The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Maine's Curriculum Framework for Mathematics and Science standards you can cover using PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
For additional Maine's Curriculum Framework for Mathematics and Science standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:
PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE
Primary, Intermediate, Middle, Secondary
A. Students use scientific inquiry to provide insight into and comprehension of the world around them. 

At each level, students moving toward achievement of this standard will: 

1. Make accurate observations using appropriate tools and units of measure. (SJ1)

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2. Ask questions and propose strategies and materials to use in seeking answers to questions (SJ2)

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B. Students use mathematical inquiry to develop conjectures and to prove or disprove them within a mathematical system. 

1.Demonstrate that performing the same operation with the same operant on the same numbers will yield the same result every time.

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2.Use physical examples to justify math facts.

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C. Students develop models to understand the world around them. 

1. Identify shapes can be found both in nature and in human designed objects.

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2. Represent and describe mathematical relationships.

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A. Students use clear and accurate communication in sharing their knowledge. 

1.Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color and behavior. (SL1)

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2. Read and write instructions to be followed or instructions which explain procedures. (SL2)

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3. Use numerals and symbols to report numerical relationships and data (MK1)

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4. Explain problemsolving processes using verbal, pictorial and written methods. (SL4)

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5. Create mathematical problems for others to solve.

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6. Share and support mathematical and scientific understanding orally and in writing

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B. Students construct knowledge through reflection, evaluation and refocusing. 

1. Ask clarifying questions (What do you mean? What would you do? Could you tell me more?) about their own work as well as the work of others. (SL2)

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C. Students use models to communicate in mathematics and science. 

1. Make and read simple graphs. (SL5)

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2. Use objects and pictures to represent scientific and mathematical ideas. (SL6)

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D. Students demonstrate competency in using multiple media to communicate in mathematics and science. 

1. Use calculators, computers, and other tools in mathematics and science learning.

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E. Students critically analyze information from a variety of sources. 

1. Explore connections between folklore and scientific principles.

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2. Evaluate appropriate sources of information.

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F. Individually and collaboratively, students use effective communication techniques. 

1. Assess one's own performance within a group.

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2. Interact in groups of various sizes.

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3. Listen carefully to each other.

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A. Students understand and demonstrate that ideas are more powerful if they can be justified. 

1. Make observations. (SK3)

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2. Use various forms of logic. (SK5)

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3. Discover relationships and patterns. (SK6)

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B. Students use different methods of thought to justify ideas. 

1. Examine and describe strengths or weaknesses of simple arguments (SK1 and MJ1 combined)

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2. Distinguish between true observation and conclusions about observations. (SK2)

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3. Participate in brainstorming activities. (SK4)

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C. Students recognize instances in which attitudes influence reasoning. 

1. Distinguish between important and unimportant scientific and mathematical information in simple arguments. (SK2 and MJ2 combined)

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A. Students demonstrate proficiency using a variety of problemsolving strategies. 

1. Identify and clarify problems by observing, posing questions, communicating prior knowledge and formulating a problem to be solved.

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2. Use results in a purposeful way, which includes making predictions based on patterns they have observed. (SJ3)

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3. Identify products which were invented to solve a problem. (SJ4)

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A. Students understand that science and mathematics help to make sense of the world. 

1. Describe how legends, stories, and scientific explanations are different ways in which people attempt to explain the world. (SM1)

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2. Explore numeral systems from different societies.

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B. Students can describe how the use of mathematics, science and technology has led to many changes in the world. 

1. Describe at least two inventions, what they do, how they work, and how they have made life easier. (SM2)

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C. Students understand that mathematics and science have changed human understanding of the universe. 

1. Explain how their lives would be different without specific inventions or scientific knowledge. (SM5)

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2. Explain how science, mathematics and technology have helped people find out more about the Earth and universe.

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D. Students understand that discoveries often have unforeseen consequences. 

1. Explore how new discoveries in mathematics and science have made life easier.

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E. Students understand that access to developments in mathematics and science is varied throughout the world. 

1. Recognize that people in different parts of the world have different traditions and view the world differently.

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G. Students gain knowledge about the universe, how humans have learned about it and the principles upon which it operates. 

1. Explain the cycles of day/night and of seasons. (SG1)

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2. Demonstrate that shadows of objects change based on where light is coming from. (SG2)

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3. Demonstrate an understanding that the sun is one of many stars in the universe and it is the closest star to Earth. (SG3)

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H. Students understand the concepts of energy. 

1. Demonstrate an understanding that the sun gives off light and heat energy. (SH1)

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2. Explain why living things need energy. (SH2)

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I. Students understand the motion of objects and how forces change that motion. 

1. Develop a variety of ways to describe the motion of an object. (SI1)

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2. Demonstrate that the motion of an object can be changed. (SI2)

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A. Students use scientific inquiry to provide insight into and comprehension of the world around them. 

At each level, students moving toward achievement of this standard will: 

1. Make accurate observations using appropriate tools and units of measure. (SJ1)

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2. Conduct scientific investigations: make observations, collect and analyze data, and do experiments. (SJ2)

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3. Explain how differences in time, place, or experimenter can lead to different data. (SJ5)

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4. Explain how different conclusions can be derived from the same data. (SJ6)

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5. Explain the importance of repeated trials.

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B. Students use mathematical inquiry to develop conjectures and to prove or disprove them within a mathematical system. 

1. Demonstrate that some mathematical rules hold for all numbers.

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C. Students develop models to understand the world around them. 

1. Use variables and open sentences to express relationships.

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2. Identify an instance when answers that may be right theoretically may not appropriately answer a practical problem.

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3. Represent mathematical ideas concretely, graphically and symbolically.

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With appropriate guidance: 

A. Students use clear and accurate communication in sharing their knowledge. 

1. Record results of experiments or activities (e.g. interviews, discussions, field work) and summarize and communicate what they have learned. (SL1)

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B. Students construct knowledge through reflection, evaluation and refocusing. 

1. Ask clarifying and extending questions (SL2)

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2. Reflect on work in science, technology, and mathematics using such activities as discussions, journals, and selfassessment. (SL3)

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3. Extend selfassessment to include work in groups and individual work.

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C. Students use models to communicate in mathematics and science. 

1. Make and/or use sketches, tables, graphs, physical representations, and manipulatives in presentations to explain procedures and ideas in a concise and clear manner. (SL4 and MK1 combined)

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2. Use numerical data to describe and compare objects and events.

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D. Students demonstrate competency in using multiple media to communicate in mathematics and science. 

1. Gather and present information using a variety of media including computers (e.g., spreadsheets, word processing, programming, graphics, modeling). (SL5)

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E. Students critically analyze information from a variety of sources. 

1. Cite examples of bias in information sources and question the validity of information obtained from various sources. (SL6)

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F. Individually and collaboratively, students use effective communication techniques. 

1. Function effectively in groups within various assigned roles (e.g., reader, recorder). (SL7)

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A. Students understand and demonstrate that ideas are more powerful if they can be justified. 

1. Use various types of evidence (e.g., from logical processes, from measurement, or from observation and experimentation) to support a claim. (SK4 and MJ1 combined)

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2. Draw conclusions about observations. (SK3)

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3. Demonstrate an understanding that ideas are more believable when supported by good reasons. (SK5)

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B. Students use different methods of thought to justify ideas. 

1. Give alternative explanations for observed phenomena. (SK1)

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2. Practice and apply simple logic, intuitive thinking, and brainstorming (SK6) 3. Relate the unfamiliar to the familiar.

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C. Students recognize instances in which attitudes influence reasoning. 

1. Describe how feelings can distort reasoning. (SK2)

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A. Students demonstrate proficiency using a variety of problemsolving strategies. 

1. Use results in a purposeful way, which includes making predictions based on observed patterns and interpret data to make further predictions. (SJ3)

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2. Demonstrate and explain the problem solving process using appropriate tools and technology and defend the reasonableness of results. (MB3)

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3. Design and build an invention. (SJ4)

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A. Students understand that science and mathematics help to make sense of the world. 

1. Investigate and explore the role of scientists and inventors. (SM2)

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2. Explore the history of numeral systems.

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3. Investigate the development of measurement systems in diverse cultures.

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B. Students can describe how the use of mathematics, science and technology has led to many changes in the world. 

1. Explore how technology (e.g., irrigation, transportation) has altered human settlement. (SM3)

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2. Identify naturally occurring (wool, cotton) and human made (plastic, nylon) materials.

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C. Students understand that mathematics and science have changed human understanding of the universe. 

1. Describe how development of the telescope has led to a changed view of the solar system and universe. 2. Explore the Earth through physical models and maps from the past and present.

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D. Students understand that discoveries often have unforeseen consequences. 

1. Identify a current human problem, explain how it might be solved and investigate the consequences of the solution.

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E. Students understand that access to developments in mathematics and science is varied throughout the world. 

1. Explain how cultures have found different technological solutions to deal with similar needs or problems (e.g., construction, clothing, agricultural tools and methods). (SM1)

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2. Explain the connections between industry, natural resources, population and economic development.

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G. Students gain knowledge about the universe, how humans have learned about it and the principles upon which it operates. 

1. Illustrate the relative positions of the sun, moon and planets. (SG1)

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2. Trace the sources of Earth's heat and light energy to the sun. (SG2)

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3. Describe Earth's rotation on its axis and its revolution around the sun. (SG3)

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4. Explore the relationship between the Earth and its moon. (SG4)

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H. Students understand the concepts of energy. 

1. Identify different forms of energy (e.g., light, sound, heat). (SH1)

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2. Explain ways different forms of energy can be produced. (SH2)

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3. Demonstrate how sounds are caused by vibrational energy.

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I. Students understand the motion of objects and how forces change that motion. 

1. Describe the effects of different types of forces ( e.g., mechanical, electrical, magnetic) on motion. (SI1)

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2. Draw conclusions about how the amount of force affects the motion of more massive and less massive objects. (SI2)

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3. Generate examples illustrating that when something is pushed, it exerts a reaction force. (SI3)

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A. Students use scientific inquiry to provide insight into and comprehension of the world around them. 

At each level, students moving toward achievement of this standard will: 

1. Make accurate observations using appropriate tools and units of measure. (SJ1)

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2. Design and conduct scientific investigations which include controlled experiments and systematic observations. Collect and analyze data, and draw conclusions fairly. (SJ2)

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3. Compare and contrast the processes of scientific inquiry and the technological method. (SJ4)

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4. Explain how personal bias can affect observations. (SJ5)

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B. Students use mathematical inquiry to develop conjectures and to prove or disprove them within a mathematical system. 

1. Provide reasons to support mathematical conclusions and verify that numerous examples are not necessarily sufficient to prove a statement.

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2. Recognize that within a mathematical system, some mathematical statements are always true, and that these can be used to demonstrate or prove that other statements are always true as well.

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C. Students develop models to understand the world around them. 

1. Use variables and open sentences to express relationships.

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2. Identify an instance when answers that may be right theoretically may not appropriately answer a practical problem.

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3. Represent mathematical ideas concretely, graphically and symbolically.

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A. Students use clear and accurate communication in sharing their knowledge. 

1. Discuss mathematical, scientific, and technological ideas and make conjectures and convincing arguments. (SL1)

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2. Describe how mathematical formulas are generated and used. 
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B. Students construct knowledge through reflection, evaluation and refocusing. 

1. Defend problemsolving strategies and solutions. (SL2)

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2. Evaluate individual and group communication for its clarity, and work to improve communication (SL3)

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3. Generate and use selfassessment tools.

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C. Students use models to communicate in mathematics and science. 

1. Translate relationships into algebraic notation. (MK1)

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2. Make and use scale drawings, maps, and threedimensional models to represent real objects, find locations, and describe relationships. (SL4)

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3.Organize data in tables, charts and graphs to make claims and support arguments.

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4. Use symbols to represent mathematical and scientific concepts.

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5. Draw pictures and diagrams to solve some types of problems.

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D. Students demonstrate competency in using multiple media to communicate in mathematics and science. 

1.Access information at a remote site using telecommunications. (SL5)

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2. Identify and use suitable media to collect information and to communicate a particular idea to a given audience.

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E. Students critically analyze information from a variety of sources. 

1. Use statistics, tables, and graphs to communicate ideas and information in convincing presentations and analyze presentations of others for bias or deceptive presentation. (MK2)

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2. Communicate the same information in different ways to support diverse points of view.

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3. Recognize that more evidence can change decisions, points of view and conclusions.

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F. Individually and collaboratively, students use effective communication techniques. 

1. Function effectively in groups within various assigned roles (e.g., reader, recorder). (SL7)

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A. Students understand and demonstrate that ideas are more powerful if they can be justified. 

1. Support reasoning by using a variety of evidence such as models, known facts, properties, and relationships. (SK6 and MJ1 combined)

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2. Show that proving a hypothesis false (i.e., that just one exception will do) is much easier than proving a hypothesis true (i.e., true for all possible cases). (SK7)

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3. Construct logical arguments. (SK8)

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4. Demonstrate that multiple paths to a conclusion may exist. (MJ2)

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B. Students use different methods of thought to justify ideas. 

1. Examine the ways people form generalizations. (SK1)

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2. Identify exceptions to proposed generalizations. (SK2)

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3. Apply analogous reasoning. (SK9)

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C. Students recognize instances in which attitudes influence reasoning. 

1. Identify basic informal fallacies including intermingling of fact and opinion, lack of explicit premises, and overgeneralizing. (SK3)

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2. Analyze means of slanting information. (SK4)

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A. Students demonstrate proficiency using a variety of problemsolving strategies. 

1. Verify and evaluate scientific investigations and use the results in a purposeful way. (SJ3)

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2. Design, construct, and test a device (invention) that solves a special problem. (SJ6)

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A. Students understand that science and mathematics help to make sense of the world. 

1. Describe the historical and ciltural conditions at the time of an invention or discovery and analyze the societal impacts of that invention. (SM2)

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2. Recognize the scientific and technological contributions of diverse people including women, different ethnic groups, races, and physically disabled. (SM8)

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B. Students can describe how the use of mathematics, science and technology has led to many changes in the world. 

1. Describe how inventions have changed how people do work.

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2. Investigate the events that led to the discovery of microorganisms and the subsequent changes in medical practices.

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3. Describe how developments in communication technology have changed the way people transmit and receive information.

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C. Students understand that mathematics and science have changed human understanding of the universe. 

1. Demonstrate how new knowledge may lead to new understandings, which lead to new applications, which lead to new problems.

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2. Use simple mathematical modeling to analyze, interpret and predict the results of experiments.

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D. Students understand that discoveries often have unforeseen consequences. 

1. Discuss the ethical issues surrounding a specific scientific or technological development. (SM3)

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2. Give examples of actions which may have expected or unexpected consequences that may be positive, negative, or both. (SM6)

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3. Identify an historical human problem, describe the possible solutions available at the time, explain how the problem was solved, why that particular solution was chosen, and evaluate the positive and negative effects of the solution.

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E. Students understand that access to developments in mathematics and science is varied throughout the world. 

1. Identify factors that have caused some countries to become leaders in science and technology. (SM5)

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2. Explain the connections between industry, natural resources, population, and economic development. (SM7)

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3. Identify a situation where an imbalance in technology between two groups affected an historical event.

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4. Qualitatively and quantitatively compare how various cultures use resources, produce waste products and treat those waste products.

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E. Students understand the structure of matter and the changes it can undergo. 

1. Predict and test whether objects will float or sink based on a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the concepts of density and buoyancy. (SE1)

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2. Describe the evidence that all matter consists of particles called atoms that are made up of certain smaller particles. (SE2)

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3. Use the Periodic Table to group elements based on their characteristics. (SE3)

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4. Describe how a substance can combine with different substances in different ways, depending on the conditions and the properties of each substance. (se4)

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5. Describe how the motion of the particles of matter determines the state of that matter( e.g., (solid, liquid, gas, plasma) and vice versa. (SE5)

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6. Explain how the relatively small number of naturally occurring elements can result in the large variety of substances found in the world. (SE6)

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7. Investigate the similarities and differences between elements, compounds and mixtures. (SE7)

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8. Demonstrate the law of the conservation of matter. (SE8)

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9. Compare different types of mixtures (solutions, suspensions and colloids).

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F. Students gain knowledge about the Earth and the processes that change it. 

1. Demonstrate how the Earth's tilt on its axis results in the seasons. (SF1)

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G. Students gain knowledge about the universe, how humans have learned about it and the principles upon which it operates. 

1. Compare past and present knowledge about characteristics of stars ( e.g.,composition, locations, lifecycles) and explain how people have learned about them. (SG1)

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2. Describe the concept of galaxies, including size and number of stars. (SG2)

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3. Compare and contrast distances and the time required to travel those distances) on Earth, in the solar system, in the galaxy and between galaxies. (SG3)

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4. Describe scientists' exploration of space and some of the objects they have found there (e.g., comets, asteroids, pulsars).(SG4)

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5. Describe the motions of moons, planets, stars, solar systems and galaxies. (SG5)

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H. Students understand the concepts of energy. 

1. Analyze the benefits and drawbacks of energy conversions (e.g., in electricity generation). (SH1)

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2. Demonstrate that energy cannot be created or destroyed but only changed from one form to another. (SH2)

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3. Compare and contrast the ways energy travels (e.g., waves, conduction, convection, radiation). (SH3)

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4. Describe the characteristics of static and current electricity. (SH4)

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5. Categorize energy sources as renewable or nonrenewable and compare how these sources are used by humans. (SH5)

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6. Describe how energy put into or taken out of a system can cause changes in the motion of particles of matter. (SH6)

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7. Compare sound and light energy.

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I. Students understand the motion of objects and how forces change that motion. 

1. Describe the motion of objects using knowledge of Newton's Laws. (SI1)

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2. Use mathematics to describe the motion of objects ( e.g., speed, distance, time, acceleration). (SI2)

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3. Describe and quantify the ways machines can provide mechanical advantages in producing motion. (SI3)

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4. Describe how electricity moves. (SI4)

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A. Students use scientific inquiry to provide insight into and comprehension of the world around them. 

At each level, students moving toward achievement of this standard will: 

1. Make accurate observations using appropriate toosl and units of measure.(SJ5)

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2. Demonstrate the ability to use scientific inquiry and the technological method with shortterm and longterm investigations, recognizing that there is more than one way to solve a problem. Demonstrate knowledge of when to try different strategies. (SJ3)

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B. Students use mathematical inquiry to develop conjectures and to prove or disprove them within a mathematical system. 

1. Differentiate between different mathematical systems and recognize that rules which hold in one system may not hold in others.

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2. Construct formal mathematical arguments to prove or disprove conjectures.

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C. Students develop models to understand the world around them. 

1. Make predictions using statistics, probability and functions.

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2. Form logical arguments to justify explanations.

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3. Represent and analyze relationships using tables, verbal rules, equations and graphs.

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4. Translate among tabular, symbolic and graphical representations of functions.

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5. Demonstrate an understanding that while mathematical statements may be true, it does not mean that models based on these statements are always valid; models must be tested against reality just as scientific theories are tested.

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With appropriate guidance: 

A. Students use clear and accurate communication in sharing their knowledge. 

1. Analyze research or other literature for accuracy in the design and findings of experiments (SL1)

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2. Use families of functions, displayed in graphical, tabular and symbolic form, to communicate and support findings and ideas.

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B. Students construct knowledge through reflection, evaluation and refocusing. 

1. Use journals and selfassessment to describe and analyze mathematical, scientific, and technological experiences and to reflect on problemsolving processes. (SL2)

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2. Refine and extend the use of selfassessment tools.

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C. Students use models to communicate in mathematics and science. 

1. Make and use appropriate mathematical and scientific symbols, pictures, diagrams, scale drawings, and models to represent and simplify real life situations and to solve problems. (SL3)

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2. Employ graphs, tables, and maps in making arguments and conclusions. (SL4)

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3. Critique models, stating how they do and do not effectively represent the real phenomenon. (SL5)

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D. Students demonstrate competency in using multiple media to communicate in mathematics and science. 

1. Evaluate the communication capabilities of new kinds of media (e.g., cameras with computer disks instead of film). (SL6)

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2. Use computers to organize data, generate models, and do research for problem solving. (SL7)

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E. Students critically analyze information from a variety of sources. 

11. Restate, create, and use definitions in mathematics to express understanding, classify figures, and determine the truth of a proposition or argument. (MK1)

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2. Read mathematical presentations of topics within the Learning Results with understanding. (MK2)

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3. Engage in a debate on a scientific issue, where both points of view are based on the same information.

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F. Individually and collaboratively, students use effective communication techniques. 

1. Identify tasks, formulate groups and assign roles to accomplish the tasks.

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A. Students understand and demonstrate that ideas are more powerful if they can be justified. 

1. Distinguish between different forms of logic.

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B. Students use different methods of thought to justify ideas. 

1. Judge the accuracy of alternative explanations by identifying the evidence necessary to support them. (SK1)

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2. Analyze situations where more than one logical conclusion can be drawn from the data presented. (SK6 and MJ1 combined)

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3. Develop generalizations based on observations. (SK3)

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4. Determine when there is a need to revise studies to improve their validity through better sampling, controls, or data analysis techniques. (SK4)

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5. Produce inductive and deductive arguments to support conjecture. (SK5)

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C. Students recognize instances in which attitudes influence reasoning. 

1. Explain why agreement among people does not make an argument valid. (SK2)

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2. Describe an example that demonstrates what people study and how they study can affect the theories they develop.

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A. Students demonstrate proficiency using a variety of problemsolving strategies. 

1. Verify, evaluate, and use results in a purposeful way. This includes analyzing and interpreting data, making predictions based on observed patterns, testing solutions against the original problem conditions, and formulating additional questions. (SJ2)

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2. Demonstrate the ability to use scientific inquiry and the technological method with short term and long term investigations, recognizing that there is more than one way to solve a problem. Demonstrate knowledge of when to try different strategies. (SJ3)

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3. Design and construct a device to perform a specific function, then redesign for improvement (e.g., performance, cost). (SJ4)

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A. Students understand that science and mathematics help to make sense of the world. 

1. Examine the impact of political decisions on science and technology. (SM1)

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2. Examine the historical relationships between prevailing cultural beliefs and breakthroughs in science, mathematics, and technology (e.g., the work of Darwin, Kepler, Copernicus). (SM5)

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3. Research the life of a scientist or mathematician and explore the cultural influences upon his or her work.

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4. Recognize that there are certain questions and concerns that mathematics and science cannot answer or even address.

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B. Students can describe how the use of mathematics, science and technology has led to many changes in the world. 

1. Describe how developments in transportation technology have affected patterns of human settlement and ecological systems in Maine.

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2. Describe how knowledge of atomic physics has changed energy production, medical technology and international relationships.

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3. Explore how advances in knowledge of elements and compounds have led to the manufacture of new materials.

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4. Research how technological developments have affected productivity, and the resulting social consequences (class conflict, working conditions, unemployment, longevity, wealth, leisure time).

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5. Investigate the relationship between technology development and natural resource use (agriculture, forestry, mineral extraction), including concepts of sustainability, competing uses and preservation of natural areas.

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C. Students understand that mathematics and science have changed human understanding of the universe. 

1. Research how developments in mathematics and science led to new theories about the composition and future of the universe.

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2. Explain how knowledge of fossils, geologic processes and dating techniques led to a new understanding of Earth's past.

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3. Describe how modern theories about genetics, probability and Earth's age provide important evidence for the theory of evolution.

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4. Explain how refinements in scientific and mathematical tools and techniques are enabling scientists and mathematicians to study phenomena and situations in everincreasing detail.

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5. Describe how new theories (e.g., special relativity) are continually arising and continue to challenge the current understanding of the universe.

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6. Demonstrate how the theory of plate tectonics has enabled scientists to understand and possibly predict some natural disasters (volcanoes, earthquakes).

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7. Use sophisticated mathematical modeling to analyze, interpret and predict the results of experiments.

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D. Students understand that discoveries often have unforeseen consequences. 

1. Evaluate the ethical use or introduction of new scientific or technological developments. (SM3)

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2. Analyze the impacts of various scientific and technological developments. (SM4)

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3. Identify a current human problem; explore what areas of science, mathematics, and technology are being used to address it; discuss the limitations of these methods and develop possible strategies to overcome these limitations. Describe the importance of serendipity (making significant discoveries by accident) in some specific science and mathematics innovations.

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4. Describe the importance of serendipity (making significant discoveries by accident) in some specific science and mathematics innovations.

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5. Compare the costs and benefits to society of a scientific development (nuclear fission, genetic engineering).

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E. Students understand that access to developments in mathematics and science is varied throughout the world. 

1. Research issues that illustrate the effects of technological imbalances and suggest some solutions. (SM6)

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G. Students gain knowledge about the universe, how humans have learned about it and the principles upon which it operates. 

1. Describe how scientists gather data about the universe. (SG1)

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2. Research current explanations for phenomena such as black holes and quasars. (SG2)

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3. Explain how astronomers measure interstellar distances. (SG3)

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H. Students understand the concepts of energy. 

1. Analyze the evidence that leads scientists to conclude that light behaves somewhat like a wave and somewhat like a particle. (SH1)

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2. Examine and describe how light is reflected and refracted (deflected) by mirrors and lenses. (SH2)

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3. Explain or demonstrate how sound waves travel. (SH3)

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4. Analyze the relationship between kinetic and potential energy of a falling object. (SH4)

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5. Use mathematics to describe the work and power in a system. (SH5)

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6. Describe the relationship between matter and energy and how matter releases energy through the processes of nuclear fission and fusion. (SH6)

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7. Use mathematics to describe and predict electrical and magnetic activity (current resistance, voltage). (SH7)

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8. Compare and contrast how conductors and superconductors work and describe their present and potential uses. (SH8)

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9. Demonstrate an understanding that energy can be found in chemical bonds and nuclear bonds and can be used when it is released from those bonds. (SH9)

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10. Describe thermodynamics and its effects.

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I. Students understand the motion of objects and how forces change that motion. 

1. Use mathematics to describe the law of conservation of momentum. (SI1)

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2. Explain some current theories of gravitational force. (SI2)

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3. Use Newton's Laws to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the motion of objects. (SI3)

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4. Describe how forces affect fluids ( e.g., air and water). (SI4)

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5. Explain the relationship between temperature, heat and molecular motion. (SI5)

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6. Describe how forces within and between atoms affect their behavior and the properties of matter. (SI6)

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7. Recognize that there are situations in which Newton's Laws do not accurately describe motion.

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Updated January 2001