Connecticut Science Content Standards

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Connecticut Science Content Standards you can cover using PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

For additional Connecticut Science Content Standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE

Grades K-4,   Grades 5-8,   Grades 9-12

GRADES K-4

CONTENT STANDARD 1: The Nature Of Science

Students will experience an inquiry-based learning environment in which they are free to ask questions, seek information and validate explanations in thoughtful and creative ways. Students also will understand that the processes, ways of knowing and conceptual foundations of science are interdependent and inextricably bound.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K - 4 will assure that students:

 

recognize (in Grades K-2) that when a scientific investigation is done in the same way in different places or when repeated many times, the investigation generally has the same results;

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raise questions (in Grades K-2) about their surroundings and seek answers by making careful observations and trying things out;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that tools such as thermometers, magnifiers, rulers or balances often give more information than can be obtained by making observations without them;

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describe things as accurately as possible (in Grades K-2) because careful, complete observations enable people to compare their observations with those of others;

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use their senses (in Grades K-2),i.e., sight, taste, sound, touch, smell, to make  observations about the natural world and discuss their findings;

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use open-minded and willing to modify opinions based upon evidence;

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design and conduct (both in groups and individually) simple experiments, keep accurate records of their findings, and communicate their findings to others using graphs, charts, maps, and oral and written reports;

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use evidence and logical reasoning as a basis for decision making;

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recognize that scientistsí explanations about what happens in the world come partly from what they observe and partly from what they believe;

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recognize that sometimes scientists have different explanations for the same set of observations, which usually leads to additional observations to resolve the differences; and

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recognize that measuring instruments can be used to gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects and events and for designing and constructing things that will work properly.

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CONTENT STANDARD 2: History Of Science

Students will learn the evolution of scientific thought, how science has influenced culture and society, and how groups from many countries have contributed to the history of science.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K - 4 will assure that students:

 

recognize (in Grades K-2) that science is an adventure that people every-where can take part in, as they have for many centuries;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that scientists usually work in groups, but important discoveries often have been made by individuals;

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understand (in Grades K-2) that scientists study different things because they have different interests;

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recognize that, although men and women doing scientific inquiry have learned much about the objects, events and phenomena in nature, there is still much more to be understood;

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recognize that scientific ideas have changed over time;

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understand that scientific investigations often raise questions which lead to new investigations;

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recognize that a knowledge of the history of science can help scientists decide what needs to be studied next; and

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understand that new technologies (a new instrument or device) allow scientists to conduct investigations that were not previously possible.

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CONTENT STANDARD 10: The Universe

Students will understand that the Earth is a unique, dynamic member of the solar system, located in a galaxy within a changing universe.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K-4 will assure that students:

 

recognize (in Grades K-2) that there are more stars in the sky than anyone can easily count, they are randomly distributed, and they vary in brightness or color;

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understand (in Grades K-2) that the sun can be seen only in the daytime, but the moon can be seen sometimes at night and sometimes during the day;

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know (in Grades K-2) that the sun, moon and stars all appear to move slowly across the sky;

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describe (in Grades K-2) how the moon looks a little different every day, but looks the same about every four weeks;

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describe (in Grades K-2) how the astronauts use spacecraft for travel and how some astronauts have even traveled to the moon and back;

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know that the patterns of stars in the sky appear to stay the same, although they appear to move across the sky nightly, and different star patterns (constellations) can be seen in different seasons;

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understand that telescopes magnify the appearance of the moon, the planets and stars;

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know that the Earth is one of several planets that orbit the sun, and that the moon orbits the Earth;

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know that stars are like the sun, some being smaller and some larger, but they are at such great distances that they look like points of light;

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recognize that the rotation of the Earth on its axis every 24 hours produces the night-and-day cycle; and

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recognize that information and photographs from orbiting spacecraft have added to our knowledge of the Earth and the universe.

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CONTENT STANDARD 12: Energy

Students will know that energy is conserved, transferred, transformed, and appears in different forms.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K-4 will assure that students:

 

recognize (in Grades K-2) forms of energy (e.g., heat, light, sound) used every day;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that visible light contains the colors of the rainbow;

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demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that sound can be produced by vibrating objects;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that energy can be used to bring about changes in matter (e.g., melt an ice cube);

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demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that sound has different properties (e.g., high-low, loud-soft);

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understand (in Grades K-2) that the sunís rays warm objects on the Earth;

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describe various forms of energy, such as light, heat, electrical and chemical, and cite examples of the change of one form into another;

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recognize that sounds can be varied by making changes to the objects emitting the sound (e.g., tautness of a string, length of a tube, medium through which the sound travels);

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recognize that some mate-rials conduct heat better than others, and that poor conductors (insulators) can reduce heat loss;

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give examples of ways energy consumption can be reduced;

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recognize that primary colors of light can be mixed to create other colors;

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demonstrate that light has a number of properties, such as color, brightness and direction of travel; and

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demonstrate that light can be absorbed, reflected, transmitted and bent using mirrors and lenses.

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CONTENT STANDARD 13: Interaction Of Matter And Energy

Students will know that interactions between matter and energy can produce changes in a system, although the total quantities of matter and energy are unchanged.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K-4 will assure that students:

 

demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that the position or motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that the motion of objects can be compared by describing the general direction or type of motion (straight line, zigzag, vibrating or circular) and the relative speed;

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demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that magnets can move some objects without touching them;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that magnets attract or repel each other and attract a few kinds of metals;

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demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that objects fall to the ground unless supported;

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give examples of some forces (e.g., magnetism, gravity) that can change the motion of objects without touching them;

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recognize that the motion of an object can be described as a change in the position of the object with respect to another object or background; and

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demonstrate that magnetic and electrostatic forces may both attract and repel.

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CONTENT STANDARD 14: Science And Technology

Students will understand the relationships among mathematics, science and technology and the way they affect and are affected by society.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K-4 will assure that students:

 

understand (in Grades K-2) that people create tools (e.g., shovel, hand lens, pencil), to help them to do things better and to do some things that other-wise could not be done at all ;

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identify (in Grades K-2) the contributions of science and technology to individuals and society;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that simple machines can be used to help people do work;

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describe the role and use of technological devices in everyday life ( e.g., micro-wave ovens, telephones, VCRs);

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recognize possible negative consequences to people, other organisms or the environment, of technological solutions to specific problems;

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understand that technology enables scientists and others to observe the world, e.g., things that are too small or too far away to be seen without technology, the motion of objects that are moving very rapidly or are hardly moving at all;

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identify alternative strategies to solve existing and potential environmental or technological problems;

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describe activities in which students can participate that can benefit their communities (e.g., recycling, water conservation);

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recognize that technology extends the ability of people to change the world (e.g., to cut, shape or put together materials; to move things from one place to another; to extend the reach of hands, voices, senses and minds);

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identify careers that use science and technology; and

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understand that there are different types of simple machines.

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GRADES 5-8

CONTENT STANDARD 1: The Nature Of Science

Students will experience an inquiry-based learning environment in which they are free to ask questions, seek information and validate explanations in thoughtful and creative ways. Students also will understand that the processes, ways of knowing and conceptual foundations of science are interdependent and inextricably bound.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5 - 8 will assure that students:

 

conduct scientific investigations which generally involve the collection of relevant evidence, the use of logical reasoning and creativity in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the evidence;;

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identify and control variables in experiments;

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evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of claims, arguments or data;

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recognize that a variety of experimental designs and strategies can be developed to answer the same question;

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use appropriate technology as a tool in problem solving;

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accept the open-ended-ness of scientific inquiry and that scientific findings are not always definite or complete; and

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use scientific knowledge and ways of thinking in personal decision making.

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CONTENT STANDARD 2: History Of Science

Students will learn the evolution of scientific thought, how science has influenced culture and society, and how groups from many countries have contributed to the history of science.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5 - 8 will assure that students:

 

recognize important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics and technology that have been made by men and women in different cultures at different times;

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understand that scientific discoveries are influenced by technological demands, competition, controversy, world events, personalities and societal issues;

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recognize that, throughout history, scientists and engineers have been considered valued contributors to society; and

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recognize that, throughout history, it has been difficult for scientific innovators to break through the preconceptions of their time to reach conclusions which today seem obvious.

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CONTENT STANDARD 10: The Universe

Students will understand that the Earth is a unique, dynamic member of the solar system, located in a galaxy within a changing universe.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5-9 will assure that students:

 

understand that, to people living on the Earth, the 24-hour period of rotation of the Earth makes it seem as though the sun, moon, planets and stars are orbiting the Earth once a day;

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recognize that the sun is a medium-sized star located near the edge of a disk-shaped galaxy of stars, that the universe contains many millions of galaxies, and that each galaxy contains many billions of stars;

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describe the solar system as consisting of nine planets, different in size, composition and surface features, which all revolve around the sun in ellipti-calorbits;

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understand that the moonís orbit around the Earth changes how much of the lighted portion of the moon can be seen from the Earth;

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realize that the planets change their positions against the background of stars;

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recognize that the mutual gravitational attraction of the Earth, moon and sun produces the oceanís tides; and

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understand that many artificial satellites now orbit the Earth and are used for a variety of purposes.

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CONTENT STANDARD 12: Energy

Students will know that energy is conserved, transferred, transformed, and appears in different forms.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5-8 will assure that students:

 

recognize that energy can neither be created nor destroyed;

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identify energy transformations that occur in various systems (e.g., biological, mechanical, geological) and recognize that heat is a by product of energy transformations;

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demonstrate that heat can be transferred by convection, conduction and radiation;

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recognize that energy exists in many forms (e.g., light, heat, chemical, electrical and mechanical) and that energy can be transformed from one form to another;

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understand that all physical changes, including changes of state, require energy;

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recognize that the sun produces energy in a range of wavelengths within the electromagnetic spectrum; and

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compare and contrast different forms of energy in terms of their wave-lengths on the electromagnetic spectrum.

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CONTENT STANDARD 14: Science And Technology

Students will understand the relationships among mathematics, science and technology and the way they affect and are affected by society.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5-8 will assure that students:

 

investigate and describe human uses of renewable and nonrenewable re-sources (e.g., forests, fossil fuels);

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explain interrelationships between science and technology ( e.g., building a bridge, designing a better running shoe);

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describe how the use of technology can contribute to the solution of an individual or community problem (e.g., using oxygenated fuels to help reduce air pollution);

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recognize that science and technology cannot solve every problem faced by society;

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describe how people use science and technology in their professions;

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identify and analyze ways in which advances in science and technology have affected each other and society;

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recognize that issues related to science, technology and society often are complex and involve risk/benefit trade-offs;

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understand that scientific advances may be misused and developed into technologies that have negative consequences;

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identify technological advances that are reported in the media; and

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understand that engineers, architects and others who engage in design and technology use scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.

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GRADES 9-12

CONTENT STANDARD 1: The Nature Of Science

Students will experience an inquiry-based learning environment in which they are free to ask questions, seek information and validate explanations in thoughtful and creative ways. Students also will understand that the processes, ways of knowing and conceptual foundations of science are interdependent and inextricably bound.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 9 - 12 will assure that students:

 

gather and synthesize information concerning a problem;

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generate and revise hypotheses based upon empirical data and the requirements of logical reasoning;

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interpret the results of experimentation using statistical reasoning;

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critique scientific experiments or research by seeking out possible sources of bias in the design and analysis of data;

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suggest alternative ways of explaining data and criticize arguments in which data, explanations or conclusions are represented as the only ones worthy of consideration; and

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prepare and present oral and written scientific reports that communicate in a logical sequence the process, results and validity of scientific experiments and research.

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CONTENT STANDARD 2: History Of Science

Students will learn the evolution of scientific thought, how science has influenced culture and society, and how groups from many countries have contributed to the history of science.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 9 - 12 will assure that students:

 

recognize that many Western as well as non-Western cultures (e.g., Egyptian, Chinese, Hindu, Arabic, Mayan) have developed scientific ideas and solved human problems through technology;

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recognize that changes in science usually occur as small modifications in existing knowledge and result in incremental advances in our understanding of the world and our ability to meet human needs and aspirations;

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recognize that occasion-ally there are advances in science and technology that have important and long-lasting effects on science and society (e.g., the Copernican revolution; plate tectonics; bio-logical evolution; germ theory; industrial revolution; technological revolution); and

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recognize that the study of scientific explanations throughout history demonstrates how scientific knowledge changes and evolves over time, building on earlier knowledge.

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CONTENT STANDARD 10: The Universe

Students will understand that the Earth is a unique, dynamic member of the solar system, located in a galaxy within a changing universe.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 9-12 will assure that students:

 

understand that the stars differ from each other in size, temperature and age, but they appear to be made up of the same elements that are found on the Earth and appear to behave according to the same physical principles;

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state that on the basis of scientific evidence, the universe is expanding and is estimated to be well over 15 billion years old;

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describe how increasingly sophisticated technology is used to learn about the universe (e.g., visual, radio and X-ray telescopes);

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understand that mathematical models and computer simulations are used in studying evidence from many sources in order to form a more comprehensive scientific account of the universe;

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recognize that orbiting instruments, such as the Hubble telescope, provide information about the universe that could not be gathered from the Earthís surface;

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recognize that the solar system is part of a constantly changing universe in which stars are born, change and die; and

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understand that light from a star takes a very long time to reach the Earth and is actually a representation of its past location.

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CONTENT STANDARD 12: Energy

Students will know that energy is conserved, transferred, transformed, and appears in different forms.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 9-12 will assure that students:

 

classify various forms of energy as either kinetic or potential;

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recognize that heat energy is related to the disordered motion of atoms or molecules;

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understand that the total amount of disorder in the universe is increasing;

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explain that, although energy changes into different forms within a closed system, the total amount of energy remains unchanged, while the amount of useful energy is decreased;

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describe the nature of different types of waves, how they are produced, and how they transfer energy;

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understand that every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object; and

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interpret the physical characteristics of sound, (including pitch and loudness) in terms of wave theory.

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CONTENT STANDARD 14: Science And Technology

Students will understand the relationships among mathematics, science and technology and the way they affect and are affected by society.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 9-12 will assure that students:

 

analyze benefits and limit costs and consequences involved in using technology or resources (e.g., X-rays, agricultural chemicals, natural gas reserves);

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analyze how the introduction of new technology has affected or could affect human activity (e.g., invention of the telescope, applications of modern telecommunications and bioengineering);

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recognize that technological innovations (e.g., the automobile) may produce unanticipated problems of their own;

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apply their knowledge and understanding of chemical and physical interactions to explain present and anticipated technologies (e.g., lasers, ultrasound, superconducting materials, photocopy machines);

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recognize that science and technology often develop faster than society can comprehend their ethical implications;

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explore the scientific and technological aspects of contemporary problems (e.g., issues related to nutrition, air quality, natural resources);

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understand that science strives to understand the natural world and seeks explanations for natural phenomena, while technology seeks solutions to human problems and needs;

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understand that science, mathematics and technology are interdependent human endeavors with strengths and limitations; and

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recognize that technological problems often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, while new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research or to undertake entirely new lines of research.

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Updated January 2001