turn out differently because of inconsistencies in methods, materials, and observations*.
*observation: gaining information through the use of one or more of the senses, such as sight, smell, etc.

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Scientific Inquiry

 

5.1.2 Begin to evaluate the validity of claims based on the amount and quality of the evidence cited.

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The Scientific Enterprise

 

5.1.3 Explain that doing science involves many different kinds of work and engages men, women, and children of all ages and backgrounds.

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Technology and Science

 

5.1.4 Give examples of technology, such as telescopes, microscopes, and cameras, that enable scientists and others to observe things that are too small or too far away to be seen without them and to study the motion of objects that are moving very rapidly or are hardly moving.

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5.1.5 Explain that technology extends the ability of people to make positive and/or negative changes in the world.

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5.1.6 Explain how the solution to one problem, such as the use of pesticides in agriculture or the use of dumps for waste disposal, may create other problems.

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5.1.7 Give examples of materials not present in nature, such as cloth, plastic, and concrete, that have become available because of science and technology.

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Standard 2:
Scientific Thinking

Students use a variety of skills and techniques when attempting to answer questions and solve problems. Students describe their observations accurately and clearly using numbers, words, and sketches, and are able to communicate their thinking to others. They compare, contrast, explain, and justify both information and numerical functions.

 

Computation and Estimation

 

5.2.1 Multiply and divide whole numbers* mentally, on paper, and with a calculator.

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5.2.2 Use appropriate fractions and decimals when solving problems.
*whole number: 0,1,2,3, etc.

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Manipulation and Observation

 

5.2.3 Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical constructions and repairing things.

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5.2.4 Keep a notebook to record observations and be able to distinguish inferences* from actual observations.

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5.2.5 Use technology, such as calculators or spreadsheets, in determining area and volume from linear dimensions. Find area*, volume*, mass, time, and cost, and find the difference
between two quantities of anything.
*inference: a train of logic based on observations, leading to an explanation
*area: a measure of the size of a two-dimensional region
*volume: a measure of the size of a three-dimensional object

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Communication Skills

 

5.2.6 Write instructions that others can follow in carrying out a procedure.

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5.2.7 Read and follow step-by-step instructions when learning new procedures.

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Critical Response Skills

 

5.2.8 Recognize when and describe that comparisons might not be accurate because some of the conditions are not kept the same.

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Standard 3:
The Physical Setting

Students continue to investigate changes of the Earth and sky. They explore, describe, and classify materials, motion*, and energy*.

 

The Earth and the Processes That Shape It

 

5.3.4 Investigate that when liquid water disappears it turns into a gas (vapor)* mixed into the air and can reappear as a liquid* when cooled or as a solid* if cooled below the freezing point of water.

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5.3.5 Observe and explain that clouds and fog are made of tiny droplets of water.

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Matter*and Energy

 

5.3.8 Investigate, observe, and describe that heating and cooling cause changes in the properties of materials, such as water turning into steam by boiling and water turning into ice by freezing.
Notice that many kinds of changes occur faster at higher temperatures*.

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5.3.9 Investigate, observe, and describe that when warmer things are put with cooler ones, the warm ones lose heat* and the cool ones gain it until they are all at the same temperature.
Demonstrate that a warmer object can warm a cooler one by contact or at a distance.

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5.3.10 Investigate that some materials conduct* heat much better than others, and poor conductors can reduce heat loss.

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Standard 5:
The Mathematical World

Students apply mathematics in scientific contexts. They make more precise and varied measurements in gathering data. Their geometric descriptions of objects are comprehensive, and their graphing demonstrates specific connections. They identify questions that can be answered by data distribution, i.e. "Where is the middle?" and their supporting of claims or answers with reasons and analogies becomes important.

 

Numbers

 

5.5.1 Make precise and varied measurements and specify the appropriate units.

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Shapes and Symbolic Relationships

 

5.5.2 Show that mathematical statements using symbols may be true only when the symbols are replaced by certain numbers.

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5.5.3 Classify objects in terms of simple figures and solids.

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5.5.4 Compare shapes in terms of concepts, such as parallel and perpendicular, congruence* and symmetry.

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5.5.5 Demonstrate that areas of irregular shapes can be found by dividing them into squares and triangles.

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5.5.6 Describe and use drawings to show shapes and compare locations of things very different in size.
*congruence: same size and shape

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Reasoning and Uncertainty

 

5.5.7 Explain that predictions can be based on what is known about the past, assuming that conditions are similar.

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5.5.8 Realize and explain that predictions may be more accurate if they are based on large collections of objects or events.

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5.5.9 Show how spreading data out on a number line helps to see what the extremes are, where they pile up, and where the gaps are.

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5.5.10 Explain the danger in using only a portion of the data collected to describe the whole.

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Standard 6:
Common Themes

Students work with an increasing variety of systems and begin to modify parts in systems and models and notice the changes that result.

 

Systems

 

5.6.1 Recognize and describe that systems contain objects as well as processes that interact with each other.

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Models and Scale

 

5.6.2 Demonstrate how geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, and stories can be used to represent objects, events, and processes in the real world, although such representation can never be exact in every detail.

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5.6.3 Recognize and describe that almost anything has limits on how big or small it can be.

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Constancy and Change

 

5.6.4 Investigate, observe, and describe that things change in steady, repetitive, or irregular ways, such as toy cars continuing in the same direction and air temperature reaching a high or low value. Note that the best way to tell which kinds of change are happening is to make a table or a graph of measurements.

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Sixth Grade

Standard 1:
The Nature of Science and Technology

Students design investigations. They use computers and other technology to collect and analyze data; they explain findings, and can relate how they conduct investigations to how the scientific enterprise functions as a whole. Students understand that technology has allowed humans to do many things, yet it cannot always provide solutions to our needs.

 

The Scientific View of the World

 

6.1.1 Explain that some scientific knowledge, such as the length of the year, is very old and yet is still applicable today. Understand, however, that scientific knowledge is never exempt from review and criticism.

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Scientific Inquiry

 

6.1.2 Give examples of different ways scientists investigate natural phenomena and identify processes all scientists use, such as collection of relevant evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses* and explanations in order to make sense of the evidence.

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6.1.3 Recognize and explain that hypotheses are valuable, even if they turn out not to be true, if they lead to fruitful investigations.
*hypothesis: an informed guess or tentative explanation for which there is not yet much evidence The Scientific Enterprise

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6.1.4 Give examples of employers who hire scientists, such as colleges and universities, businesses and industries, hospitals and many government agencies.

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6.1.5 Identify places where scientists work including offices, classrooms, laboratories, farms, factories, and natural field settings ranging from space to the ocean floor.

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6.1.6 Explain that computers have become invaluable in science because they speed up and extend people’s ability to collect, store, compile, and analyze data, prepare research reports, and share data and ideas with investigators all over the world.

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Technology and Science

 

6.1.7 Explain that technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and other remote locations, sample collection and treatment, measurement, data collection and storage, computation, and communication of information.

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6.1.8 Describe instances showing that technology cannot always provide successful solutions for problems or fulfill every human need.

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6.1.9 Explain how technologies can influence all living things.

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Standard 2:
Scientific Thinking

Students use computers and other tools to collect information, calculate, and analyze data. They prepare tables and graphs, using these to summarize data and identify relationships.

 

Computation and Estimation

 

6.2.1 Find the mean* and median* of a set of data.

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6.2.2 Use technology, such as calculators or computer spreadsheets, in analysis of data.
*mean: the average obtained by adding the values and dividing by the number of values
*median: the value that divides a set of data, written in order of size, into two equal parts

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Manipulation and Observation

 

6.2.3 Select tools such as cameras and tape recorders for capturing information.

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6.2.4 Inspect, disassemble, and reassemble simple mechanical devices and describe what the various parts are for. Estimate what the effect of making a change in one part of a system is likely to have on the system as a whole.

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Communication Skills

 

6.2.5 Organize information in simple tables and graphs and identify relationships they reveal. Use tables and graphs as examples of evidence for explanations when writing essays or writing about lab work, fieldwork, etc.

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6.2.6 Read simple tables and graphs produced by others and describe in words what they show.

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6.2.7 Locate information in reference books, back issues of newspapers and magazines, compact disks, and computer databases.

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6.2.8 Analyze and interpret a given set of findings, demonstrating that there may be more than one good way to do so.

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Critical Response Skills

 

6.2.9 Compare consumer products, such as generic and brand-name products, and consider reasonable personal trade-offs among them on the basis of features, performance, durability, and costs.

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Standard 3:
The Physical Setting

Students collect and organize data to identify relationships between physical objects, events, and processes. They use logical reasoning to question their own ideas as new information challenges their conceptions of the natural world.

 

The Earth and the Processes That Shape It

 

6.3.5 Use models or drawings to explain that the Earth has different seasons and weather patterns because it turns daily on an axis that is tilted relative to the plane of the Earth’s yearly orbit around the sun. Know that because of this, sunlight falls more intensely on different parts of the Earth during the year (the accompanying greater length of days also has an effect) and the difference in heating produces seasons and weather patterns.

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6.3.6 Use models or drawings to explain that the phases of the moon are caused by the moon’s orbit around the Earth, once in about 28 days, changing what part of the moon is lighted by the sun and how much of that part can be seen from the Earth, both during the day and night.

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6.3.9 Illustrate that the cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns.

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6.3.11 Identify and explain the effects of oceans on climate.

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6.3.12 Describe ways human beings protect themselves from adverse weather conditions.

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6.3.13 Identify, explain, and discuss some effects human activities, such as the creation of pollution, have on weather and the atmosphere.

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Standard 5:
The Mathematical World

Students apply mathematics in scientific contexts. They use mathematical ideas, such as relations between operations, symbols, shapes in three dimensions, statistical relationships, and the use of logical reasoning, to represent and synthesize data.

 

Numbers

 

6.5.1 Demonstrate that the operations additional and subtraction are inverses and that multiplication and division are inverses of each other.

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6.5.2 Evaluate the precision and usefulness of data based on measurements taken.

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Shapes and Symbolic Relationships

 

6.5.3 Explain why shapes on a sphere* like the Earth cannot be depicted on a flat surface without some distortion.

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6.5.4 Demonstrate how graphs may help to show patterns, such as trends, varying rates of change, gaps, or clusters, which can be used to make predictions.
*sphere: a shape best described as that of a round ball, such as a baseball, that looks the same when seen from all directions

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Reasoning and Uncertainty

 

6.5.5 Explain the strengths and weaknesses of using an analogy to help describe an event, object, etc.

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6.5.6 Predict the frequency of the occurrence of future events based on data.

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6.5.7 Demonstrate how probabilities and ratios can be expressed as fractions, percentages, or odds.

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Standard 6:
Historical Perspectives

Students gain understanding of how the scientific enterprise operates through examples of historical events. Through the study of these events, they understand that new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived, that the ideas are often rejected by the scientific establishment, that the ideas sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and that the ideas grow or transform slowly through the contributions of many different investigators.

 

6.1.1 Understand and explain that from the earliest times until now, people have believed that even though countless different kinds of materials seem to exist in the world, most things can be made up of combinations of just a few basic kinds of things. Note that there has not always been agreement, however, on what those basic kinds of things are, such as the theory of long ago that the basic substances were earth, water, air, and fire. Understand that this theory seemed to explain many observations about the world, but as we know now, it fails to explain many others.

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6.1.2 Understand and describe that scientists are still working out the details of what the basic kinds of matter are on the smallest scale, and of how they combine, or can be made to combine, to make other substances.

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6.1.3 Understand and explain that the experimental and theoretical work done by French scientist Antoine Lavoisier in the decade between the American and French Revolutions contributed crucially to the modern science of chemistry.

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Standard 7:
Common Themes

Students use mental and physical models to conceptualize processes. They recognize that many systems have feedback mechanisms that limit changes.

 

Systems

 

6.7.1 Describe that a system, such as the human body, is composed of subsystems.

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Models and Scale

 

6.7.2 Use models to illustrate processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly, or are too vast to be changed deliberately, or are potentially dangerous.

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Constancy and Change

 

6.7.3 Identify examples of feedback mechanisms within systems that serve to keep changes within specified limits.

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Seventh Grade

Standard 1:
The Nature of Science and Technology

Students further their scientific understanding of the natural world through investigations, experiences, and readings. They design solutions to practical problems by using a variety of scientific methodologies.

 

The Scientific View of the World

 

7.1.1 Recognize and explain that when similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to judge whether the differences are trivial or significant, which often takes further studies to decide.

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Scientific Inquiry

 

7.1.2 Explain that what people expect to observe often affects what they actually do observe and provide an example of a solution to this problem.

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7.1.3 Explain why it is important in science to keep honest, clear, and accurate records.

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7.1.4 Describe that different explanations can be given for the same evidence, and it is not always possible to tell which one is correct without further inquiry. The Scientific Enterprise

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7.1.5 Identify some important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology that have been made by different kinds of people, in different cultures, at different times.

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7.1.6 Provide examples of people who overcame bias and/or limited opportunities in education and employment to excel in the fields of science.

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Technology and Science

 

7.1.7 Explain how engineers, architects, and others who engage in design and technology use scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.

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7.1.8 Explain that technologies often have drawbacks as well as benefits. Consider a technology, such as the use of pesticides, which help some organisms but may hurt others, either deliberately or inadvertently.

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7.1.9 Explain how societies influence what types of technology are developed and used in such fields as agriculture, manufacturing, sanitation, medicine, warfare, transportation, information processing, and communication.

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7.1.10 Identify ways that technology has strongly influenced the course of history and continues to do so.

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7.1.11 Illustrate how numbers can be represented by using sequences of only two symbols, such as 1 and 0 or on and off, and how that affects the storage of information in our society.

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Standard 2:
Scientific Thinking

Students use instruments and tools to measure, calculate, and organize data. They frame arguments in quantitative terms when possible. They question claims and understand that findings may be interpreted in more than one acceptable way.

 

Computation and Estimation

 

7.2.1 Find what percentage one number is of another and figure any percentage of any number.

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7.2.2 Use formulas to calculate the circumferences and areas* of rectangles, triangles, and circles, and the volumes* of rectangular solids.

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7.2.3 Decide what degree of precision is adequate, based on the degree of precision of the original data, and round off the result of calculator operations to significant figures* that reasonably reflect those of the inputs.

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7.2.4 Express numbers like 100, 1,000, and 1,000,000 as powers of 10.

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7.2.5 Estimate probabilities of outcomes in familiar situations, on the basis of history or the number of possible outcomes.

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Manipulation and Observation

 

7.2.6 Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct measurements of length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, or temperatures, and choose appropriate units.

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Communication Skills

 

7.2.7 Incorporate circle charts, bar and line graphs, diagrams, scatter plots*, and symbols into writing, such as lab or research reports, to serve as evidence for claims and/or conclusions.

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Critical Response Skills

 

7.2.8 Question claims based on vague attributes such as “Leading doctors say...” or on statements made by celebrities or others outside the area of their particular expertise.

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Standard 3:
The Physical Setting

Students collect and organize data to identify relationships between physical objects, events, and processes. They use logical reasoning to question their own ideas as new information challenges their conceptions of the natural world.

 

The Earth and the Processes That Shape It

 

7.3.3 Describe how climates sometimes have changed abruptly in the past as a result of changes in the Earth's crust, such as volcanic eruptions or impacts of huge rocks from space.

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7.3.4 Explain how heat flow and movement of material within the Earth causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and creates mountains and ocean basins.

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7.3.5 Recognize and explain that heat energy carried by ocean currents has a strong influence on climate around the world.

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Matter* and Energy*

 

7.3.11 Explain that the sun loses energy by emitting light. Note that only a tiny fraction of that light reaches the earth. Understand that the sun’s energy arrives as light with a wide range of wavelengths*, consisting of visible light, infrared*, and ultraviolet radiation*.

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Standard 5:
The Mathematical World

Students apply mathematics in scientific contexts. They use mathematical ideas, such as relations between operations, symbols, statistical relationships, and the use of logical reasoning, in the representation and synthesis of data. Numbers

 

7.5.1 Demonstrate how a number line can be extended on the other side of zero to represent negative numbers and give examples of instances where this is useful.

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Shapes and Symbolic Relationships

 

7.5.2 Illustrate how lines can be parallel, perpendicular, or oblique.

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7.5.3 Demonstrate how the scale chosen for a graph or drawing determines its interpretation.

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Reasoning and Uncertainty

 

7.5.4 Describe that the larger the sample, the more accurately it represents the whole. Understand, however, that any sample can be poorly chosen and this will make it unrepresentative of the whole.

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Standard 6:
Historical Perspectives

Students gain understanding of how the scientific enterprise operates through examples of historical events. Through the study of these events, they understand that new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived, that the ideas are often rejected by the scientific establishment, that the ideas sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and that the ideas grow or transform slowly through the contributions of many different investigators.

 

7.6.1 Understand and explain that throughout history, people have created explanations for disease. Note that some held that disease had spiritual causes, but that the most persistent biological theory over the centuries was that illness resulted from an imbalance in the body fluids. Realize that the introduction of germ theory by Louis Pasteur and others in the 19 th century led to the modern understanding of how many diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, and parasites.

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7.6.2 Understand and explain that Louis Pasteur wanted to find out what caused milk and wine to spoil. Note that he demonstrated that spoilage and fermentation* occur when microorganisms enter from the air, multiply rapidly, and produce waste products, with some desirable results, such as carbon dioxide in bread dough, and some undesirable, such as acetic acid in wine. Understand that after showing that spoilage could be avoided by keeping germs out or by destroying them with heat, Pasteur investigated animal diseases and showed that microorganisms were involved in many of them. Also note that other investigators later showed that specific kinds of germs caused specific diseases.

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7.6.3 Understand and explain that Louis Pasteur found that infection by disease organisms (germs) caused the body to build up an immunity against subsequent infection by the same organisms. Realize that Pasteur then demonstrated more widely what Edward Jenner had shown for smallpox without understanding the underlying mechanism: that it was possible to produce vaccines that would induce the body to build immunity to a disease without actually causing the disease itself.

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7.6.4 Understand and describe that changes in health practices have resulted from the acceptance of the germ theory of disease. Realize that before germ theory, illness was treated by appeals to supernatural powers or by trying to adjust body fluids through induced vomiting, bleeding, or purging. Note that the modern approach emphasizes sanitation, the safe handling of food and water, the pasteurization of milk, quarantine, and aseptic surgical techniques to keep germs out of the body; vaccinations to strengthen the body’s immune system against subsequent infection by the same kind of microorganisms; and antibiotics and other chemicals and processes to destroy microorganisms.

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Standard 7:
Common Themes

Students analyze the relationships within systems. They investigate how different models can represent the same data, rates of change, cyclic changes, and changes that counterbalance one another.

 

Systems

 

7.7.1 Explain that the output from one part of a system, which can include material, energy, or information, can become the input to other parts and this feedback can serve to control what goes on in the system as a whole.

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Models and Scale

 

7.7.2 Use different models to represent the same thing, noting that the kind of model and its complexity should depend on its purpose.

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Constancy and Change

 

7.7.3 Describe how physical and biological systems tend to change until they reach equilibrium and remain that way unless their surroundings change.

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7.7.4 Use symbolic equations to show how the quantity of something changes over time or in response to changes in other quantities.

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Eighth Grade

Standard 1:
The Nature of Science and Technology

Students design and carry out increasingly sophisticated investigations. They understand the reason for isolating and controlling variables in an investigation. They realize that scientific knowledge is subject to change as new evidence arises. They examine issues in the design and use of technology, including constraints, safeguards, and trades offs.

 

The Scientific View of the World

 

8.1.1 Recognize that and describe how scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory* leads to looking at old observations in a new way.

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8.1.2 Recognize and explain that some matters cannot be examined usefully in a scientific way. *theory: an explanation supported by substantial evidence

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Scientific Inquiry

 

8.1.3 Recognize and describe that if more than one variable changes at the same time in an experiment, the outcome of the experiment may not be attributable to any one of the variables.

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The Scientific Enterprise

 

8.1.4 Explain why accurate record keeping, openness, and replication are essential for maintaining an investigator’s credibility with other scientists and society.

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8.1.5 Explain why research involving human subjects requires potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and that they have the right to refuse to participate.

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Technology and Science

 

8.1.6 Identify the constraints that must be taken into account as a new design is developed, such as gravity and the properties of the materials to be used.

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8.1.7 Explain why technology issues are rarely simple and one-sided because contending groups may have different values and priorities.

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8.1.8 Explain that humans help shape the future by generating knowledge, developing new technologies, and communicating ideas to others.

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Standard 2:
Scientific Thinking

Students use computers to organize and compare information. They perform calculations and determine the appropriate units for the answers. They weigh the evidence for or against an argument, as well as the logic of the conclusions.

 

Computation and Estimation

 

8.2.1 Estimate distances and travel times from maps and the actual size of objects from scale drawings.

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8.2.2 Determine in what unit, such as seconds, meters, grams, etc., an answer should be expressed based on the units of the inputs to the calculation.

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Manipulation and Observation

 

8.2.3 Use proportional reasoning to solve problems.

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8.2.4 Use technological devices, such as calculators and computers, to perform calculations.

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8.2.5 Use computers to store and retrieve information in topical, alphabetical, numerical, and key-word files and create simple files of students’ own devising.

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Communication

 

8.2.6 Write clear, step-by-step instructions (procedural summaries) for conducting investigations, operating something, or following a procedure.

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8.2.7 Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions.

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8.2.8 Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in, for example, oral and written presentations about lab or fieldwork.

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Critical Response Skills

 

8.2.9 Explain why arguments are invalid if based on very small samples of data, biased samples, or samples for which there was no control sample.

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8.2.10 Identify and criticize the reasoning in arguments in which fact and opinion are intermingled or the conclusions do not follow logically from the evidence given, an analogy is not apt, no mention is made of whether the control group is very much like the experimental group, or all members of a group are implied to have nearly identical characteristics that differ from those of other groups.

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Standard 3:
The Physical Setting

Students collect and organize data to identify relationships between physical objects, events, and processes. They use logical reasoning to question their own ideas as new information challenges their conceptions of the natural world.

 

The Universe

 

8.3.1 Explain that large numbers of chunks of rock orbit the sun and some of this rock interacts with the Earth.

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Matter* and Energy*

 

8.3.10 Explain that increased temperature means that atoms have a greater average energy* of motion and that most gases expand when heated.

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8.3.13 Explain that energy cannot be created or destroyed but only changed from one form into another.

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8.3.14 Describe how heat* can be transferred through materials by the collision of atoms, or across space by radiation*, or if the material is fluid, by convection* currents that are set up in it that aid the transfer of heat.

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8.3.15 Identify different forms of energy that exist in nature.

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Standard 5:
The Mathematical World

Students apply mathematics in scientific contexts. Students use mathematical ideas, such as symbols, geometrical relationships, statistical relationships, and the use of key words and rules in logical reasoning, in the representation and synthesis of data.

 

Numbers

 

8.5.1 Understand and explain that a number must be written with an appropriate number of significant figures (determined by the measurements from which the number is derived).

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Shapes and Symbolic Relationships

 

8.5.2 Show that an equation containing a variable may be true for just one value of the variable.

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8.5.3 Demonstrate that mathematical statements can be used to describe how one quantity changes when another changes.

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8.5.4 Illustrate how graphs can show a variety of possible relationships between two variables.

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8.5.5 Illustrate that it takes two numbers to locate a point on a map or any other two-dimensional surface.

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Reasoning and Uncertainty

 

8.5.6 Explain that a single example can never prove that something is always true, but it could prove that something is not always true.

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8.5.7 Recognize and describe the danger of making over-generalizations when inventing a general rule based on a few observations.

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8.5.8 Explain how estimates can be based on data from similar conditions in the past or on the assumption that all the possibilities are known.

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8.5.9 Compare the mean*, median*, and mode* of a data set.

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8.5.10 Explain how the comparison of data from two groups involves comparing both their middles and the spreads.

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Standard 6:
Historical Perspectives

Students gain understanding of how the scientific enterprise operates through examples of historical events. Through the study of these events, they understand that new ideas are limited by the context in which they are conceived, that the ideas are often rejected by the scientific establishment, that the ideas sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and that they grow or transform slowly through the contributions of many different investigators.

 

8.6.1 Understand and explain that Antoine Lavoisier’s work was based on the idea that when materials react with each other, many changes can take place, but that in every case the total amount of matter afterward is the same as before. Note that Lavoisier successfully tested the concept of conservation of matter by conducting a series of experiments in which he carefully measured the masses of all the substances involved in various chemical reactions, including the gases used and those given off.

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8.6.2 Understand and describe that the accidental discovery that minerals containing uranium darken photographic film, as light does, led to the discovery of radioactivity.

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8.6.3 Understand that and describe how in their laboratory in France, Marie Curie and her husband, Pierre Curie, isolated two new elements that were the source of most of the radioactivity of the uranium ore. Note that they named one radium because it gave off powerful, invisible rays, and the other polonium in honor of Madame Curie’s country of birth, Poland. Also note that Marie Curie was the first scientist ever to win the Nobel prize in two different fields, in physics, shared with her husband, and later in chemistry.

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8.6.4 Describe how the discovery of radioactivity as a source of the Earth’s heat energy made it possible to understand how the Earth can be several billion years old and still have a hot interior.

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Standard 7:
Common Themes

Students analyze the parts and interactions of systems to understand internal and external relationships. They investigate rates of change, cyclic changes, and changes that counterbalance one another. They use mental and physical models to reflect upon and interpret the limitations of such models.

 

Systems

 

8.7.1 Explain that a system usually has some properties that are different from those of its parts but appear because of the interaction of those parts.

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8.7.2 Explain that even in some very simple systems, it may not always be possible to predict accurately the result of changing some part or connection.

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Models and Scale

 

8.7.3 Use technology to assist in graphing and with simulations that compute and display results of changing factors in models.

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8.7.4 Explain that as the complexity of any system increases, gaining an understanding of it depends on summaries, such as averages and ranges*, and on descriptions of typical examples of that system.

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Constancy and Change

 

8.7.5 Observe and describe that a system may stay the same because nothing is happening or because things are happening that counteract one another.

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8.7.6 Recognize that and describe how symmetry may determine properties of many objects, such as molecules, crystals, organisms, and designed structures.

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8.7.7 Illustrate how things such as seasons or body temperature occur in cycles.

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High School

Earth and Space Science I

Standard 1:
Principles of Earth and Space Science

Students investigate, through laboratory and fieldwork, the universe, the Earth, and the processes that shape the Earth. They understand that the Earth operates as a collection of interconnected systems that may be changing or may be in equilibrium. Students connect the concepts of energy, matter, conservation, and gravitation to the Earth, solar system, and universe. Students utilize knowledge of the materials and processes of the Earth, planets, and stars in the context of the scales of time and size.

 

Solar System.

 

ES.1.11 Examine the structure, composition, and function of the Earth’s atmosphere. Include the role of living organisms in the cycling of atmospheric gases.

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ES.1.12 Describe the role of photosynthetic plants in changing the Earth’s atmosphere.

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ES.1.13 Explain the importance of heat transfer between and within the atmosphere, land masses, and oceans.

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hands-on
online

ES.1.14 Understand and explain the role of differential heating and the role of the Earth’s rotation on the movement of air around the planet.

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hands-on
online

ES.1.15 Understand and describe the origin, life cycle, behavior, and prediction of weather systems.

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hands-on
online

ES.1.16 Investigate the causes of severe weather and propose appropriate safety measures that can be taken in the event of severe weather.

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hands-on
online

ES.1.17 Describe the development and dynamics of climatic changes over time, such as the cycles of glaciation.

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hands-on
online

ES.1.18 Demonstrate the possible effects of atmospheric changes brought on by things such as acid rain, smoke, volcanic dust, greenhouse gases, and ozone depletion.

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hands-on
online

ES.1.19 Identify and discuss the effects of gravity on the waters of the Earth. Include both the flow of streams and the movement of tides.

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hands-on
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ES.1.20 Describe the relationship among ground water, surface water, and glacial systems.

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ES.1.21 Identify the various processes that are involved in the water cycle.

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ES.1.22 Compare the properties of rocks and minerals and their uses.

video
hands-on
online


Updated September 2001