Kentucky Core Content for Science Assessment

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Kentucky Core Content for Science Assessment standards you can cover using PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

For additional Kentucky Core Content for Science Assessment science standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE

Grades Primary through 4 with Assessment at Grade 4
Grades 5 through 7 with Assessment at Grade 7
Grades 8 through 11 with Assessment at Grade 11

Grades Primary through 4 with Assessment at Grade 4

Conceptual Understandings: Physical Science
Academic Expectations: 2.2 Patterns of Change, 2.3 Systems, 2.4 Scale and Models, 2.5 Constancy, and 2.6 Change Over Time
Content Statements

Position and Motion of Objects

 

The position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object or the background. The position can be described using phrases such as to the right, to the left, 50 cm from the other object.

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An objectís motion can be described by measuring its change in position over time such as rolling different objects (e.g., spheres, toy cars) down a ramp.

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The position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The amount of change in position and motion is related to the strength of the push or pull (force). The force with which a ball is hit illustrates this principle.

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Vibration is a type of motion. Sound is produced by vibrating objects. The pitch of the sound can be varied by changing the rate of vibration.

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Light, Heat, Electricity, and Magnetism

 

Light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object. Light can be reflected by a shiny object (e.g., mirror, spoon), refracted by a lens (e.g., magnifying glass, eyeglasses), or absorbed by an object (e.g., dark surface).

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Heat can be produced in many ways such as burning or rubbing. One way heat can move from one object to another is by conduction. Some materials absorb and conduct heat better than others. For example, metal objects conduct heat better than wooden objects.

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Electricity in circuits can produce light, heat, sound, and magnetic effects. Electrical circuits require a complete conducting path through which an electrical current can pass.

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Magnets attract and repel each other, and magnets attract certain kinds of other materials (e.g., iron).

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Conceptual Understandings: Earth and Space Science
Academic Expectations: 2.2 Patterns of Change, 2.3 Systems, 2.4 Scale and Models, 2.5 Constancy, and 2.6 Change Over Time
Content Statements

Objects in the Sky

 

The Sun provides the light and heat necessary to maintain the temperature of Earth. The Sunís light and heat are necessary to sustain life on Earth.

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Objects in the sky (e.g., Sun, clouds, moon) have properties, locations, and real or apparent movements that can be observed and described.

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Changes in Earth and Sky

 

The surface of the Earth changes. Some changes are due to slow processes such as erosion or weathering. Some changes are due to rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

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Changes in movement of objects in the sky have patterns that can be observed and described. The Sun appears to move across the sky in the same way every day, but the Sunís apparent path changes slowly over seasons. The moon moves across the sky on a daily basis much like the Sun. The observable shape of the moon changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts about a month.

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Scientific Inquiry
Inquiry skills will be assessed only in the context of physical, Earth/space, and life sciences content.
Academic Expectation: 2.1 Scientific Ways of Thinking and Working
Content Statements

Students will

 

ask simple scientific questions that can be investigated through observations combined with scientific information.

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use simple equipment (e.g., magnifiers, magnets), tools (e.g., metric rulers, thermometers), skills (e.g., classifying, predicting), technology (e.g., electronic media, calculators, World Wide Web), and mathematics in scientific investigations.

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use evidence (e.g., observations, data) from simple scientific investigations and scientific knowledge to develop reasonable explanations.

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design and conduct simple scientific investigations.

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communicate (e.g., draw, graph, write) designs, procedures, observations, and results of scientific investigations.

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review and ask questions about scientific investigations and explanations of other students.

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Applications/Connections
Applications/connections skills will be assessed only in the context of physical, Earth/space, and life sciences content.
Academic Expectations: 2.2 Patterns of Change, 2.3 Systems, 2.4 Scale and Models, 2.5 Constancy, and 2.6 Change Over Time
Content Statements

Students will

 

Science and Technology

 

distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans and examine the interaction between science and technology. Technology (e.g., thermometer, hand lens) is used to study science, while science provides theories for technology. Science is used to design simple technological solutions to problems (e.g., use understanding of heat transfer in designing an insulated container for ice cubes).

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Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

 

examine how designing and conducting scientific investigations fosters an understanding of issues related to natural resources (e.g., scarcity), demonstrate how the study of science (e.g., aquariums, living systems) helps explain changes in environments, and examine the role of science and technology in communities (e.g., location of landfills, new housing developments).

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History and Nature of Science

 

examine the role science plays in everyday life.

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Grades 5 through 7 with Assessment at Grade 7

Conceptual Understandings: Physical Science
Academic Expectations: 2.2 Patterns of Change, 2.3 Systems, 2.4 Scale and Models, 2.5 Constancy, and 2.6 Change Over Time
Content Statements

Motions and Forces

 

The motion of an object can be described by its relative position, direction of motion, and speed. That motion can be measured and represented on a graph.

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An object remains at rest or maintains a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced force acts on it.

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When an unbalanced force acts on an object, the change in speed and/or direction depends on the size and direction of the force.

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Transfer of Energy

 

Energy is a property of many substances and is associated with heat, light, electricity, and sound. Energy is transferred in many ways.

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Heat energy moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both objects reach the same temperature.

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Light energy interacts with matter by transmission (including refraction), absorption, or scattering (including reflection).

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The Sun is a major source of energy for changes on Earthís surface. The Sun loses energy by emitting light. A tiny fraction of that light reaches Earth, transferring energy from the Sun to Earth.

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Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy when heat, light, sound, and chemical changes are produced.

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Conceptual Understandings: Earth and Space Science
Academic Expectations: 2.2 Patterns of Change, 2.3 Systems, 2.4 Scale and Models, 2.5 Constancy, and 2.6 Change Over Time
Content Statements

Earth in the Solar System

 

Earth is the third planet from the Sun in a system that includes the moon, the Sun, eight other planets and their moons, and smaller objects such as asteroids and comets. The Sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system.

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Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion. Those motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, phases of the moon, and eclipses.

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Gravity is the force that keeps the planets in orbit around the Sun and governs the rest of the motion in the solar system. The gravitational pull of the Sun and moon on Earthís oceans is the major cause of tides.

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The Sun is the major source of energy for Earth. The water cycle, winds, ocean currents, and growth of plants are affected by the Sunís energy. Seasons result from variations in the amount of the Sunís energy hitting Earthís surface.

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Scientific Inquiry
Inquiry skills will be assessed only in the context of physical, Earth/space, and life sciences content.
Academic Expectation: 2.1 Scientific Ways of Thinking and Working
Content Statements

Students will

 

refine and refocus questions that can be answered through scientific investigation combined with scientific information.

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use appropriate equipment, tools, techniques, technology, and mathematics to gather, analyze, and interpret scientific data.

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use evidence (e.g., computer models), logic, and scientific knowledge to develop scientific explanations.

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design and conduct scientific investigations.

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communicate (e.g., write, graph) designs, procedures, observations, and results of scientific investigations.

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review and analyze scientific investigations and explanations of other students.

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Applications/Connections
Applications/connections skills will be assessed only in the context of physical, Earth/space, and life sciences content.
Academic Expectations: 2.2 Patterns of Change, 2.3 Systems, 2.4 Scale and Models, 2.5 Constancy, and 2.6 Change Over Time
Content Statements

Students will

 

Science and Technology

 

describe how science helps drive technology and technology helps drive science. Because perfectly designed solutions do not exist, technological solutions have intended benefits and unintended consequences.

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Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

 

describe the individualís roles and responsibilities in the following areas: changes in populations, resources and environments including ecological crises and environmental issues, natural hazards, science and technology in society, and personal and societal issues about risks and benefits.

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History and Nature of Science

 

demonstrate the role science plays in everyday life: past, present, and future. Science is a human endeavor. Men and women of various social and ethnic backgrounds engage in activities of science (to include careers in science). Scientists formulate and test their explanations of nature using observations, experiments, and theoretical and mathematical models. It is part of scientific inquiry to evaluate the results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical models, and the explanations proposed by other scientists.

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Grades 8 through 11 with Assessment at Grade 11

Conceptual Understandings: Physical Science
Academic Expectations: 2.2 Patterns of Change, 2.3 Systems, 2.4 Scale and Models, 2.5 Constancy, and 2.6 Change Over Time
Content Statements

Motions and Forces

 

Objects change their motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to describe the effects of forces on the motion of objects.

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Gravity is a universal force that each mass exerts on every other mass.

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The electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel.

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Electricity and magnetism are two aspects of a single electromagnetic force. Moving electric charges produce magnetic forces, and moving magnets produce electric forces. This idea underlies the operation of electric motors and generators.

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Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder

 

The total energy of the universe is constant. Energy can be transferred in many ways, but it can neither be created nor destroyed.

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All energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy, potential energy, or energy contained by a field (e.g., electric, magnetic, gravitational).

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Heat is the manifestation of the random motion and vibrations of atoms, molecules, and ions. The greater the atomic or molecular motion, the higher the temperature.

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The universe becomes less orderly and less organized over time. Thus, the overall effect is that the energy is spread out uniformly. For example, in the operation of mechanical systems, the useful energy output is always less than the energy input; the difference appears as heat.

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Interactions of Energy and Matter

 

Waves, including sound and seismic waves, waves on water, and electromagnetic waves, can transfer energy when they interact with matter. Apparent changes in frequency can provide information about relative motion.

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Electromagnetic waves, including radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays, result when a charged object is accelerated.

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Conceptual Understandings: Earth and Space Science
Academic Expectations: 2.2 Patterns of Change, 2.3 Systems, 2.4 Scale and Models, 2.5 Constancy, and 2.6 Change Over Time
Content Statements

The Formation and Ongoing Changes of the Earth System

 

The Sun, Earth, and the rest of the solar system formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from a nebular cloud of dust and gas.

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Techniques used to estimate geological time include using radioactive dating, observing rock sequences, and comparing fossils to correlate the rock sequences at various locations.

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Interactions among the solid Earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and living things have resulted in the ongoing development of a changing Earth system. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale, but many processes, such as mountain building and plate movements, take place over hundreds of millions of years.

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Evidence for one-celled forms of life, the bacteria, extends back more than 3.5 billion years. The changes in life over time caused dramatic changes in the composition of the Earthís atmosphere, which did not originally contain oxygen.

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The Formation and Ongoing Changes of the Universe

 

The big bang theory and observational measurements that support it place the origin of the universe at a time between 10 and 20 billion years ago, when the universe began in a hot dense state. According to this theory, the universe has been expanding since then.

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Early in the history of the universe, the first atoms to form were mainly hydrogen and helium. Over time, these elements clump together by gravitational attraction to form trillions of stars.

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Stars have life cycles of birth through death that are analogous to those of living organisms. During their lifetimes, stars generate energy from nuclear fusion reactions that create successively heavier chemical elements. Some stars explode at the end of their lives, and the heavy elements they have created are blasted out into space to form the next generation of stars and planets.

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Scientific Inquiry
Inquiry skills will be assessed only in the context of physical, Earth/space, and life sciences content.
Academic Expectation: 2.1 Scientific Ways of Thinking and Working
Content Statements

Students will

 

formulate testable hypotheses and demonstrate the logical connections between the scientific concepts guiding a hypothesis and the design of an experiment.

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use equipment, tools, techniques, technology, and mathematics to improve scientific investigations and communications.

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use evidence, logic, and scientific knowledge to develop and revise scientific explanations and models.

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design and conduct different kinds of scientific investigations.

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communicate and defend the designs, procedures, observations, and results of scientific investigations.

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review and analyze scientific investigations and explanations of other investigators, including peers.

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Applications/Connections
Applications/connections skills will be assessed only in the context of physical, Earth/space, and life sciences content.
Academic Expectations: 2.2 Patterns of Change, 2.3 Systems, 2.4 Scale and Models, 2.5 Constancy, and 2.6 Change Over Time
Content Statements

Students will

 

Science and Technology

 

apply scientific theory and conceptual understandings to solve problems of technological design and examine the interaction between science and technology.

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Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

 

explore the impact of scientific knowledge and discoveries on personal and community health; recognize how science influences human population growth, use science to analyze the use of natural resources by an increasing human population; investigate how science can be used to solve environmental quality problems, use science to investigate natural and human-induced hazards; and analyze how science and technology are necessary but not sufficient for solving local, national, and global issues.

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History and Nature of Science

 

analyze the role science plays in everyday life and compare different careers in science; recognize that scientific knowledge comes from empirical standards, logical arguments, and skepticism, and is subject to change as new evidence becomes available; and investigate advances in science and technology that have important and long-lasting effects on science and society.

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Updated January 2001