Florida State Standards

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Florida State Standards for science you can cover using PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE.

For additional Florida State Standards for science you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE

Grade Level Expectations:

Kindergarten,   First Grade,   Second Grade,   Third Grade,   Fourth Grade,   Fifth Grade,   Sixth Grade,   Seventh Grade,   Eighth Grade

State Standards:

Grades PreK-2,   Grades 3-5,   Grades 6-8,   Grades 9-12

Grade Level Expectations

Kindergarten


The kindergarten student:

The Nature of Matter

 

Processes that Shape the Earth

 

· uses charts to display daily changes in the weather.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows that learning can come from careful observation.

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· repeats events several times and compares the findings.

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· works with a partner or small group to collect information.

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· shares findings about scientific investigations with others.

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· poses questions, seeks answers, draws pictures of observations, and makes decisions using information.

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· knows that the five senses (taste, touch, smell, hearing, sight) allow us to take in and respond to information in order to learn about our surroundings.

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· understands that continuous patterns occur in nature (for example, seasons, phases of the Moon, blooming flowers).

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· knows some appropriate tools for collecting information and extending the senses.

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First Grade


The first grade student:

Processes that Shape the Earth

 

· uses graphic organizers to display weather data and show weather patterns.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows that scientific investigations generally work the same way in different places.

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· understands the importance of accuracy and repetition in conducting scientific inquiries.

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· works with others to complete an experiment or to solve a problem.

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· listens, records, and compares the ideas and observations of others.

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· uses simple graphs, pictures, written statements, and numbers to observe, describe, record, and compare data.

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· uses a variety of tools (for example, thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, scales, computers) to identify characteristics of objects.

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· uses standard (for example, centimeters) and nonstandard units (for example, paper clips, hands, pencils) to measure organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects.

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· uses information gathered to identify patterns in nature to make predictions (for example, shapes of leaves, petals on flowers, rings on seashells).

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· knows that scientists and technologists use a variety of tools (e.g., thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, and scales) to obtain information in more detail and to make work easier.

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Second Grade

The second grade student:

Energy

 

· knows that a thermometer measures the amount of heat absorbed by an object.

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· understands that some materials will allow light to pass and others will not.

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· understands that models (for example, terrarium or aquarium) can be used to illustrate how energy flows through a system.

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· knows how model energy systems change throughout the year (for example, collecting data and recording changes in a terrarium or aquarium that models an energy system).

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· knows different heat sources (for example, friction, solar, nuclear, electric).

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Processes that Shape the Earth

 

· knows that weather conditions occur in patterns over time.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows the difference between verified observation and personal interpretation.

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· knows that when tests are repeated under the same condition, similar results are usually obtained.

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· participates in groups to conduct experiments and solve problems.

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· understands that one can gain confidence in scientific methods by comparing and verifying scientific results with others.

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· understands that, through the use of science processes, people can solve problems and make decisions.

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· analyzes information to make predictions, makes sketches and diagrams to explain ideas, draws conclusions using information and prior knowledge.

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· keeps science records.

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· uses a variety of tools to observe, measure, analyze and predict changes in size, mass, temperature, color, position, quantity, sound, and movement.

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· uses metric and standard English units to measure distance, volume, mass, and temperature.

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· knows how to sort organisms, objects, and events based on patterns.

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· knows ways in which tools are used by scientists (for example, to gather information, to analyze, to calculate).

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Third Grade

The third grade student:

The Nature of Matter

 

· understands that physical changes in the states of matter can be produced by heating and cooling.

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Processes that Shape the Earth

 

· understands the stages of the water cycle (for example, evaporation, condensation, precipitation).

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Earth and Space

 

· knows the patterns of average temperatures throughout the year.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows that it is important to keep accurate records and descriptions to provide information and clues on causes of discrepancies in repeated experiments.

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· plans and investigates an experiment that defines a problem, proposes a solution, identifies variables, collects and organizes data, interprets data in tables, charts and graphs, analyzes information, makes predictions, and presents and supports findings.

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· uses various kinds of instruments to collect and analyze information (for example, meter sticks, timing devices, graduated cylinders, force meters, pan balances, calipers, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, hot plates, magnets, collecting nets).

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· knows that to work collaboratively, all team members should be free to reach, explain, and justify their own individual conclusions.

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· knows that to compare and contrast observations and results is an essential skill in science.

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· uses sketches, diagrams and models to understand scientific ideas.

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· makes predictions and inferences based on observations.

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· uses charts and graphs to understand patterns of change.

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· understands the relationships between science concepts and the history of science and the contributions of scientists.

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· uses reference materials to obtain information related to science concepts.

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· knows that data are collected and interpreted in order to explain an event or concept.

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· understands that scientific information can be presented in several ways (for example, using numbers and mathematics, drawings, words, graphs, tables).

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· understands how scientific discoveries have helped or hindered progress regarding human health and lifestyles.

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· knows that, through the use of science processes and knowledge, people can solve problems, make decisions, and form new ideas.

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Fourth Grade

The fourth grade student:

Processes that Shape the Earth

 

· understands how the water cycle is influenced by temperature and land features.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows that scientists make the results of their investigations public, and they describe the investigations in ways that enable others to repeat the investigation.

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· plans and investigates experiments in which hypotheses are formulated based on cause and effect relationships; distinctions are made among observations, conclusions/inferences and predictions; a limited number of variables are controlled; and numerical data that are contradictory or unusual in experimental results are recognized.

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· uses metric tools to measure, record, and interpret data.

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· works collaboratively to collect, share, and record information for a scientific investigation.

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· knows that comparisons between experiments can be made when conditions are the same.

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· knows that a model of something is different from the real thing, but can be used to learn something about the real thing.

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· makes predictions based on data from picture graphs, bar graphs, and line graphs.

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· knows basic patterns, sequences, and cycles occurring in nature.

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· knows that technologies often have costs, as well as benefits, and can have an enormous effect on people and other living things.

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· researches and reports on a science topic.

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· constructs and analyzes graphs, tables, maps, and charts to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

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· uses criteria to understand and analyze the impact of scientific discoveries (for example, determines whether or not scientific claims are backed by sufficient evidence and logical arguments).

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· knows ways that, through the use of science processes and knowledge, people can solve problems, make decisions, and form new ideas.

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Fifth Grade

The fifth grade student:

Energy

 

· knows how to trace the flow of energy in a system (for example, electricity in a circuit to produce heat, light, sound, or magnetic fields).

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· knows that energy can be described as stored energy (potential) or energy of motion (kinetic).

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· extends and refines use of a variety of tools to measure the gain or loss of energy.

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· knows that some materials conduct heat better than others.

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· understands that convection, radiation, and conduction are methods of heat transfer.

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· knows that the limited supply of usable energy sources (for example, fuels such as coal or oil) places great significance on the development of renewable energy sources.

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Processes that Shape the Earth

 

· understands how atmospheric pressure affects the water cycle.

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· understands how the surface of the Earth is shaped by both slow processes (for example, weathering, erosion, deposition) and rapid, cataclysmic events (for example, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes).

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The Nature of Science

 

· understands that although the same scientific investigation may give slightly different results when it is carried out by different persons or at different times or places, the general evidence collected from the investigation should be replicable by others.

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· understands that scientists use different kinds of investigations (for example, observations of events in nature, controlled experiments) depending on the questions they are trying to answer.

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· understands the importance of accuracy in conducting measurements, and uses estimation when exact measurements are not possible.

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· understands the importance of communication among scientists (for example, informing and becoming informed about scientific investigations in progress and the work of others; exposing ideas to the criticism of others).

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· uses strategies to review, compare and contrast, and critique scientific investigations.

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· knows that an experiment must be repeated many times and yield consistent results before the results are accepted.

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· uses sketches and diagrams to propose scientific solutions to problems.

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· constructs models to compare objects in science.

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· makes a prediction for a new investigation using the data from a previous investigation.

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· understands that change is constantly occurring and uses strategies to analyze different patterns of change.

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· knows areas in which technology has improved human lives (for example, transportation, communication, nutrition, sanitation, health care, entertainment).

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· knows that new inventions often lead to other new inventions and ways of doing things.

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· selects appropriate graphical representations (for example, graphs, charts, diagrams) to collect, record, and report data.

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· understands how a solution to one scientific problem can create another problem.

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· extends and refines knowledge of ways that, through the use of science processes and knowledge, people can solve problems, make decisions, and form new ideas.

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Sixth Grade

The sixth grade student:

Processes that Shape the Earth

 

· knows that different events on the Earth change features on Earth (for example, hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanoes).

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· records seasonal changes of the landscape in a specific area over time.

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· understands the range of time over which natural events occur (for example, lightning in seconds, mountains form over many years).

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows ways scientific theories may change with new discoveries.

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· understands that new technology may lead to new discoveries.

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· uses systematic, scientific processes to develop and test hypotheses.

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· knows that the scientific method is a process that involves a logical and empirical but flexible approach to problem solving.

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· knows that the disciplines of science provide in depth study and information that becomes available for all to share and use.

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· knows that accurate record keeping, openness, and replication are essential to maintaining an investigator’s credibility with other scientists and society.

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· uses accurate records, openness, and replication of experiments to ensure credibility.

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· understands the importance of the control in an experiment.

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· knows how to identify the independent and dependent variables in an experiment.

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· uses appropriate experimental design, with consideration for rules, time, and materials required to solve a problem.

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· knows selected scientists and their accomplishments.

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· knows that scientists who make contributions to knowledge come from all kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interests, and goals.

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· uses criteria necessary to determine the veracity of the data.

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· knows that most natural events occur in patterns.

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· knows that science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, the neighborhood, or the community to health or property risks.

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· uses appropriate procedures for safety in the classroom, home, and community.

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· knows that appropriate care, safe practices, and ethical treatment are necessary when animals are involved in scientific research.

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· knows that in research involving human subjects, the ethics of science require that potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and of their right to refuse to participate.

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· knows some ways that scientific discoveries create new technologies that affect society (for example, geographic information systems, gene mapping, electronic communication).

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· knows that the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology is ongoing and influenced by a diverse population of scientists.

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· knows that scientific contributions may result in diverse technological products.

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· uses a computer to collect, analyze, and report scientific findings.

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Seventh Grade

The seventh grade student:

The Nature of Science

 

· understands that new scientific knowledge is often used to reevaluate existing theories.

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· uses systematic, scientific processes to solve problems and reach conclusions.

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· knows that science disciplines differ from one another in topic, techniques, and outcomes but that they share a common purpose, philosophy, and enterprise.

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· extends and refines use of accurate records, openness, and replication of experiments to ensure credibility.

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· extends and refines knowledge of how to identify the independent and dependent variables in an experiment.

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· extends and refines use of appropriate experimental design, with consideration for rules, time, and materials required to solve a problem.

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· uses rules, time, and materials in ways that ensure the identification and separation of variables in an experiment to solve a problem.

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· extends and refines knowledge of selected scientists and their accomplishments and recognizes their varied backgrounds, talents, interests, and goals.

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· uses criteria necessary to determine the validity of a scientific experiment.

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· knows that natural events (for example, seasons, hurricanes) occur in patterns.

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· knows that science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, the neighborhood, or the community to health or property risks.

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· uses appropriate procedures for safety in the classroom, home, and community.

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· knows the care, safe practices, and ethical treatment that are appropriate when using animals in field and laboratory research.

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· knows that in research involving human subjects, the ethics of science require that potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and of their right to refuse to participate.

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· knows that the designs used for technological improvements should consider the values of society (economic, political, social, ethical, aesthetic).

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· uses knowledge of political, social, and economic ramifications of certain scientific research to evaluate its role in society.

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· knows that scientific and technological contributions are made by individuals of different ethnic, economic, and cultural backgrounds.

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· knows that scientific contributions may result in diverse technological products.

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· extends and refines use of a computer to collect, analyze, and report scientific findings.

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Eighth Grade

The eighth grade student:

Energy

 

· understands that energy changes cause weather to change (for example, formation of high and low pressure systems in the atmosphere results from changes in temperature).

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows that scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way.

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· extends and refines use of systematic, scientific processes to develop and test hypotheses.

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· knows that the study of the events that led scientists to discoveries can provide information about the inquiry process and its effects.

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· extends and refines knowledge that science disciplines differ from one another in topic, techniques, and outcomes but that they share a common purpose, philosophy, and enterprise.

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· extends and refines use of accurate records, openness, and replication of experiments to ensure credibility.

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· extends and refines knowledge of how to identify the independent and dependent variables in an experiment.

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· extends and refines use of appropriate experimental design, with consideration for rules, time, and materials required to solve a problem.

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· extends and refines use of rules, time, and materials in ways that ensure the identification and separation of variables in an experiment to solve a problem.

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· extends and refines knowledge of selected scientists and their accomplishments and recognizes their varied backgrounds, talents, interests, and goals.

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· extends and refines use of criteria necessary to determine the validity of a scientific experiment.

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· knows that statistical tests are used to confirm the significance of data.

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· understands the importance for looking for patterns in natural events.

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· knows that science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, the neighborhood, or the community to health or property risks.

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· uses appropriate procedures for safety in the classroom, home, and community.

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· extends and refines knowledge of the care, safe practices, and ethical treatment that are appropriate when using animals in field and laboratory research.

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· knows that in research involving human subjects, the ethics of science require that potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and of their right to refuse to participate.

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· knows that technological design should require taking into account constraints such as natural laws, the properties of the materials used, and economic, political, social, ethical, and aesthetic values.

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· understands that contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology have been made by different kinds of people, in different cultures, at different times and are an intrinsic part of the development of human culture.

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· knows that no matter who does science and mathematics or invents things, or when or where they do it, the knowledge and technology that result can eventually become available to everyone.

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· knows ways the scientific enterprise is global and available to all.

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· uses a variety of technologies to collect, analyze, and report scientific findings.

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· knows that the quantity of scientific information available is increasing at an exponential rate due to the advances in technology.

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State Standards

Grades PreK-2

The Nature of Matter

Energy

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that energy may be changed in form with varying efficiency.

 

1. knows that the Sun supplies heat and light energy to Earth.

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2. knows that light can pass through some objects and not others.

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3. describes a model energy system (e.g., an aquarium or terrarium).

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4. knows that heat can be produced in many ways (e.g., by burning and rubbing).

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Processes that Shape the Earth

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that processes in the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact to shape the Earth.

 

3. recognizes patterns in weather.

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Standard 2: The student understands the need for protection of the natural systems on Earth.

 

1. understands that people influence the quality of life of those around them.

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Earth and Space

 

Standard 1: The student understands the interaction and organization in the Solar System and the universe and how this affects life on Earth.

 

2. knows that the appearance of sunrise and sunset is due to the rotation of Earth every 24 hours.

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The Nature of Science

 

Standard 1: The student uses the scientific processes and habits of mind to solve problems.

 

1. knows that in order to learn, it is important to observe the same things often and compare them.

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2. knows that when tests are repeated under the same conditions, similar results are usually obtained.

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3. knows that in doing science, it is often helpful to work with a team and to share findings with others.

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4. knows that people use scientific processes including hypotheses, making inferences, and recording and communicating data when exploring the natural world.

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5. uses the senses, tools, and instruments to obtain information from his or her surroundings.

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Standard 2: The student understands that most natural events occur in comprehensible, consistent patterns.

 

1. knows that most natural events occur in patterns.

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Standard 3: The student understands that science, technology, and society are interwoven and interdependent.

 

1. knows that scientists and technologists use a variety of tools (e.g., thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, and scales) to obtain information in more detail and to make work easier.

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Grades 3-5

The Nature of Matter

Energy

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that energy may be changed in form with varying efficiency.

 

1. knows how to trace the flow of energy in a system (e.g., as in an ecosystem).

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2. recognizes various forms of energy (e.g., heat, light, and electricity).

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3. knows that most things that emit light also emit heat.

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4. knows the many ways in which energy can be transformed from one type to another.

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5. knows that various forms of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, nuclear, and radiant) can be measured in ways that make it possible to determine the amount of energy that is transformed.

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6. knows ways that heat can move from one object to another.

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Processes that Shape the Earth

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that processes in the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact to shape the Earth.

 

3. knows that the water cycle is influenced by temperature, pressure, and the topography of the land.

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4. knows that the surface of the Earth is in a continuous state of change as waves, weather, and shifts of the land constantly change and produce many new features.

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5. knows that some changes in the Earth's surface are due to slow processes and some changes are due to rapid processes.

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The Nature of Science

 

Standard 1: The student uses the scientific processes and habits of mind to solve problems.

 

1. knows that it is important to keep accurate records and descriptions to provide information and clues on causes of discrepancies in repeated experiments.

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2. knows that a successful method to explore the natural world is to observe and record, and then analyze and communicate the results.

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3. knows that to work collaboratively, all team members should be free to reach , explain, and justify their own individual conclusions.

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4. knows that to compare and contrast observations and results is an essential skill in science.

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5. knows that a model of something is different from the real thing, but can be used to learn something about the real thing.

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Standard 2: The student understands that most natural events occur in comprehensible, consistent patterns.

 

1. knows that natural events are often predictable and logical.

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Standard 3: The student understands that science, technology, and society are interwoven and interdependent.

 

1. understands that people, alone or in groups, invent new tools to solve problems and do work that affects aspects of life outside of science.

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2. knows that data are collected and interpreted in order to explain an event or concept.

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3. knows that before a group of people build something or try something new, they should determine how it may affect other people.

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4. knows that through the use of science processes and knowledge, people can solve problems, make decisions, and form new ideas.

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Grades 6-8

The Nature of Matter

Standard 1: The student understands that all matter has observable, measurable properties.

 

1. identifies various ways in which substances differ (e.g., mass, volume, shape, density, texture, and reaction to temperature and light).

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3. knows that temperature measures the average energy of motion of the particles that make up the substance.

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Standard 2: The student understands the basic principles of atomic theory.

 

3. knows that radiation, light, and heat are forms of energy used to cook food, treat diseases, and provide energy.

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Energy

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that energy may be changed in form with varying efficiency.

 

1. identifies forms of energy and explains that they can be measured and compared.

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2. knows that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form to another.

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3. knows the various forms in which energy comes to Earth from the Sun (e.g., visible light, infrared, and microwave).

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4. knows that energy conversions are never 100% efficient (i.e., some energy is transformed to heat and is unavailable for further useful work).

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5. knows the processes by which thermal energy tends to flow from a system of higher temperature to a system of lower temperature.

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Standard 2: The student understands the interaction of matter and energy.

 

1. knows that most events in the universe (e.g., weather changes, moving cars, and the transfer of a nervous impulse in the human body) involve some form of energy transfer and that these changes almost always increase the total disorder of the system and its surroundings, reducing the amount of useful energy.

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Processes that Shape the Earth

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that processes in the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact to shape the Earth.

 

3. knows how conditions that exist in one system influence the conditions that exist in other systems.

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4. knows the ways in which plants and animals reshape the landscape (e.g., bacteria, fungi, worms, rodents, and other organisms add organic matter to the soil, increasing soil fertility, encouraging plant growth, and strengthening resistance to erosion).

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5. understands concepts of time and size relating to the interaction of Earth's processes (e.g., lightning striking in a split second as opposed to the shifting of the Earth's plates altering the landscape, distance between atoms measured in Angstrom units as opposed to distance between stars measured in light-years).

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Standard 2: The student understands the need for protection of the natural systems on Earth.

 

1. understands that quality of life is relevant to personal experience.

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2. knows the positive and negative consequences of human action on the Earth's systems.

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The Nature of Science

 

Standard 1: The student uses the scientific processes and habits of mind to solve problems.

 

1. knows that scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way.

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2. knows that the study of the events that led scientists to discoveries can provide information about the inquiry process and its effects.

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3. knows that science disciplines differ from one another in topic, techniques, and outcomes but that they share a common purpose, philosophy, and enterprise.

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4. knows that accurate record keeping, openness, and replication are essential to maintaining an investigator's credibility with other scientists and society.

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5. knows that a change in one or more variables may alter the outcome of an investigation.

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6. recognizes the scientific contributions that are made by individuals of diverse backgrounds, interests, talents, and motivations.

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7. knows that when similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to verify whether the differences are significant by further study.

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Standard 2: The student understands that most natural events occur in comprehensible, consistent patterns.

 

1. recognizes that patterns exist within and across systems.

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Standard 3: The student understands that science, technology, and society are interwoven and interdependent.

 

1. knows that science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, the neighborhood, or the community to health or property risks.

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2. knows that special care must be taken in using animals in scientific research.

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3. knows that in research involving human subjects, the ethics of science require that potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and of their right to refuse to participate.

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4. knows that technological design should require taking into account constraints such as natural laws, the properties of the materials used, and economic, political, social, ethical, and aesthetic values.

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5. understands that contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology have been made by different kinds of people, in different cultures, at different times and are an intrinsic part of the development of human culture.

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6. knows that no matter who does science and mathematics or invents things, or when or where they do it, the knowledge and technology that result can eventually become available to everyone.

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7. knows that computers speed up and extend people's ability to collect, sort, and analyze data; prepare research reports; and share data and ideas with others.

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Grades 9-12

The Nature of Matter measurable properties.

 

Standard 1: The student understands that all matter has observable, measurable properties.

 

3. knows that a change from one phase of matter to another involves a gain or loss of energy.

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Energy

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that energy may be changed in form with varying efficiency.

 

3. knows that temperature is a measure of the average translational kinetic energy of motion of the molecules in an object.

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Processes that Shape the Earth

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that processes in the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact to shape the Earth.

 

1. knows how climatic patterns on Earth result from an interplay of many factors (Earth's topography, its rotation on its axis, solar radiation, the transfer of heat energy where the atmosphere interfaces with lands and oceans, and wind and ocean currents).

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3. knows that changes in Earth's climate, geological activity, and life forms may be traced and compared.

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4. knows that Earth's systems and organisms are the result of a long, continuous change over time.

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Standard 2: The student understands the need for protection of the natural systems on Earth.

 

1. understands the interconnectedness of the systems on Earth and the quality of life.

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The Nature of Science

 

Standard 1: The student uses the scientific processes and habits of mind to solve problems.

 

1. knows that investigations are conducted to explore new phenomena, to check on previous results, to test how well a theory predicts, and to compare different theories.

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2. knows that from time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works, but that more often, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge.

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3. understands that no matter how well one theory fits observations, a new theory might fit them as well or better, or might fit a wider range of observations, because in science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends and leads to an increasingly better understanding of how things work in the world, but not to absolute truth.

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4. knows that scientists in any one research group tend to see things alike and that therefore scientific teams are expected to seek out the possible sources of bias in the design of their investigations and in their data analysis.

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5. understands that new ideas in science are limited by the context in which they are conceived, are often rejected by the scientific establishment, sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and usually grow slowly from many contributors.

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6. understands that in the short run, new ideas that do not mesh well with mainstream ideas in science often encounter vigorous criticism and that in the long run, theories are judged by how they fit with other theories, the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how effective they are in predicting new findings.

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7. understands the importance of a sense of responsibility, a commitment to peer review, truthful reporting of the methods and outcomes of investigations, and making the public aware of the findings.

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Standard 2: The student understands that most natural events occur in comprehensible, consistent patterns.

 

1. knows that scientists assume that the universe is a vast system in which basic rules exist that may range from very simple to extremely complex, but that scientists operate on the belief that the rules can be discovered by careful, systemic study.

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2. knows that scientists control conditions in order to obtain evidence, but when that is not possible for practical or ethical reasons, they try to observe a wide range of natural occurrences to discern patterns.

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Standard 3: The student understands that science, technology, and society are interwoven and interdependent.

 

1. knows that performance testing is often conducted using small-scale models, computer simulations, or analogous systems to reduce the chance of system failure.

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2. knows that technological problems often create a demand for new scientific knowledge and that new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in a way that advances science.

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3. knows that scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to matters of public concern and help people understand the possible causes and effects of events.

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4. knows that funds for science research come from federal government agencies, industry, and private foundations and that this funding often influences the areas of discovery.

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5. knows that the value of a technology may differ for different people and at different times.

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6. knows that scientific knowledge is used by those who engage in design and technology to solve practical problems, taking human values and limitations into account.

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Updated September 2001