New York Learning Standards for Science

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which New York Learning Standards for Science you can cover using PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE.

For additional New York Learning Standards for Science you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

Elementary,   Intermediate,   Commencement

Elementary

Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry and Design

1. The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process.

 

Students:

 

ask "why" questions in attempts to seek greater understanding concerning objects and events they have observed and heard about.

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online

question the explanations they hear from others and read about, seeking clarification and comparing them with their own observations and understandings.

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online

develop relationships among observations to construct descriptions of objects and events and to form their own tentative explanations of what they have observed.

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hands-on
online

2. Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.

 

Students:

 

develop written plans for exploring phenomena or for evaluating explanations guided by questions or proposed explanations they have helped formulate.

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hands-on
online

share their research plans with others and revise them based on their suggestions.

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online

carry out their plans for exploring phenomena through direct observation and through the use of simple instruments that permit measurements of quantities (e.g., length, mass, volume, temperature, and time).

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hands-on
online


Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

1. Engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling and optimization finding the best solution within given constraints which is used to develop technological solutions to problems within given constraints.

 

Students engage in the following steps in a design process:

 

describe objects, imaginary or real, that might be modeled or made differently and suggest ways in which the objects can be changed, fixed, or improved.

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hands-on
online

investigate prior solutions and ideas from books, magazines, family, friends, neighbors, and community members.

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generate ideas for possible solutions, individually and through group activity; apply age-appropriate mathematics and science skills; evaluate the ideas and determine the best solution; and explain reasons for the choices.

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plan and build, under supervision, a model of the solution using familiar materials, processes, and hand tools.

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discuss how best to test the solution; perform the test under teacher supervision; record and portray results through numerical and graphic means; discuss orally why things worked or didnít work; and summarize results in writing, suggesting ways to make the solution better.

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hands-on
online


Standard 2: Information Systems

1. Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information and as a tool to enhance learning.

 

Students:

 

use a variety of equipment and software packages to enter, process, display, and communicate information in different forms using text, tables, pictures, and sound.

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hands-on
online

telecommunicate a message to a distant location with teacher help.

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hands-on
online

access needed information from printed media, electronic data bases, and community resources.

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hands-on
online

2. Knowledge of the impacts and limitations of information systems is essential to its effective and ethical use.

 

Students:

 

describe the uses of information systems in homes, schools, and businesses.

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hands-on
online

understand that computers are used to store personal information.

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hands-on
online

demonstrate ability to evaluate information.

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hands-on
online

Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using appropriate

 

3. Information technology can have positive and negative impacts on society, depending upon how it is used.

 

describe the uses of information systems in homes and schools.

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online

demonstrate ability to evaluate information critically.

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hands-on
online


Standard 4: Science
Physical Setting

1. The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.

 

Students:

 

describe patterns of daily, monthly, and seasonal changes in their environment.

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hands-on
online

2. Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

 

Students:

 

describe the relationships among air, water, and land on Earth.

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hands-on
online

3. Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

 

Students:

 

observe and describe properties of materials using appropriate tools.

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hands-on
online

describe chemical and physical changes, including changes in states of matter.

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hands-on
online

4. Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.

 

Students:

 

describe a variety of forms of energy (e.g., heat, chemical, light) and the changes that occur in objects when they interact with those forms of energy.

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online

observe the way one form of energy can be transformed into another form of energy present in common situations (e.g., mechanical to heat energy, mechanical to electrical energy, chemical to heat energy).

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hands-on
online

5. Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.

 

describe the effects of common forces (pushes and pulls) on objects, such as those caused by gravity, magnetism, and mechanical forces.

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online

describe how forces can operate across distances.

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online


Standard 6: Interconnectedness
Common Themes

1. Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions.

 

Students:

 

observe and describe interactions among components of simple systems.

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online

identify common things that can be considered to be systems (e.g., a plant population, a subway system, human beings).

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online

2. Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design.

 

Students:

 

analyze, construct, and operate models in order to discover attributes of the real thing.

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discover that a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to study the real thing.

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online

use different types of models, such as graphs, sketches, diagrams, and maps, to represent various aspects of the real world.

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hands-on
online


Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning.

3. The grouping of magnitudes of size, time, frequency, and pressures or other units of measurement into a series of relative order provides a useful way to deal with the immense range and the changes in scale that affect the behavior and design of systems.

 

Students:

 

provide examples of natural and manufactured things that belong to the same category yet have very different sizes, weights, ages, speeds, and other measurements.

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hands-on
online

identify the biggest and the smallest values as well as the average value of a system when given information about its characteristics and behavior.

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hands-on
online

4. Equilibrium is a state of stability due either to a lack of changes (static equilibrium) or a balance between opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium).

 

Students:

 

cite examples of systems in which some features stay the same while other features change.

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distinguish between reasons for stability-from lack of changes to changes that counterbalance one another to changes within cycles.

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online

5. Identifying patterns of change is necessary for making predictions about future behavior and conditions.

 

Students:

 

use simple instruments to measure such quantities as distance, size, and weight and look for patterns in the data.

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online

analyze data by making tables and graphs and looking for patterns of change.

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online

6. In order to arrive at the best solution that meets criteria within constraints, it is often necessary to make trade-offs.

 

Students:

 

determine the criteria and constraints of a simple decision making problem.

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hands-on
online

use simple quantitative methods, such as ratios, to compare costs to benefits of a decision problem.

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hands-on
online


Standard 7: Interdisciplinary Problem Solving
Common Themes

1. The knowledge and skills of mathematics, science, and technology are used together to make informed decisions and solve problems, especially those relating to issues of science/technology/society, consumer decision making, design, and inquiry into phenomena.

 

Students:

 

analyze science/technology/society problems and issues that affect their home, school, or community, and carry out a remedial course of action.

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hands-on
online

make informed consumer decisions by applying knowledge about the attributes of particular products and making cost/benefit tradeoffs to arrive at an optimal choice.

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hands-on
online

design solutions to problems involving a familiar and real context, investigate related science concepts to inform the solution, and use mathematics to model, quantify, measure, and compute.

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online

observe phenomena and evaluate them scientifically and mathematically by conducting a fair test of the effect of variables and using mathematical knowledge and technological tools to collect, analyze, and present data and conclusions.

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hands-on
online

2. Solving interdisciplinary problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and analyzing ideas; realizing ideas; making connections among the common themes of mathematics, science, and technology; and presenting results.

 

Students participate in an extended, culminating mathematics, science, and technology project. The project would require students to:

 

work effectively

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hands-on
online

gather and process information

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hands-on
online

generate and analyze ideas

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hands-on
online

observe common themes

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hands-on
online

realize ideas

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hands-on
online

present results

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online

Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life problems and make informed decisions.

 

Skills and Strategies for Interdisciplinary Problem Solving

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online

Working Effectively: Contributing to the work of a brainstorming group, laboratory partnership, cooperative learning group, or project team; planning procedures; identify and managing responsibilities of team members; and staying on task, whether working alone or as part of a group.

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hands-on
online

Gathering and Processing Information: Accessing information from printed media, electronic data bases, and community resources and using the information to develop a definition of the problem and to research possible solutions.

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hands-on
online

Generating and Analyzing Ideas: Developing ideas for proposed solutions, investigating ideas, collecting data, and showing relationships and patterns in the data.

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hands-on
online

Common Themes: Observing examples of common unifying themes, applying them to the problem, and using them to better understand the dimensions of the problem.

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online

Realizing Ideas: Constructing components or models, arriving at a solution, and evaluating the result.

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online

Presenting Results: Using a variety of media to present the solution and to communicate the results.

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hands-on
online


Intermediate

Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry and Design

1. The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process.

 

Students:

 

formulate questions independently with the aid of references appropriate for guiding the search for explanations of everyday observations.

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hands-on
online

construct explanations independently for natural phenomena, especially by proposing preliminary visual models of phenomena.

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hands-on
online

represent, present, and defend their proposed explanations of everyday observations so that they can be understood and assessed by others.

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online

seek to clarify, to assess critically, and to reconcile with their own thinking the ideas presented by others, including peers, teachers, authors, and scientists.

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hands-on
online

2. Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.

 

Students:

 

use conventional techniques and those of their own design to make further observations and refine their explanations, guided by a need for more information.

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hands-on
online

develop, present, and defend formal research proposals for testing their own explanations of common phenomena, including ways of obtaining needed observations and ways of conducting simple controlled experiments.

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hands-on
online

carry out their research proposals, recording observations and measurements (e.g., lab notes, audio tape, computer disk, video tape) to help assess the explanation.

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hands-on
online


Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

1. Engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling and optimization finding the best solution within given constraints which is used to develop technological solutions to problems within given constraints.

 

Students engage in the following steps in a design process:

 

identify needs and opportunities for technical solutions from an investigation of situations of general or social interest.

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hands-on
online

locate and utilize a range of printed, electronic, and human information resources to obtain ideas.

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online

consider constraints and generate several ideas for alternative solutions, using group and individual ideation techniques (group discussion, brainstorming, forced connections, role play); defer judgment until a number of ideas have been generated; evaluate (critique) ideas; and explain why the chosen solution is optimal.

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develop plans, including drawings with measurements and details of construction, and construct a model of the solution, exhibiting a degree of craftsmanship.

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in a group setting, test their solution against design specifications, present and evaluate results, describe how the solution might have been modified for different or better results, and discuss tradeoffs that might have to be made.

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hands-on
online


Standard 2: Information Systems

1. Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information and as a tool to enhance learning.

 

Students:

 

use a range of equipment and software to integrate several forms of information in order to create good quality audio, video, graphic, and text-based presentations.

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hands-on
online

use spreadsheets and data-base software to collect, process, display, and analyze information. Students access needed information from electronic data bases and on-line telecommunication services.

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online

systematically obtain accurate and relevant information pertaining to a particular topic from a range of sources, including local and national media, libraries, museums, governmental agencies, industries, and individuals.

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online

collect data from probes to measure events and phenomena.

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online

use simple modeling programs to make predictions.

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hands-on
online

2. Knowledge of the impacts and limitations of information systems is essential to its effective and ethical use.

 

Students:

 

understand the need to question the accuracy of information displayed on a computer because the results produced by a computer may be affected by incorrect data entry.

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online

identify advantages and limitations of data-handling programs and graphics programs.

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online

understand why electronically stored personal information has greater potential for misuse than records kept in conventional form.

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hands-on
online

3. Information technology can have positive and negative impacts on society, depending upon how it is used.

 

Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using appropriate

 

use graphical, statistical, and presentation software to presents project to fellow classmates.

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hands-on
online

describe applications of information technology in mathematics, science, and other technologies that address needs and solve problems in the community.

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hands-on
online

explain the impact of the use and abuse of electronically generated information on individuals and families.

video
hands-on
online


Standard 4: Science
Physical Setting

1. The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.

 

Students:

 

explain daily, monthly, and seasonal changes on earth.

video
hands-on
online

3. Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

 

Students:

 

observe and describe properties of materials, such as density, conductivity, and solubility.

video
hands-on
online

distinguish between chemical and physical changes.

video
hands-on
online

develop their own mental models to explain common chemical reactions and changes in states of matter.

video
hands-on
online

4. Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.

 

Students:

 

describe the sources and identify the transformations of energy observed in everyday life.

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hands-on
online

observe and describe heating and cooling events.

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hands-on
online

observe and describe energy changes as related to chemical reactions.

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hands-on
online

observe and describe the properties of sound, light, magnetism, and electricity.

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hands-on
online

describe situations that support the principle of conservation of energy.

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hands-on
online

5. Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.

 

Students:

 

describe different patterns of motion of objects.

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hands-on
online

observe, describe, and compare effects of forces (gravity, electric current, and magnetism) on the motion of objects.

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hands-on
online


Standard 6: Interconnectedness
Common Themes

1. Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions.

 

Students:

 

describe the differences between dynamic systems and organizational systems.

video
hands-on
online

describe the differences and similarities between engineering systems, natural systems, and social systems.

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hands-on
online

describe the differences between open- and closed-loop systems.

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hands-on
online

describe how the output from one part of a system (which can include material, energy, or information) can become the input to other parts.

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hands-on
online

2. Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design.

 

Students:

 

select an appropriate model to begin the search for answers or solutions to a question or problem.

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hands-on
online

use models to study processes that cannot be studied directly (e.g., when the real process is too slow, too fast, or too dangerous for direct observation).

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hands-on
online

demonstrate the effectiveness of different models to represent the same thing and the same model to represent different things.

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hands-on
online


Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning.

3. The grouping of magnitudes of size, time, frequency, and pressures or other units of measurement into a series of relative order provides a useful way to deal with the immense range and the changes in scale that affect the behavior and design of systems.

 

Students:

 

cite examples of how different aspects of natural and designed systems change at different rates with changes in scale.

video
hands-on
online

use powers of ten notation to represent very small and very large numbers.

video
hands-on
online

4. Equilibrium is a state of stability due either to a lack of changes (static equilibrium) or a balance between opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium).

 

Students:

 

describe how feedback mechanisms are used in both designed and natural systems to keep changes within desired limits.

video
hands-on
online

describe changes within equilibrium cycles in terms of frequency or cycle length and determine the highest and lowest values and when they occur.

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hands-on
online

5. Identifying patterns of change is necessary for making predictions about future behavior and conditions.

 

Students:

 

use simple linear equations to represent how a parameter changes with time.

video
hands-on
online

observe patterns of change in trends or cycles and make predictions on what might happen in the future.

video
hands-on
online

6. In order to arrive at the best solution that meets criteria within constraints, it is often necessary to make trade-offs.

 

Students:

 

determine the criteria and constraints and make trade-offs to determine the best decision.

video
hands-on
online

use graphs of information for a decision making problem to determine the optimum solution.

video
hands-on
online


Standard 7: Interdisciplinary Problem Solving

1. The knowledge and skills of mathematics, science, and technology are used together to make informed decisions and solve problems, especially those relating to issues of science/technology/society, consumer decision making, design, and inquiry into phenomena.

 

Students:

 

analyze science/technology/society problems and issues at the local level and plan and carry out a remedial course of action.

video
hands-on
online

make informed consumer decisions by seeking answers to appropriate questions about products, services, and systems; determining the cost/benefit and risk/benefit tradeoffs; and applying this knowledge to a potential purchase.

video
hands-on
online

design solutions to real-world problems of general social interest related to home, school, or community using scientific experimentation to inform the solution and applying mathematical concepts and reasoning to assist in developing a solution.

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hands-on
online

describe and explain phenomena by designing and conducting investigations involving systematic observations, accurate measurements, and the identification and control of variables; by inquiring into relevant mathematical ideas; and by using mathematical and technological tools and procedures to assist in the investigation.

video
hands-on
online

2. Solving interdisciplinary problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and analyzing ideas; realizing ideas; making connections among the common themes of mathematics, science, and technology; and presenting results.

 

Students participate in an extended, culminating mathematics, science, and technology project. The project would require students to:

 

work effectively

video
hands-on
online

gather and process information

video
hands-on
online

generate and analyze ideas

video
hands-on
online

observe common themes

video
hands-on
online

realize ideas

video
hands-on
online

present results

video
hands-on
online

Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life problems and make informed decisions.

 

Skills and Strategies for Interdisciplinary Problem Solving

video
hands-on
online

Working Effectively: Contributing to the work of a brainstorming group, laboratory partnership, cooperative learning group, or project team; planning procedures; identify and managing responsibilities of team members; and staying on task, whether working alone or as part of a group.

video
hands-on
online

Gathering and Processing Information: Accessing information from printed media, electronic data bases, and community resources and using the information to develop a definition of the problem and to research possible solutions.

video
hands-on
online

Generating and Analyzing Ideas: Developing ideas for proposed solutions, investigating ideas, collecting data, and showing relationships and patterns in the data.

video
hands-on
online

Common Themes: Observing examples of common unifying themes, applying them to the problem, and using them to better understand the dimensions of the problem.

video
hands-on
online

Realizing Ideas: Constructing components or models, arriving at a solution, and evaluating the result.

video
hands-on
online

Presenting Results: Using a variety of media to present the solution and to communicate the results.

video
hands-on
online


Commencement

Standard 1: Analysis, Inquiry and Design

1. The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process.

 

Students:

 

elaborate on basic scientific and personal explanations of natural phenomena, and develop extended visual models and mathematical formulations to represent their thinking.

video
hands-on
online

hone ideas through reasoning, library research, and discussion with others, including experts.

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hands-on
online

work toward reconciling competing explanations; clarifying points of agreement and disagreement.

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hands-on
online

coordinate explanations at different levels of scale, points of focus, and degrees of complexity and specificity and recognize the need for such alternative representations of the natural world.

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hands-on
online

2. Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.

 

Students:

 

devise ways of making observations to test proposed explanations.

video
hands-on
online

refine their research ideas through library investigations, including electronic information retrieval and reviews of the literature, and through peer feedback obtained from review and discussion.

video
hands-on
online

develop and present proposals including formal hypotheses to test their explanations, i.e., they predict what should be observed under specified conditions if the explanation is true.

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hands-on
online

carry out their research plan for testing explanations, including selecting and developing techniques, acquiring and building apparatus, and recording observations as necessary.

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hands-on
online


Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

1. Engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling and optimization finding the best solution within given constraints which is used to develop technological solutions to problems within given constraints.

 

Students engage in the following steps in a design process:

 

initiate and carry out a thorough investigation of an unfamiliar situation and identify needs and opportunities for technological invention or innovation.

video
hands-on
online

identify, locate, and use a wide range of information resources, and document through notes and sketches how findings relate to the problem.

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hands-on
online

generate creative solutions, break ideas into significant functional elements, and explore possible refinements; predict possible outcomes using mathematical and functional modeling techniques; choose the optimal solution to the problem, clearly documenting ideas against design criteria and constraints; and explain how human understands, economics, ergonomics, and environmental considerations have influenced the solution.

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hands-on
online

develop work schedules and working plans which include optimal use and cost of materials, processes, time, and expertise; construct a model of the solution, incorporating developmental modifications while working to a high degree of quality (craftsmanship).

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hands-on
online

devise a test of the solution according to the design criteria and perform the test; record, portray, and logically evaluate performance test results through quantitative, graphic, and verbal means. Use a variety of creative verbal and graphic techniques effectively and persuasively to present conclusions, predict impacts and new problems, and suggest and pursue modifications.

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hands-on
online


Standard 2: Information Systems

1. Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information and as a tool to enhance learning.

 

Students:

 

understand and use the more advanced features of word processing, spreadsheets, and data-base software.

video
hands-on
online

prepare multimedia presentations demonstrating a clear sense of audience and purpose.

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hands-on
online

access, select, collate, and analyze information obtained from a wide range of sources such as research data bases, foundations, organizations, national libraries, and electronic communication networks, including the Internet.

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hands-on
online

students receive news reports from abroad and work in groups to produce newspapers reflecting the perspectives of different countries.

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hands-on
online

utilize electronic networks to share information.

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hands-on
online

model solutions to a range of problems in mathematics, science, and technology using computer simulation software.

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hands-on
online

2. Knowledge of the impacts and limitations of information systems is essential to its effective and ethical use.

 

Students:

 

explain the impact of the use and abuse of electronically generated information on individuals and families.

video
hands-on
online

evaluate software packages relative to their suitability to a particular application and their ease of use.

video
hands-on
online

discuss the ethical and social issues raised by the use and abuse of information systems.

video
hands-on
online

3. Information technology can have positive and negative impacts on society, depending upon how it is used.

 

Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information using appropriate

 

work with a virtual community to conduct a project or solve a problem using the network.

video
hands-on
online

discuss how applications of information technology can address some major global problems and issues.

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hands-on
online

discuss the environmental, ethical, moral, and social issues raised by the use and abuse of information technology.

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hands-on
online


Standard 4: Science
Physical Setting

1. The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.

 

Students:

 

explain complex phenomena, such as tides, variations in day length, solar insolation, apparent motion of the planets, and annual traverse of the constellations.

video
hands-on
online

describe current theories about the origin of the universe and solar system.

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hands-on
online

3. Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

 

Students:

 

explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.

video
hands-on
online

use atomic and molecular models to explain common chemical reactions.

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hands-on
online

apply the principle of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.

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hands-on
online

use kinetic molecular theory to explain rates of reactions and the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a substance.

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hands-on
online

4. Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.

 

Students:

 

observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.

video
hands-on
online

explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory.

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hands-on
online

explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g., molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.

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hands-on
online

explain the uses and hazards of radioactivity.

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hands-on
online

5. Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.

 

Students:

 

explain and predict different patterns of motion of objects (e.g., linear and angular motion, velocity and acceleration, momentum and inertia).

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hands-on
online

explain chemical bonding in terms of the motion of electrons.

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hands-on
online

compare energy relationships within an atomís nucleus to those outside the nucleus.

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hands-on
online


Standard 6: Interconnectedness
Common Themes

1. Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions.

 

Students:

 

explain how positive feedback and negative feedback have opposite effects on system outputs.

video
hands-on
online

use an input-process-output-feedback diagram to model and compare the behavior of natural and engineered systems.

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hands-on
online

define boundary conditions when doing systems analysis to determine what influences a system and how it behaves.

video
hands-on
online

2. Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design.

 

Students:

 

revise a model to create a more complete or improved representation of the system.

video
hands-on
online

collect information about the behavior of a system and use modeling tools to represent the operation of the system.

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hands-on
online

find and use mathematical models that behave in the same manner as the processes under investigation.

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hands-on
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compare predictions to actual observations using test models.

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Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning.

3. The grouping of magnitudes of size, time, frequency, and pressures or other units of measurement into a series of relative order provides a useful way to deal with the immense range and the changes in scale that affect the behavior and design of systems.

 

Students:

 

describe the effects of changes in scale on the functioning of physical, biological, or designed systems.

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extend their use of powers of ten notation to understanding the exponential function and performing operations with exponential factors.

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4. Equilibrium is a state of stability due either to a lack of changes (static equilibrium) or a balance between opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium).

 

Students:

 

describe specific instances of how disturbances might affect a systemís equilibrium, from small disturbances that do not upset the equilibrium to larger disturbances (threshold level) that cause the system to become unstable.

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cite specific examples of how dynamic equilibrium is achieved by equality of change in opposing directions.

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5. Identifying patterns of change is necessary for making predictions about future behavior and conditions.

 

Students:

 

use sophisticated mathematical models, such as graphs and equations of various algebraic or trigonometric functions.

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search for multiple trends when analyzing data for patterns, and identify data that do not fit the trends.

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6. In order to arrive at the best solution that meets criteria within constraints, it is often necessary to make trade-offs.

 

Students:

 

use optimization techniques, such as linear programming, to determine optimum solutions to problems that can be solved using quantitative methods.

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analyze subjective decision making problems to explain the trade-offs that can be made to arrive at the best solution.

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Standard 7: Interdisciplinary Problem Solving

1. The knowledge and skills of mathematics, science, and technology are used together to make informed decisions and solve problems, especially those relating to issues of science/technology/society, consumer decision making, design, and inquiry into phenomena. Students:

 

analyze science/technology/society problems and issues on a community, national, or global scale and plan and carry out a remedial course of action.

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analyze and quantify consumer product data, understand environmental and economic impacts, develop a method for judging the value and efficacy of competing products, and discuss cost/benefit and risk/benefit tradeoffs made in arriving at the optimal choice.

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design solutions to real-world problems on a community, national, or global scale using a technological design process that integrates scientific investigation and rigorous mathematical analysis of the problem and of the solution.

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explain and evaluate phenomena mathematically and scientifically by formulating a testable hypothesis, demonstrating the logical connections between the scientific concepts guiding the hypothesis and the design of an experiment, applying and inquiring into the mathematical ideas relating to investigation of phenomena, and using (and if needed, designing) technological tools and procedures to assist in the investigation and in the communication of results.

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2. Solving interdisciplinary problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and analyzing ideas; realizing ideas; making connections among the common themes of mathematics, science, and technology; and presenting results.

 

Students participate in an extended, culminating mathematics, science, and technology project. The project would require students to:

 

work effectively

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gather and process information

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generate and analyze ideas

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observe common themes

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realize ideas

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present results

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Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life problems and make informed decisions.

 

Skills and Strategies for Interdisciplinary Problem Solving

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Working Effectively: Contributing to the work of a brainstorming group, laboratory partnership, cooperative learning group, or project team; planning procedures; identify and managing responsibilities of team members; and staying on task, whether working alone or as part of a group.

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Gathering and Processing Information: Accessing information from printed media, electronic data bases, and community resources and using the information to develop a definition of the problem and to research possible solutions.

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Generating and Analyzing Ideas: Developing ideas for proposed solutions, investigating ideas, collecting data, and showing relationships and patterns in the data.

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Common Themes: Observing examples of common unifying themes, applying them to the problem, and using them to better understand the dimensions of the problem.

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Realizing Ideas: Constructing components or models, arriving at a solution, and evaluating the result.

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Presenting Results: Using a variety of media to present the solution and to communicate the results.

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