Arizona Science Standards

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Arizona Science Standards you can cover using PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE.

For additional Arizona Science Standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

Kindergarten,   Grades 1-3,   Grade 4-8,   Grades 9-12,   Honors

READINESS (Kindergarten)

Standard 1: Science As Inquiry Students know and are able to do the following:

1SC-R1. Identify and use safe procedures in all science activities

 

PO 1. Demonstrate safe procedures (e.g., use and care of simple technology, materials and organisms) and behavior in all science inquiry

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1SC-R2. Ask questions about the natural world (e.g., How do trees grow? Why is the sky blue? Where does rain come from?)

 

PO 1. Formulate questions about objects, organisms, events and relationships in the natural world

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1SC-R3. Categorize objects, organisms and events in different ways

 

PO 1. Organize (e.g., sort, classify, sequence) objects, organisms and events by different characteristics

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1SC-R4. State simple hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships in the environment

 

PO 1. Formulate a question that relates to the environment

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PO 2. Predict the results of an observable cause-and-effect relationship

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1SC-R5. Perform simple measurements and comparisons

 

PO 1. Perform simple measurements using appropriate devices

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PO 2. Compare objects according to their measurements

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1SC-R6. Communicate observations and comparisons through various means such as pictographs, pictures, models and words

 

PO 1. Describe observations with pictographs, pictures, models and words

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PO 2. Describe similarities and differences of observations

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1SC-R7. Observe and describe changes in a simple system (e.g., a plant terrarium)

 

PO 1. Describe changes observed in a simple system (e.g., ant farm, plant terrarium, aquarium)

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Standard 2: History and Nature of Science

2SC-R1. Understand that all people can and do participate in science

 

PO 1. Give examples of how diverse people (e.g. children, weathermen, cooks, healthcare workers, gardeners) participate in science

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Standard 3: Personal and Social Perspectives in Science And Technology

3SC-R2. Use simple technology (e.g., scales, balances, magnifiers, computers)

 

PO 1. Demonstrate the proper use of simple technology

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Standard 6: Earth And Space Science

6SC-R1. Identify basic phenomena and changes in the sky (e.g., sunrise, moon, stars)

 

PO 1. Identify basic phenomena in the sky

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PO 2. Describe changes that occur in the sky

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6SC-R2. Understand that the sun heats and lights the earth

 

PO 1. Demonstrate that the sun heats and lights the earth

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FOUNDATIONS (Grades 1-3)

Standard 1: Science As Inquiry Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following

1SC-F1. Plan, design, conduct and report on the conclusions of basic experiments

 

With appropriate guidance:

 

PO 1. Plan an experiment

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PO 2. Design an experiment

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PO 3. Predict the results of an experiment

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PO 4. Conduct an experiment and record data

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PO 5. Report, through various means, the conclusions of an experiment

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1SC-F2. Construct models (e.g., a volcano, a paper airplane, a solar system) that illustrate simple concepts and compare those models to what they represent

 

With appropriate guidance:

 

PO 1. Construct physical models (e.g., a volcano, a paper airplane, a solar system) illustrating simple concepts

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PO 2. Compare a physical model to what it represents

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1SC-F3. Identify and record changes and patterns of changes in a familiar system

 

PO 1. Describe changes and patterns of changes in a familiar system

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PO 2. Record changes and patterns of changes in a familiar system

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1SC-F4. Describe relationships among parts of a familiar system (e.g., a bicycle, a park, a clock)

 

PO 1. Identify parts of a familiar system

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PO 2. Explain the relationships among parts of a system

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Standard 2: History and Nature of Science

2SC-F1. Recognize that scientific contributions have been made by all kinds of people everywhere in the world

 

PO 1. Describe how people and cultures, past and present, have made important contributions to scientific knowledge

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2SC-F2. Understand that scientific inquiry has produced much knowledge about the world, that much is still unknown, and that some things will always be unknown

 

PO 1. Describe the results of scientific inquiry in the world (e.g., a timeline of inventions, progression from simple to mechanized tools, understanding weather patterns)

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PO 2. Explain how inquiry develops into further exploration of the unknown

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2SC-F3. Understand that science involves asking and answering questions and comparing the results to what is already known

 

PO 1. Explain how asking and answering questions are part of the process of a scientific investigation

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PO 2. Compare prior knowledge to the results of a scientific investigation

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Standard 3: Personal and Social Perspectives in Science And Technology

3SC-F1. Identify occupations that require the application of science and technology

 

PO 1. Describe occupations that require the application of science and technology

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3SC-F2. Use scientific findings to propose and evaluate solutions to problems (e.g., water pollution, malnutrition, fire hazards)

 

PO 1. Identify a problem

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PO 2. Use scientific findings to develop solutions

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PO 3. Evaluate proposed solutions to the problem

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PO 4. Modify solutions to the problem, if necessary

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3SC-F4. Identify and describe how technology contributes to solving problems

 

PO 1. Identify various technologies (e.g., zipper, paper clips, computers)

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PO 2. Describe how various technologies contribute to solving problems

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Standard 5: Physical Science

5SC-F2. Demonstrate that light, heat, motion, magnetism and sound can cause changes

 

PO 1. Demonstrate that light can cause change

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PO 2. Demonstrate that heat can cause change

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PO 3. Demonstrate that motion can cause change

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PO 4. Demonstrate that magnetism can cause change

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PO 5. Demonstrate that sound can cause change

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5SC-F4. Recognize that light travels in a straight line and can be reflected, refracted or absorbed

 

PO 1. Demonstrate that light travels in a straight line

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PO 2. Demonstrate that light can be reflected

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PO 3. Demonstrate that light can be refracted

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PO 4. Demonstrate that light can be absorbed

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Standard 6: Earth And Space Science

6SC-F2. Identify the planets and their relationship to the sun

 

PO 1. Identify the planets of the solar system

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PO 2. Describe the relationship of the planets to the sun

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6SC-F3. Identify the seasons and their characteristics

 

PO 1. Identify the seasons

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PO 2. Describe the characteristics of each season

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6SC-F4. Identify and describe the patterns of movement of objects in the sky

 

PO 1. Identify objects that move in the sky

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PO 2. Describe patterns of change visible in the sky over time (e.g., seasonal position of the sun, constellations, the moon)

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PO 3. Describe the patterns of movement of objects in the sky

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ESSENTIALS (Grades 4-8)

Standard 1: Science As Inquiry Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following

1SC-E1. Identify a question, formulate a hypothesis, control and manipulate variables, devise experiments, predict outcomes, compare and analyze results, and defend conclusions

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Distinguish between a question and a hypothesis

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PO 2. Describe the functions of variables in an investigation

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PO 3. Predict an outcome based on experimental data

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PO 4. Draw a conclusion based on a set of experimental data

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Design an experiment using a scientific method

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PO 2. Conduct an experiment using a scientific method

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PO 3. Analyze the results of an experiment

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PO 4. Defend conclusions drawn from the analysis

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1SC-E2. Create a model (e.g., a computer simulation, a stream table) to predict change

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Design a model to illustrate a system

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Construct a model that demonstrates change within a system

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PO 2. Describe variables that cause change

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PO 3. Explain cause and effect of variables within a system

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1SC-E3. Organize and present data gathered from their own experiences, using appropriate mathematical analyses and graphical representations

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Organize gathered data into an appropriate format

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PO 2. Construct a representation of data (e.g., bar graph, line graph, frequency table, Venn diagram)

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Construct a representation of data (e.g., histogram, stem-and-leaf plot, scatter plot, circle graph, flow chart)

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PO 2. Interpret patterns in collected data

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1SC-E4. Identify and refine questions from previous investigations

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Identify questions from previous investigations

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PO 2. Refine questions from previous investigations

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Analyze the results of previous investigations

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PO 2. Refine hypotheses from a previous investigation

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1SC-E5. Analyze the processes, parts and subsystems of a bicycle, a clock or other mechanical or electrical device

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Identify the parts of a subsystem within a system

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PO 2. Describe the functions of the parts of a subsystem

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PO 3. State cause-and-effect relationships among components in mechanical or electrical devices

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Explain the interaction among parts within mechanical or electrical devices

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PO 2. Analyze the processes that operate within a mechanical or electrical device

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1SC-E6. Analyze scientific reports from magazines, television or other media

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Analyze the reliability of scientific information from a variety of sources

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PO 2. Use evidence to support or refute a conclusion drawn from a scientific report

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Evaluate information for accuracy, logic, bias and impact

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Standard 2: History and Nature of Science

2SC-E1. Identify major milestones in science that have revolutionized the thinking of the time

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Describe major scientific contributions

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Describe the effects of major scientific events on society

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PO 2. Describe a recent scientific event that has impacted the quality of life

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2SC-E2. Describe how science and technology are interrelated

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Describe how science has helped technology change over time

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PO 2. Describe how technology has helped science change over time

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Describe a technological discovery that influences science

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PO 2. Describe a scientific discovery that influences technology

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PO 3. Determine scientific processes involved in a technological advancement

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2SC-E3. Provide different explanations for a phenomenon; defend and refute the explanations

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Propose several possible explanations for a scientific phenomenon

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PO 2. Provide evidence to defend an explanation for a scientific phenomenon

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PO 3. Provide evidence to refute an explanation for a scientific phenomenon

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Analyze different theories to explain a phenomenon

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PO 2. Defend or refute the explanation of a phenomenon

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2SC-E4. Identify characteristics of scientific ways of thinking

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Describe a variety of ways scientists generate ideas

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Describe the following scientific processes: observing, communicating, comparing, organizing, relating, inferring and applying

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2SC-E5. Explain how scientific theory, hypothesis generation and experimentation are interrelated

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Explain the role of a hypothesis in scientific inquiry

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PO 2. Explain the role of experimentation in scientific inquiry

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PO 3. Describe how a scientific theory can be developed and modified

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Describe the relationship between theory and hypotheses

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PO 2. Describe how experimental procedures can be formulated to test a hypothesis

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PO 3. Explain how experimental results may affect a hypothesis and a theory

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2SC-E6. Demonstrate how Science is an ongoing process of gathering and evaluating information, assessing evidence for and against theories and hypotheses, looking for patterns, and then devising and testing possible explanations.

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Explain how a scientific theory has changed over time

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PO 2. Explain how a hypothesis has changed over time

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Compare and contrast the evidence of a hypothesis

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PO 2. Compare and contrast the evidence of a theory

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PO 3. Analyze a hypothesis

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PO 4. Analyze a theory

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Standard 3: Personal and Social Perspectives in Science And Technology

3SC-E1. Recognize how scientific knowledge, thinking processes and skills are used in a great variety of careers

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Explain how scientific knowledge and skills are integral to a variety of careers

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Explain how scientific knowledge, thinking processes and skills are used to solve problems in a variety of careers

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3SC-E2. Develop and use a systematic approach to analyze the risks associated with natural and biological hazards

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Describe risks associated with natural and biological hazards

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PO 2. Compare risk factors of several natural and biological hazards

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Analyze the risk factors associated with natural and biological hazards

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3SC-E3. Identify a specific need and propose a solution or product that addresses this need, taking into consideration various factors

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Identify a human or environmental need

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PO 2. Describe the various factors affecting the need

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PO 3. Propose a solution or product that addresses the need

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Design a solution or product that addresses a need and considers the factors of an environmental or human problem

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3SC-E4. Implement a proposed solution or design and evaluate its merit

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Evaluate the possible strengths and weaknesses of a given solution to a problem

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Apply a proposed solution to a problem

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PO 2. Evaluate the merit of a proposed solution

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Standard 5: Physical Science

5SC-E3. Show that energy exists in many forms and can be transferred in many ways

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Identify various types of energy sources

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PO 2. Describe how energy is transferred

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Define the law of conservation of energy

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PO 2. Describe how energy is a property of a substance

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PO 3. Explain ways in which energy is transferred

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5SC-E4. Identify and predict what will change and what will remain unchanged when matter experiences an external force or energy change (e.g., boiling a liquid; comparing the force, distance and work involved in simple machines)

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Define force

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PO 2. Describe the effects of various forces on an object

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PO 3. Describe how a change in energy will affect matter

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Identify properties of matter that will/will not change when matter experiences external force or energy change

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PO 2. Predict the outcome when matter experiences an external force or energy change

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5SC-E5. Describe, measure and calculate characteristics (e.g., speed, distance, mass, force, gravity) of moving objects and their interactions (e.g., force, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, and kinetic energy) within a system

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Define terms associated with moving objects

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PO 2. Describe interactions of moving objects

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Analyze moving objects within a system using Newton’s laws of motion

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Standard 6: Earth And Space Science

6SC-E1. Describe and model the motion of earth in relation to the sun, including the concepts of day, night, season and year

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Distinguish between revolution and rotation

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PO 2. Describe how the earth’s movement, in relation to the sun, creates day and night

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Explain the motion of earth in relation to the sun, including the concepts of day, night, season and year

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6SC-E2. Describe common objects in the solar system and explain their relationships

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Describe common objects in the solar system

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PO 2. Explain how objects in the solar system are related

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Describe common objects in the solar system galaxy and the universe

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PO 2. Explain the relationship between common objects in the solar system galaxy and the universe

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6SC-E10. Explain how technology has impacted both earth and space science

 

(Grades 4-5)

 

PO 1. Explain the impact of technology on earth science

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PO 2. Explain the impact of technology on space science

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(Grades 6-8)

 

PO 1. Describe some technological advances that have impacted both earth and space science

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PROFICIENCY - (Grades 9-12)

Standard 1: Science As Inquiry Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following

1SC-P1. Propose solutions to practical and theoretical problems by synthesizing and evaluating information gained from scientific investigations

 

PO 1. Evaluate scientific information for relevance to a given problem

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PO 2. Propose solutions to a problem, based on information gained from scientific investigations

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1SC-P2. Compare observations of the real world to observations of a constructed model (e.g., an aquarium, a terrarium, a volcano)

 

PO 1. Assess the capability of a model to represent a "real world" scenario

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1SC-P3. Analyze and evaluate reports of scientific studies

 

PO 1. Analyze reports of scientific studies for elements of experimental design

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PO 2. Compare conclusions to original hypotheses

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PO 3. Evaluate validity of conclusions

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1SC-P4. Create and defend a written plan of action for a scientific investigation

 

PO 1. Design an appropriate protocol (written plan of action) for the investigation of a scientific problem

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PO 2. Justify the protocol in terms of the elements of experimental design

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1SC-P5. Apply the concepts of equilibrium, form and function to a variety of phenomena

 

PO 1. Predict the effects of various factors on the equilibrium of a system

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PO 2. Explain how the relationships between form and function are evident in natural and designed systems

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PO 3. Describe how present form and function of an object, organism or system could have evolved from prior form and function

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1SC-P6. Identify and refine a researchable question, conduct the experiment, collect and analyze data, share and discuss findings

 

PO 1. Construct a researchable question

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PO 2. Employ a research design that incorporates a scientific method to carry out an experiment

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PO 3. Analyze experimental data

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PO 4. Communicate experimental findings to others

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Standard 2: History and Nature of Science

2SC-P1. Identify and describe key factors (e.g., technology, competitiveness, world events, personalities, societal views) that affect the development and acceptance of scientific thought

 

PO 1. Define key factors that affect the development of scientific thought

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PO 2. Describe how different key factors affect the development and acceptance of scientific thought

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2SC-P2. Explain how scientific innovations can challenge accepted ideas

 

PO 1. Describe how an accepted idea could be challenged by scientific innovation

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2SC-P3. Explain the impact on society of major scientific developments (e.g., germ theory, molecular biology, relativity)

 

PO 1. Describe the benefits, limitations, and consequences of major scientific developments in pure and applied science

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PO 2. Explain how major scientific developments in pure and applied science have affected, or could affect, society

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2SC-P4. Trace the development and consequences of an invention, theory or discovery to demonstrate the dynamic nature of science

 

PO 1. Trace the development of a selected invention, theory or discovery from its inception to modern day

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PO 2. Explain the progression of changes in the invention, theory or discovery

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PO 3. Describe the impact of the invention, theory or discovery on further scientific thought

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2SC-P5. Explain how theory, law and fact are developed in science to answer a specific question

 

PO 1. Define theory, law and fact

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PO 2. Describe the relationships among theories, laws and facts

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PO 3. Explain how theories, laws and facts are used to answer specific questions

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2SC-P6. Analyze evidence that supports past and current scientific theories about a specific topic

 

PO 1. Distinguish between evidence which supports a given scientific theory (e.g., model of the atom, plate tectonics, natural selection) and evidence which does not support the theory

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Standard 3: Personal and Social Perspectives in Science And Technology

3SC-P1. Apply scientific thought processes and procedures to personal and social issues

 

PO 1. Apply scientific thought processes of skepticism, empiricism, objectivity and logic to seek a solution to personal and social issues

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PO 2. Apply a scientific method to the solution of personal and social issues

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3SC-P2. Propose and test, using computer software or common materials, a solution to an existing problem; or design a product to meet a need, using a model or simulation

 

PO 1. Describe a problem or need

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PO 2. Propose a solution to the problem or design a product to meet the need

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PO 3. Design a method of testing the solution or design a model or simulation to test the product

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PO 4. Carry out the test of the solution or product

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PO 5. Evaluate the test results

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3SC-P3. Compare and contrast the goals of science and technology

 

PO 1. Define the goals of science and the goals of technology

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PO 2. Compare the goals of science and the goals of technology

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PO 3. Describe the impact of technology on the life, physical, earth and space sciences

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3SC-P4. Identify and describe the basic processes of the natural ecosystems and how these processes affect, and are affected by, humans

 

PO 1. Describe the basic processes of the natural ecosystems (e.g., water cycle, nutrient cycles)

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PO 2. Explain how these processes affect, and are affected by, humans

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3SC-P5. Describe and explain factors that affect population size and growth (e.g., birth and death rates, quality of environment, disease, education)

 

PO 1. Describe biotic and abiotic factors that affect populations

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PO 2. Predict the effect of a change in a specific factor on a population

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Standard 5: Physical Science

5SC-P3. Identify, measure, calculate, and analyze qualitative and quantitative relationships associated with energy forms and energy transfer or transformation (e.g., changes in temperature, velocity, potential energy, kinetic energy, conduction, convection, radiation)

 

PO 1. Identify qualitative and quantitative relationships associated with energy (e.g., heat, mechanical, electrical)

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PO 2. Measure quantitative (e.g., heat, mechanical, electrical) relationships associated with energy

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PO 3. Calculate quantitative relationships associated with energy (e.g., heat, mechanical, electrical)

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Standard 6: Earth And Space Science

6SC-P1. Explain prominent scientific theories of the origin of: the universe (Big Bang Theory), the solar system (formation from a nebular cloud of dust and gas), and life forms (evolution)

 

PO 1. Describe the processes explained by prominent scientific theories of the origin of the universe

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PO 2. Describe the processes explained by prominent scientific theories of the origin of the solar system

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PO 3. Describe the processes explained by prominent scientific theories of the origin of life forms

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PO 4. Relate physical laws to processes explained by prominent scientific theories of the origin of the universe, solar system, and life forms

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online

6SC-P2. Demonstrate an understanding of the earth's tilt, rotation and revolution and their effects on the seasons and the length of days

 

PO 1. Describe how the earth’s rotation causes day and night

video
hands-on
online

PO 2. Describe how the earth’s tilt on its axis and revolution around the sun cause changes in relative length of days and nights

video
hands-on
online

PO 3. Describe how the earth’s tilt on its axis and revolution around the sun cause changes in seasons

video
hands-on
online

PO 4. Describe the flow of energy to and from the earth based on its shape, tilt, rotation and revolution

video
hands-on
online

6SC-P6. Identify and compare the interactions between water and other earth systems including the biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere

 

PO 1. Describe the processes involved in the water cycle

video
hands-on
online

PO 2. Describe the interactions between water and the biosphere

video
hands-on
online

PO 3. Describe the interactions between water and the lithosphere

video
hands-on
online

PO 4. Describe the interactions between water and the atmosphere

video
hands-on
online

PO 5. Compare the interactions between water and earth systems

video
hands-on
online


DISTINCTION (Honors)

Standard 1: Science As Inquiry Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following

1SC-D1. Design and complete an advanced scientific investigation, either individually or as part of a team, and formally report results to peers, teachers and others

 

1SC-D2. Apply the concepts of emergent properties, feedback, subsystems, equilibria, and unpredictability to a complex system (e.g., weather, the brain)

 

1SC-D3. Interview science professionals (e.g., scientists, philosophers of science) to understand how they view science and formally report results to peers, teachers and others

 


Standard 2: History and Nature of Science

2SC-D1. Conduct a detailed case study of the societal response to a major scientific finding or theory (e.g., theories of Einstein, Galileo, Copernicus)

 


Standard 3: Personal and Social Perspectives in Science And Technology

3SC-D1. Explore the scientific and technological aspects of contemporary problems; analyze and evaluate proposed solutions

 


Standard 6: Earth And Space Science

6SC-D1. Identify and predict natural hazards, using historical data

 

6SC-D2. Analyze and evaluate prominent scientific theories of the origin of the universe