Correlation of the LIVE FROM THE SUN Activities with the National Science Education Standards

This STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which NSES (NAS/NRC) standards most directly relate to LFSUN Activities. We hope and expect that you will find many more connections between the Activities and national, state and local guidelines. Column 1 is the LFSUN Activity number. Column 2 begins with a 3-part number: the first digit refers to one of the 16 NSES standards. The second number relates to NAS/NRCís suggested grade level. The last number indicates the position of the particular benchmark within the NSES standard. Thus 3.1.1 refers to NSES Standard 3, is suggested by NAS/NRC as most appropriate for Grades 5-8, and is the first benchmark. Columns 3 and 4 are codings by PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE as to whether the LFSUN Activity completely EMBODIES (E) the benchmark or ILLUSTRATES (I) it, inviting you to add additional materials and experiences to meet the benchmark fully.

Section 1: The Sun as a Star

Activity 1.1 Billions and Billions

E

I

3.1.1 Knows that the stars are innumerable, unevenly dispersed, and of unequal brightness

E

 

3.3.7 Knows that many billions of galaxies exist in the universe (each containing many billions of stars), and that incomprehensible distances separate these galaxies and stars from one another and from the Earth

 

I

Activity 1.2.1 Pictures in the Sky & 1.2.2 Real Stars in Real Space

E

I

3.2.2 Knows that the patterns of stars in the sky stay the same, although they appear to slowly move from east to west across the sky nightly, and different stars can be seen in different seasons

E

 

3.2.3 Knows that planets look like stars, but over time they appear to wander among the constellations

 

I

3.2.5 Knows that astronomical objects in space are massive in size and are separated from one another by vast distances...

 

I

12.1.3 Knows that the position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object or the background

E

 

Activity 1.3 Seeing the Sphere of Colors

E

I

11.3.3 Knows how the Sun acts as a major source of energy for changes on the Earthís surface (i.e., the Sun loses energy by emitting light; some of this light is transferred to the Earth in a range of wavelengths including visible light, infrared radiation, and ultraviolet radiation)

E

 

12.3.3 Knows that only a narrow range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation can be seen by the human eye; differences of wavelength within that range of visible light are perceived as differences in color

E

 

15.3.2 Designs and conducts a scientific investigation (e.g., formulates questions, designs and executes investigations, interprets data, synthesizes evidence into explanations, proposes alternative explanations for observations, critiques explanations and procedures)

E

 

Activity 1.4 Life Cycle of the Stars

E

I

3.3.1 Knows characteristics of our Sun and its position in the universe (e.g., the Sun is a medium-sized star; it is the closest star to Earth; it is the central and largest body in the Solar System; it is located at the edge of a disk-shaped galaxy)

E

 

3.4.3 Knows common characteristics of stars in the universe (e.g., types of stars include red and blue giants, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; stars differ in size, temperature, and age...

E

 

15.2.5 Knows that good scientific explanations are based on evidence (observations) and scientific knowledge

 

I

Section 2: How the Sun Works

Activity 2.1 Simulating Fusion

E

I

3.4.2 Knows the ongoing processes involved in star formation and destruction (e.g., stars condense by gravity out of clouds of molecules of the lightest elements; nuclear fusion of light elements into heavier ones occurs in the starsí extremely hot, dense cores, releasing great amounts of energy...)

E

 

10.3.1 Knows that matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms, and different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances

E

 

10.2.5 Knows that the mass of a material remains constant whether it is together, in parts, or in a different state

E

 

10.4.5 Knows the structure of an atom (e.g., negative electrons occupy most of the space in the atom; neutrons and positive protons make up the nucleus of the atom...)

 

I

10.4.9 Knows that electrons, neutrons, and protons are made up of even smaller constituents

 

I

11.4.6 Knows that nuclear reactions convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy (fission involves the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller pieces; fusion is the joining of two nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure) and release much greater amounts of energy than atomic interactions

E

 

13.4.5 Knows that nuclear forces are much stronger than electromagnetic forces, which are vastly stronger than gravitational forces...

 

I

Activity 2.2 Exploring Magnetic Fields

E

I

10.2.1 Knows that objects can be classified according to their properties (e.g., magnetism, conductivity, density, solubility)

 

I

11.1.3 Knows that electricity in circuits can produce light, heat, sound, and magnetic effects

E

 

11.2.3 Knows the organization of a simple electrical circuit (e.g., battery or generator, wire, a complete loop through which the electrical current can pass)

E

 

13.1.1 Knows that magnets can be used to make some things move without being touched

E

 

13.2.1 Knows that electrically charged material pulls on all other materials and can attract or repel other charged materials

E

 

13.2.2 Knows that magnets attract and repel each other and attract certain kinds of other materials (e.g., iron, steel)

E

 

13.3.1 Knows that just as electric currents can produce magnetic forces, magnets can cause electric currents

E

 

13.4.3 Knows that magnetic forces are very closely related to electric forces and can be thought of as different aspects of a single electromagnetic force...

 

I

15.3.5 Establishes relationships based on evidence and logical argument (e.g., provides causes for effects)

 

I

Activity 2.3 Sun Sounds and Starquakes

E

I

12.1.1 Knows that vibrating objects produce sound

E

 

12.2.1 Knows that the pitch of a sound depends on the frequency of the vibration producing it

E

 

12.3.1 Knows that vibrations (e.g., sounds, earthquakes) move at different speeds in different materials, have different wavelengths, and set up wave-like disturbances that spread away from the source

E

 

12.4.1 Knows that waves (e.g., sound, seismic, water, light) have energy and can transfer energy when they interact with matter

 

I

15.2.1 Knows that scientific investigations involve asking and answering a question and comparing the answer to what scientists already know about the world

 

I

15.2.2 Knows that scientists use different kinds of investigations (e.g., naturalistic observation of things or events, data collection, controlled experiments), depending on the questions they are trying to answer

 

I

3.4.5 Knows that evidence suggests that our universe is expanding (e.g., the Doppler shift of light from distant galaxies reaching telescopes on Earth suggests that galaxies are moving away from the Earth...)

 

I

Activity 2.4 Sun on the Boil Convection and Radiation

E

I

10.2.4 Knows that materials have different states (solid, liquid, gas) & some common materials such as water can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling

 

I

10.3.3 Knows that atoms are in constant, random motion (atoms in solids are close together and donít move about easily; atoms in liquids are close together and stick to each other, but move about easily; atoms in gas are quite far apart and move about freely)

E

 

11.2.2 Knows that heat can move from one object to another by conduction and that some materials conduct heat better than others

 

I

11.3.1 Knows that energy is a property of many substances (e.g., heat energy is in the disorderly motion of molecules and in radiation; chemical energy is in the arrangement of atoms...)

 

I

11.3.4 Knows that heat can be transferred through conduction, convection, and radiation; heat flows from warmer objects to cooler ones until both objects reach the same temperature

E

 

15.1.1 Knows that learning can come from careful observations and simple experiments

 

I

15.2.4 Uses simple equipment and tools to gather scientific data and extend the senses (e.g., rulers, thermometers, magnifiers, microscopes, calculators)

 

I

Section 3: The Sun-Earth Connection

Activity 3.1 The "Same and Different" Challenge: Sun, Earth and Jupiter

E

I

1.1.1 Knows that Earth materials consist of solid rocks, soils, liquid water, and the gases of the atmosphere

E

 

1.3.2 Knows that the Earth is comprised of layers including a core, mantle, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere

E

 

1.3.3 Knows the composition and structure of the Earthís atmosphere (e.g., temperature and pressure in different layers of the atmosphere, circulation of air masses)

E

 

2.2.4 Knows how features on the Earthís surface are constantly changed by a combination of slow and rapid processes (e.g., weathering, erosion, and deposition of sediment caused by waves, wind, water, and ice; sudden changes in the landscape caused by landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes)

 

I

3.2.1 Knows that the Earth is one of several planets that orbit the Sun, and the Moon orbits around the Earth

 

I

3.3.2 Knows characteristics and movement patterns of the nine planets in our Solar System (e.g., planets differ in size, composition, and surface features...)

E

 

3.3.5 Knows characteristics and movement patterns of asteroids, comets, and meteors

 

I

Activity 3.2 "Now This Space Weather News..."

E

I

1.1.3 Knows that short-term weather conditions (e.g., temperature, rain, snow) can change daily, and weather patterns change over the seasons

E

 

1.3.4 Knows ways in which clouds affect weather and climate (e.g., precipitation, reflection of light from the Sun, retention of heat energy emitted from the Earth's surface)

E

 

1.4.3 Knows how winds and ocean currents are produced on the Earthís surface (e.g., effects of unequal heating of the Earthís land masses, oceans, and air by the Sun...)

 

I

1.3.9 Knows that the Sun is the principle energy source for phenomena on the Earthís surface (e.g., winds, ocean currents, the water cycle, plant growth)

E

 

15.2.6 Knows that scientists make the results of their investigations public; they describe the investigations in ways that enable others to repeat the investigations

 

I

Activity 3.4 Sun, Light and Life

E

I

1.2.6 Knows that the Sun provides the light and heat necessary to maintain the temperature of the Earth

E

 

1.4.4 Knows how life is adapted to conditions on the Earth (e.g. ...intensity of radiation from the Sun that allows water to cycle between liquid and vapor)

 

I

8.1.1 Knows that plants and animals need certain resources for energy and growth (e.g., food, water, light, air)

E

 

8.2.1 Knows that the transfer of energy (e.g., through the consumption of food) is essential to all living organisms

E

 

8.2.2 Knows the organization of simple food chains and food webs (e.g., green plants make their own food with sunlight, water, and air; some animals eat the plants...)

 

I

8.3.1 Knows how energy is transferred through food webs in an ecosystem (e.g., energy enters ecosystems as sunlight, and green plants transfer this energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis...)

 

I

11.1.1 Knows that the Sun supplies heat and light to Earth

E

 

15.2.3 Plans and conducts simple investigations (e.g., makes systematic observations, conducts simple experiments to answer questions)

 

I

Section 4: The Sun in Human History

 

Activity 4.1 Time, Telescopes and Technology

E

I

 

Activity 4.2 Solar Myths and Sunny Folk Tales

E

I

 

Activity 4.3 Sundials, Hot Dogs and Solar Monuments

E

I

4.1

3.2.4 Knows that telescopes magnify distant objects in the sky (e.g., the Moon, planets) and dramatically increase the number of stars we can see

E

 

4.1

3.4.4 Knows ways in which technology has increased our understanding of the universe (e.g., visual, radio, and x-ray telescopes collect information about the universe from electromagnetic waves; computers interpret vast amounts of data from space; space probes gather information from distant parts of the Solar System...)

E

 

4.1

14.4.4 Knows that from time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works, but usually the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge

E

 

4.1

15.3.8 Knows possible outcomes of scientific investigations (e.g., some may result in new ideas and phenomena for study; some may generate new methods or procedures for an investigation; some may result in the development of new technologies to improve the collection of data; some may lead to new investigations)

E

 

4.1

16.2.1 Knows that people of all ages, backgrounds, and groups have made contributions to science and technology throughout history

E

 

4.1

16.2.2 Knows that although people using scientific inquiry have learned much about the objects, events, and phenomena in nature, science is an ongoing process and will never be finished

E

 

4.1

16.4.1 Knows that throughout history, diverse cultures have developed scientific ideas and solved human problems through technology

E

 

4.1

16.3.5 Knows that throughout history, many scientific innovators have had difficulty breaking through accepted ideas of their time to reach conclusions that are now considered to be common knowledge

E

 

4.3

15.1.2 Knows that tools (e.g., thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, balances) can be used to gather information and extend the senses

 

I

4, Web and TV

16.3.1 Knows that people of all backgrounds and with diverse interests, talents, qualities, and motivations engage in fields of science and engineering; some of these people work in teams and others work alone, but all communicate extensively with others

E

 

4, Web and TV

16.3.3 Knows various settings in which scientists and engineers may work (e.g., colleges and universities, businesses and industries, research institutes, government agencies)

E

 

4, Web and TV

16.4.2 Understands that individuals and teams contribute to science and engineering at different levels of complexity (e.g., an individual may conduct basic field studies; hundreds of people may work together on a major scientific question or technological problem)

E

 

Note: many more NSES Standards 14-16 are embodied in the Online and Video materials.

z.2

14.4.1 Knows ways in which science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing and from other bodies of knowledge (e.g., use of empirical standards, logical arguments, skepticism)

z.2

14.3.3 Understands that questioning, response to criticism, and open communication are integral to the process of science (e.g., scientists often differ with one another about the interpretation of evidence or theory in areas where there is not a great deal of understanding; scientists acknowledge conflicting interpretations and work towards finding evidence that will resolve the disagreement)

z.2

14.4.2 Knows that scientific explanations must meet certain criteria to be considered valid (e.g., they must be consistent with experimental and observational evidence about nature, make accurate predictions about systems being studied, be logical, respect the rules of evidence, be open to criticism, report methods and procedures, make a commitment to making knowledge public)

z.2

15.4.3 Knows that a wide range of natural occurrences may be observed to discern patterns when conditions of an investigation cannot be controlled

z.2

16.4.4 Knows that science and technology are essential social enterprises, but alone they can only indicate what can happen, not what should happen

z.2

16.3.6 Knows ways in which science and society influence one another (e.g., scientific knowledge and the procedures used by scientists influence the way many individuals in society think about themselves, others, and the environment; societal challenges often inspire questions for scientific research; social priorities often influence research priorities through the availability of funding for research)

z.3

15.3.1 Knows that there is no fixed procedure called "the scientific method," but that investigations involve systematic observations, carefully collected, relevant evidence, logical reasoning, and some imagination in developing hypotheses and explanations