onair-lfrf.041498


  • Re: Sulidae "Answer1"
  • Re: Eels "Answer2"
  • Re: brasilian asks "Answer1"
  • Re: snakes "Answer1"
  • Re: Scarlet Macaw "Answer6"
  • Re: hello! "Answer7"
  • Re: Species/ question "Answer8"
  • Re: Douroucoulis "Answer7"
  • Re: Monkey "Answer7"
  • Re: animals "Answer1"
  • Re: animal "Answer8"
  • Re: frogs "Answer3"
  • Re: QUestion about Amazon flooding "Answer6"
  • Re: Adaptations "Answer7"
  • Re: Deforestation "Answer5"
  • Re: Question about the Amazon Rainforest "Answer8"
  • Re: Re: animal "Answer7"
  • Re: Rainforest "Answer3"
  • Re: About amazon "Answer8"
  • Re: Birds "Answer5"
  • Re: Bats "Answer7"
  • Re: Rainforest/question "Answer5"
  • Re: bats "Answer7"
  • Re: Rainforest "Answer8"
  • Re: Dung Beetles "Answer5"
  • Re: rainforest "Answer1"
  • Re: Birds "Answer5"
  • Re: Question for Live from the Rain Forest "Answer6"
  • Re: birds "Answer5"
  • Re: Largest Animal "Answer7"
  • Re: tarantula "Answer6"
  • Re: Rainforest researcher "Answer1"
  • Re: Leaf-cutter Ants "Answer8"
  • Re: GOOD QUESTION...PLEASE DO NOT DISCARD, PLEASE? THIS IS A QUESTION FROM A LITTLE GIRL WHO GOT SICK AND WON'T READ THIS ON T.V.!!!!! "Answer1"
  • Re: World's Beneath the Canopy "Answer6"
  • Re: Re: animals "Answer6"
  • Re: preservation "Answer1"
  • Re: question "Answer6"Other ONAIR-LFRF archives

    Re: Sulidae


    From: "Answer1"
    Subject: Re: Sulidae
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 12:08:18 -0400
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    Question:How does eye position in the Sulidae assist in plunge diving?

    Answer:Both eyes can look forwards at the same object giving stereoscopicvision for depth perception. Good for diving on fish!

    Re: Eels


    From: "Answer2"
    Subject: Re: Eels
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 12:18:39 -0400
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    Question:How do the eels produce the electricity? Can it be measured? How doesit compare to a small battery?

    Answer:Eels have special tissue in their tails called the electric organ. Thebrain has a pacemaker (much like the pacemaker in our hearts) that helpsfire the electric organ. The electricity goes through the eel's body andpasses out into the water. Eels use this electricity to stun their food,usually other fish. The electricity that is produced by eels is very strongand can be felt by a person standing in the water. We measure theelectricity with special wires that go to an amplifier (much like theamplifier in your stereo at home). The electricity that an eel can produceis much stronger than a most batteries. At some large aquaria, eels havebeen used to lproduce enough electricity to light a small light bulb.Electric eels can be very dangerous and should be treated with much caution.Sincerely,Mary HagedornZoologist

    Re: brasilian asks


    From: "Answer1"
    Subject: Re: brasilian asks
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:21:38 -0400
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    Question:I am here in Brazil watching the television and I have some questionsabout the brazilian rain forest. I would like to know what are the froggsliving in the forest, the bigest oneand its size. And at least, I =B4d like toknow also what are the political,economical american interests in our forest.

    Answer:There are many frogs in the Brazilian rainforest. Probably more thananywhere else in the world. One large frog is Bufo marinus, probably 8inches long, the size of a good dinner plate. It has big poison glands todefend itself against predators, but it is delicious to eat if you removethe poison glands first. It eats insects and small mammals and iscamouflaged like the dead leaves on the forest floor. There are many otherlarge frogs, some brightly colored and they all make noises to attractmates. Some people even call it singing, but I don't think it sounds verysweet. Bufo marinus sounds like a machine gun firing..........brrrrrrrrr.

    I am a biologist and can't answer the question about politics. Hope this isOK. Mike Robinson>>

    Re: snakes


    From: "Answer1"
    Subject: Re: snakes
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:29:24 -0400
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    Question:What percentage of rainforest snakes are poisonous?

    Answer:I don't know what percentage of snakes are poisonous. Many arenon-poisonous. Some are constrictors, the boas. Some are rear-fanged, andsome are true vipers like the fer-de-lance. Sorry I cannot be more exact.The coral snakes are very poisonous, but have small teeth and are not verydangerous. They are all very brightly colored and this helps predators tolearn to avoid them. Some innocent snakes with no venom mimic coral snakes.That's all, Mike Robinson>

    Re: Scarlet Macaw


    From: "Answer6"
    Subject: Re: Scarlet Macaw
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:19:50 -0400
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    Question:What is the Scarlet Macaw's favorite tree?

    Answer:Scarlet macaws feed on nuts and the seeds of fruit so they favor Brazil nuttrees and cacao.

    Re: hello!


    From: "Answer7"
    Subject: Re: hello!
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:21:35 -0500
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    Question:I would love to visit the rainforest: Are there any trips for high schoolstudents to the rainforest?I am a junior in high school and am presently looking to college. What aresome occupations dealing with the animals in the rainforest? And what classesin college train for these? And what colleges offer these courses?for your time and concern and I look forward to hearing from you.

    Answer:While I am not sure what programs take high schoolers to the rainforest (youmay want to surf the WWW to look for informatiuon on that one), but I cantell you that there are many occupations dealing with animals in therainforest, and that for most of these a college education is needed! Amongthose jobs found in the rainforest are biologist (and the many specialtiesamong these like ornithologist, botanist, and entomologist), ecologist,educators, and anthropologists. THere are unlimited careers.... In collegeit would be good to take a wide array of courses in the biological sciencesand ecological sciences. You can also take anthropology, as well as aforeign language such as spanish or portuguese. Most colleges offer thesecourses, you'll need to research many colleges to find the one that suitsyou best. Thanks Anna!Sincerely,Kim Nichols, Biodiversity Programs

    Re: Species/ question


    From: "Answer8"
    Subject: Re: Species/ question
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:23:54 -0500
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    Question:What is a specie in the rainforest that is the closest to extinction?

    Answer:Unfortunately, Christina, there are so many species in the rainforest thatgo extinct every day, including species that have never been discovered anddescribed, that we can't spotlight any one species. However, amphibianssuch as frogs seem to be in particular danger.Matthew KaneLaboratory of Molecular SystematicsSmithsonian Institution

    Re: Douroucoulis


    From: "Answer7"
    Subject: Re: Douroucoulis
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:25:29 -0500
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    Question:Was the Owl Monkey (Douroucoulis)seen only at night or can it they comeout during the day also?

    Answer:The Owl Monkey generally only comes out at night, except for when disturbedin their day hideaway. Then they will come out during the day, but willquickly retreat to a tree hole or a new hiding spot. THeir eyes arespecialized for night vision so they're best at foraging at night.Sincerely,Charles Handley, Mammalogist

    Re: Monkey


    From: "Answer7"
    Subject: Re: Monkey
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:28:58 -0500
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    Question:What is the most common species of monkey in the rainforest?

    Answer:This is a very tough question to anewser because it depends on where in therainforest you are. I would say that the howler monkey, of one species oranother, is the most widespread monkey in the rainforest.Sincerely,Charles Handley, Mammalogist

    Re: animals


    From: "Answer1"
    Subject: Re: animals
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:40:57 -0400
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    Question:How many acres of trees get cut down every day in the amazon rainforest?

    Answer:I don't know the per day cutting rate but it's about the size of the stateof Connecticut each year. OK? Mike Robinson>

    Re: animal


    From: "Answer8"
    Subject: Re: animal
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:32:20 -0500
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    >What is the noisiest animal in the rainforest? Kimsith Ames, Charleston,Il>>Dear Kimsith Ames,One of the noisiest animals in the rainforest are the so-called howlermonkeys. They get together in a group and roar a loud roar as they breathin and out. Another noisy animal is (believe it or not) a certain speciesof bee that is always humming loudly during the day!Sincerely,Matthew KaneMicrobiologistLaboratory of Molecular SystematicsSmithsonian Institution

    Re: frogs


    From: "Answer3"
    Subject: Re: frogs
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 12:58:05 -0500
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    Question:How many species of frogs live in the rainforest?

    Answer:There are hundreds or even thousands of species in Amazonian rain forests.New species are yet to be discovered. You can distinguish one species fromanother simply by listening to their calling songs. Each species has its owndistinctive song. Why are you interested in frogs???

    Re: QUestion about Amazon flooding


    From: "Answer6"
    Subject: Re: QUestion about Amazon flooding
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:34:00 -0400
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    Question:How often does it flood in the rainforest? Leigh Dennis Jefferson Elem.

    Answer:Flooding is not a frequent occurrence in the rainforest where plants arereplenished with frequent short-term showers however during the rainy seasonrivers swell and overflow their banks. Floods then occur in the nearby andlowlying areas of the rainforest. These flooded forests are a distinct typeof forest habitat and bring special attributes to the regions that areexciting areas for us to study.

    Re: Adaptations


    From: "Answer7"
    Subject: Re: Adaptations
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:37:34 -0500
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    Question:What is the name of the most dangerous animal in the rainforest and whatare it's adaptations?

    Answer:That depends on your definition of dangerous! Mosquitos are dangerousbecause they transmit diseases. They are adapted to doing this, having aproboscis through which they suck blood. However, if you are worried aboutbeing squeezed you should worry about the Anaconda (snake). But don'tworry, they won't squeeze you, unless you go into the water, where theylive.Sincerely,Charles Handley, Mammalogist

    Re: Deforestation


    From: "Answer5"
    Subject: Re: Deforestation
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:38:37 -0500
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    Question:Has deforestation been cut back? How is this affecting the animals? Isit creating more endagered species?

    Answer:Deforestation goes on -- sometimes and in some areas it slows butit seldom stops. Deforestation slows for economic reasons (reducedprofitability of cattle ranching for example) and sometimes because ofsuccessful conservation projects. However, conservation is a battle that isnever really won, but can be lost. A bad El Nino year causing lots ofwildfires (contributed to by logging) can be a major setback to forestconservation. The continuing loss of rainforest affects more animals thanwe can imagine and certainly more than we have every described to science.BEcause we have such poor knowledge - we don't even know what we lost. Thegood news is we still have time to think of creative ways of living with theAmazon forest and its animals and lots of enthusiastic and interesteddefenders of nature.

    Re: Question about the Amazon Rainforest


    From: "Answer8"
    Subject: Re: Question about the Amazon Rainforest
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:39:25 -0500
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    Question:I would like to know how can a rainforest, like Amazon, be formed in a area that is poor in minerals and nutrients?

    Answer:The plants and microorganisms that thrive in the rainforest are specialadapted to live in areas that are poor in minerals and nutrients. However,when people cut down the rainforest, and plant crops, the crops quickly useup whatever little nutrients that were present. So after one or two growingseasons, crops can no longer be grown in a deforested area, and people tryand cut down even more forest to plant more crops. You can see how thisprocess repeats itself until more of the earth's habitat becomes deforested.Matthew KaneMicrobiologistLaboratory of Molecular SystematicsSmithsonian Institution

    Re: Re: animal


    From: "Answer7"
    Subject: Re: Re: animal
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:42:11 -0500
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    Question:What is the noisiest animal in the rainforest?

    Answer: Dear Kimsith,THe nosiest mammal in the rainforest is the howler monkey.Sincerely,Charles Handley, MammalogistOne of the noisiest animals in the rainforest are the so-called howlermonkeys. They get together in a group and roar a loud roar as they breathin and out. Another noisy animal is (believe it or not) a certain speciesof bee that is always humming loudly during the day!Matthew KaneMicrobiologistLaboratory of Molecular SystematicsSmithsonian Institution

    Re: Rainforest


    From: "Answer3"
    Subject: Re: Rainforest
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:09:40 -0500
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    Question:What are the largest trees in the rainforest? How tall are they, and what istheir diameter?

    Answer:The ones I have seen in Peru are more than 150 meters tall and about 20feet in diameter. The genus Ficus (the fig trees) are very tall. Generallyall the trees that emerge above the canopy of the rainforest are thetallest.

    Re: About amazon


    From: "Answer8"
    Subject: Re: About amazon
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:44:31 -0500
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    Question:Every body no about destruction in amazon(fire in Rondonia).How many years amazon resist a man destrucion? If not change the situancion.

    Answer:If people keep destroying the rainforests in Brazil at the current rate,there won't be any forest left in 50 years.Matthew KaneMicrobiologistLaboratory of Molecular SystematicsSmithsonian Institution

    Re: Birds


    From: "Answer5"
    Subject: Re: Birds
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:44:44 -0500
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    Question:How do the birds in the rainforest get their color?

    Answer: Birds in the rainforest get their colors the way all birds do.Some of the colors are obtained from the diet of birds and only modifiedslightly before depositing in tiny granules at the tips of feathers. Thesepigments are yellow, red, and orange and are called caratenoids (your skinmight turn a bit yellow if you eat too many carrots, for example) . Birdsget these from insects or fruit. Other pigments are synthesized (browns,blacks, buffs, brown) and deposited in melaniphores -- melanin containinggranules much like the freckles in human skin. And other colors come fromthe distribution of air pockets and other structures that reflect in aparticular way. Blues are created this way (take a blue jay feather andgrind it up and it turns gray). Then other colors are mixtures (yellowcaratenoid and blue structure = green). One group of rainfroest (African)birds called Turacos manufacture a totally different pigment type than anyother birds or animals (including red).

    Re: Bats


    From: "Answer7"
    Subject: Re: Bats
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:45:49 -0500
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    Question:What is the biggest bat in the rainforest?

    Answer:The biggest bat in the rainforest is the False Vampire Bat, Vampyrumspectrum, it has a wing spread of almost three feet. It weighs about aquarter of a pound.Sincerely,Charles Handley, Mammalogist

    Re: Rainforest/question


    From: "Answer5"
    Subject: Re: Rainforest/question
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:50:47 -0500
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    Question: People say that the understory has all the insects down there is thistrue or False and why?

    Answer:There are insects in every nook and cranny of a rainforest.Sometimes this is difficult to imagine since it can be very difficult tofind insects just by looking during the day. At night many insects come outand are easier to find. If anything there are more insects in the canopy --particularly herbivores or plant-eaters. The understory plants are usuallygrowing very slowly and have unplalatable foliage. In the outer canopysunlight is abundant and leaves grow quickly and are more tender and havefewer chemicals. The one exception to the low productivity of theunderstory is the tree-fall gap. When a large tree falls, light becomesavailable and an intense competition starts between trees trying to capturethe new canopy space. The understory has lots of detritivorous (dead woodand leaf) eating insects -- so insects are common as well.>

    Re: bats


    From: "Answer7"
    Subject: Re: bats
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:53:35 -0500
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    Question:My question is:how many species of bats are in the rainforest,and do thebats have any natural predators?

    Answer:In the rainforests of Central and South AMerica, there are about 250 speciesof bats. There may be as many as 150 species at single localities in theAmazon basin which has the richest bat fauna in the world. Naturalpredators include owls, hawks, snakes, and coatimundi (a small mammalrelated to the racoon).Sincerely,Charles Handley, Mammalogist

    Re: Rainforest


    From: "Answer8"
    Subject: Re: Rainforest
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:53:21 -0500
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    Question:What is the most dangerous animal and /or plant in the rainforest?

    Answer:There are many dangerous plants, animals and microorganisms in therainforests, from lethally poisonous snakes such as the Labaria, toflesh-eating army ants to disease-causing malaria parasites. However,probably the most dangerous animals, plants and microorganisms are themillions of species that still have yet to be discovered. When we encountersuch organisms, we have no idea what to expect!Matthew KaneMicrobiologistLaboratory of Molecular SystematicsSmithsonian Institution

    Re: Dung Beetles


    From: "Answer5"
    Subject: Re: Dung Beetles
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 13:54:13 -0500
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    Question:Are there Dung Beetles in North America or are they just found in therainforest?

    Answer:Yes and lucky we are. Dung beetles are on the front line of recyclinganimals wastes. rolling the dung to lay its eggs the dung serves as foodfor the larvae and this starts the recycling of nutrients. Imagine a worldwithout dung beetles and other caprophagous animals.

    Re: rainforest


    From: "Answer1"
    Subject: Re: rainforest
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:08:44 -0400
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    Question:I am Chucky Chaposky from Middletown,Delaware.I am a 5th grader that goesto school at Louis L. Redding Intermediate.I was wondering that how manydifferent types of living things(that's animals and plants)live or takepart in the rain forest?

    Answer:It has been estimated that there may be as many as ten million species ofanimals and plants in the rainforests of the world. Eighty percent of theseare insects and a very small number of mammals and birds. Mike Robinson

    Re: Birds


    From: "Answer5"
    Subject: Re: Birds
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:00:06 -0500
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    Question:What species of birds is most populated?

    Answer:The diversity of rainforests is very high -- any differences

    between habitats often great. So a simple answer is impossible. Some ofthe birds most characteristic and usually most abundant include manakins,antwrens, antshrikes in the understory, Greenlets, tanagers and flycatchersin the canopy.

    Re: Question for Live from the Rain Forest


    From: "Answer6"
    Subject: Re: Question for Live from the Rain Forest
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:01:12 -0400
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    Question:I would like to know, without the rainforest, how will the food chain beeffected?

    Answer:The loss of the rainforest would severely alter the local and global foodchain--directly from the absence of interrelationship--but also from theloss of the role the forests play in the climate. Many people predict thatthat would decidedly tip the balance on global warming.

    Re: birds


    From: "Answer5"
    Subject: Re: birds
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:03:01 -0500
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    Question:What bird has the biggest beak?

    Answer:I'm not sure - but the Jabiru stork of tropical wetlands has ahumoungus (sic) beak. Of course toucans have large - but relatively weakbeaks. Strongest beaks are probably large parrots and MaCaws - but I'd hateto test out a Harpy Eagle. The woodcreeper known as a scythebill has a

    impressively long curved beak. These are rainforest-tropic answers.

    Re: Largest Animal


    From: "Answer7"
    Subject: Re: Largest Animal
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:03:01 -0500
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    Question:What is the largest animal in the Rainforest?

    Answer:The largest mammal in the rainforest is the tapir. In the South Americanrainforest they are as big as a small cow.Sincerely,Charles Handley, Mammalogist

    Re: tarantula


    From: "Answer6"
    Subject: Re: tarantula
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:03:58 -0400
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    Question:Does the tarantula have any other predators other than the kawati?

    Answer:Dr. Robinson JUST left. I bet though that you can contact him via theNational Zoo's Web site of give him a call at 202/673-4721.

    Re: Rainforest researcher


    From: "Answer1"
    Subject: Re: Rainforest researcher
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:21:11 -0400
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    Question:How old do you have to be and how much education do you need to be ascientist in the rainforest?

    Answer:A person needs to be old enough to understand some of the dangersin the rainforest. Lots of children live happily in the rainforest and are

    taught by their parents which plants and insects to avoid. So, the answeris, anyone can be a researcher in the rainforest. Groups such as EarthWatch will take family groups to help participate on projects in therainforest. Most people experience research in the rainforest for the firsttime as a college student.Good Luck,Mary Hagedorn

    Re: Leaf-cutter Ants


    From: "Answer8"
    Subject: Re: Leaf-cutter Ants
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:11:51 -0500
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    Question:Is the leaf-cutting behavior of leaf-cutter ants instinctual or learned?

    Answer:It's instinct. Leaf-cutter ants have become especially adapted to exhibitthis behavior in obtaining their food resources.Matthew KaneLaboratory of Molecular SystematicsSmithsonian Institution

    Re: GOOD QUESTION...PLEASE DO NOT DISCARD, PLEASE? THIS IS A QUESTION FROM A LITTLE GIRL WHO GOT SICK AND WON'T READ THIS ON T.V.!!!!!


    From: "Answer1"
    Subject: Re: GOOD QUESTION...PLEASE DO NOT DISCARD, PLEASE? THIS IS A QUESTION FROM A LITTLE GIRL WHO GOT SICK AND WON'T READ THIS ON T.V.!!!!!
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:27:42 -0400
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    Question:How many different species of tarantulas can you find in one acre of theAmazon?Also, how many individual rainforest trees are cut down each day?

    Answer:Dr. Robinson JUST left. I bet though that you can contact him via theNational Zoo's Web site of give him a call at 202/673-4721.

    Re: World's Beneath the Canopy


    From: "Answer6"
    Subject: Re: World's Beneath the Canopy
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:16:51 -0400
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    Question: We all know that the Rainforest is decreasing in size rapidly. Iwould like to know at what percentage deforestation is happening. Doscientists know or have estimated at what year the rainforests in theworld will diminish??? I know their are many variables to this, e.g.man, weather etc., but how long will it be until the rainforests in theworld will be cut down? Is it true that not much of the rainforests areleft?P.S. Is the rainforest the major source of medicine in the world?

    Answer:At the rate of 50 million acres worth of loss per year we will certainlyhave no more left in 50 years.The rainforest is certainly a primary source for medicines--directly andindirectly as pharmaceutical companies mimic the natural medicines foundthere.

    Re: Re: animals


    From: "Answer6"
    Subject: Re: Re: animals
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:23:22 -0400
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    Question:How many acres of trees get cut down every day in the amazon rain forest?

    Answer:One hundred and fifty thousand acres a day or 50 million per year.

    Re: preservation


    From: "Answer1"
    Subject: Re: preservation
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:36:03 -0400
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    Question:Since my classmates and I will probably never visit the rain forest howcan we help preserve the rain forest?

    Answer:The best way to help preserve the rainforest is to think about how your lifeimpacts the world. This is a hard thing for me to think about as well eventhough I work in the rainforest. If you want to do something directly, youcan help contribute to organizations that help conserve rainforest. Thematerials that we take out of the rainforest, such as petroleum andminerals, often destroy the rainforest during the extraction. How much willyou use natural resources? How many children will we have? Humanpopulation increase is one of the major forces driving ecosystemdestruction. The best thing that you can do is think more than a fewgenerations ahead. WHat legacy will you leave for your children and yourchildren's children? Thanks for your thoughts and questions.Mary Hagedorn

    Re: question


    From: "Answer6"
    Subject: Re: question
    Date: Tue, 14 Apr 1998 14:33:03 -0400
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    Question:How do you think man and nature an survive in peace, and how the man inAmazonia can have a better life living with sustainability and using thebiodiversity??

    Answer:I have been puzzling over this question for many years and find that themost significant changes have occurred as our habits change in economics andsociety. Recent changes in the way we factor in the environment into ourcommerce and global planning are heartening. If you are not aware of theDebt for Nature swaps or the "new" Global Environment Facility at the WorldBank, you should take a look at how this is changing the world. Dr. ThomasE. Lovejoy also recently wrote a thought provoking article called " BigLessons from a Small Country" where he described a global system that wouldrequire credits from environmentally poor countries to those that areenvironmentally rich. This proposal would put the environment andenvironmental planning for parks and reserves squarely in the picture.Thanks for the question! Marsha Sitnik