South Carolina Curriculum Standards

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which South Carolina Curriculum Standards you can cover using PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA.

For additional South Carolina Curriculum Standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM THE SUN/LIVE FROM THE AURORA

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

LIVE FROM A BLACK HOLE/LIVE FROM THE EDGE OF SPACE AND TIME

Elementary Standards: Kindergarten,   First Grade,   Second Grade,   Third Grade,   Fourth Grade,   Fifth Grade
Middle School Standards: Sixth Grade,   Seventh Grade,   Eighth Grade
High SchoolGrades 9-12

Kindergarten

I. Inquiry

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses and simple tools to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use(qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to observable properties.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) and nonstandard whole units to estimate and measure mass, length, volume, and temperature (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

 

a. Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment that could start an investigation.

video
hands-on
online

b. Use simple equipment and to gather data and extend the senses.

video
hands-on
online


II. Life Science
Units of Study:
Animals and Plants
My Body

A. Characteristics of Organisms

 

1. Organisms have basic needs.

 

a. Observe and describe that living things change as they grow.

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hands-on
online

b. Investigate and identify the natural resources (food, water, and air) that living things need food, water, and air to survive. (P)

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hands-on
online


First Grade:

I. Inquiry

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses and simple tools to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use (qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to observable properties.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) and nonstandard whole units to estimate and measure mass, length, volume, and temperature (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

 

a. Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment.

video
hands-on
online

b. Employ simple equipment, such as hand lenses, thermometers, balances, etc., to gather data and extend the senses.

video
hands-on
online


II. Life Science
Unit of Study:
Plants

A. Characteristics of Organisms

 

1. Organisms have basic needs.

 

a. Investigate and explain that plants require air, water, nutrients, space, and light to survive and reproduce.

video
hands-on
online

C. Organisms and Their Environments

 

1. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs can be met.

 

a. Classify plants according to their habitats.

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hands-on
online

b. Describe characteristics of plants that help them to survive in specific environments.

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hands-on
online

2. All organisms cause changes in the environment where they live.

 

a. Explore and describe that living things can change the environment.

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hands-on
online

b. Investigate how natural resources can be reused and recycled to reduce consumption. (P)

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hands-on
online


Second Grade:

I. Inquiry

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses and simple tools to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use (qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to observable properties.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) and nonstandard whole units to estimate and measure mass, length, volume, and temperature (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

 

a. Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment.

video
hands-on
online

b. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

video
hands-on
online

c. Use simple equipment, such as hand lenses, thermometers, balances, rulers, etc., to gather data and extend the senses.

video
hands-on
online

d. Communicate investigations and explanations.

video
hands-on
online


II. Life Science
Unit of Study:
Animals

A. Characteristics of Organisms

 

1. Organisms have basic needs. Animals need air, water, and food.

 

a. Identify the basic needs of animals, including shelter and living space.

video
hands-on
online

2. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs can be met.

 

a. Describe the relationship between animals and their habitats.

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hands-on
online

b. Group animals based on their habitats.

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hands-on
online

B. Life Cycles of Organisms

 

1. Animals have life cycles that include being born, developing into adults, reproducing, and eventually dying.

 

a. Observe and describe similarities and differences in the growth and development of animals throughout their life cycles.

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hands-on
online

b. Investigate and understand that animals go through a series of orderly changes in their life cycles.

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c. Observe growth in animals over time.

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2. Animals closely resemble their parents.

 

a. Investigate that some animals go through distinct stages (metamorphosis) during their lives while others generally resemble their parents throughout their life cycle.

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b. Classify animals based on their similarities.

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online

C. Organisms and Their Environments

 

1. All animals depend on plants. Some animals eat plants for food. Other animals eat animals that eat the plants.

 

a. Investigate and describe ways in which animals interact with each other and with the environment.

video
hands-on
online


Third Grade:

I. Inquiry

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use (qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to two attributes.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) to estimate and measure mass, length, area, perimeter, volume, and temperature to the nearest whole unit (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

5. Infer

 

a. Explain or interpret an observation based on data and prior knowledge.

video
hands-on
online

6. Predict

 

a. Use prior knowledge and observations to identify and explain in advance what will happen.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation

 

a. Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment.

video
hands-on
online

b. Plan and conduct a simple investigation - a fair test.

video
hands-on
online

c. Use simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses.

video
hands-on
online

d. Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.

video
hands-on
online

e. Communicate investigations and explanations.

video
hands-on
online


II. Life Science
Unit of Study:
Habitats and Adaptations

A. Characteristics of Organisms

 

1. Organisms can survive only in habitats in which their needs can be met.

 

a. Compare and contrast the basic needs of plants and animals.

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hands-on
online

b. Select and describe an appropriate habitat for a plant or animal.

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hands-on
online

2. Each plant or animal has different structures that serve different functions in growth, survival, and reproduction.

 

a. Investigate and predict how structural adaptations function to allow animals to respond to life needs, such as methods of movement, gathering/storing food, finding shelter, defending themselves, rearing young, camouflage, and mimicry.

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hands-on
online

c. Investigate and predict how physical adaptations, such as seed dispersal, scent, color of flower, and tropism (light and gravity), function to allow plants to respond to life needs.

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hands-on
online

B. Life Cycles of Organisms

 

1. Many characteristics of an organism are inherited from the parents of the organism, but other characteristics result from an individual's interactions with the environment.

 

a. Compare and describe growth of living things based on observations and measurements over time including stages of development and life.

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hands-on
online

b. Record the growth and development of a specific plant or animal over time.

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hands-on
online

C. Organisms and Their Environments

 

1. All animals depend on plants

 

a. Investigate and predict ways living things will interact with each other and the environment.

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hands-on
online

b. Interpret the interdependency of plants and animals within a food chain by defining the following, producer, consumer, decomposer, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, predator and prey.

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hands-on
online

2. When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce, and others die or move to new locations

 

a. Describe how habitats change over time due to many influences (effects of natural forces, wind, rain, water, air, sunlight, and temperature).

video
hands-on
online

c. Investigate and describe behavioral adaptations, such as hibernation, migration, and dormancy that allow living things to respond to seasonal conditions.

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hands-on
online

d. Investigate and describe that aquatic and terrestrial habitats support a diversity of plants and animals that share limited resources.

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online

e. Investigate, communicate, and debate that natural events, natural resources and human influences can affect the survival of a species. (P)

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hands-on
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f. Determine how humans impact natural resources.

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hands-on
online


Fourth Grade:

I. Inquiry

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses and simple tools to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use (qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to two attributes.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) to estimate and measure mass, length, area, perimeter, volume, and temperature to the nearest whole unit (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

5. Infer

 

a. Explain or interpret an observation based on data and prior knowledge.

video
hands-on
online

b. Discriminate between observations and inferences.

video
hands-on
online

6. Predict

 

a. Use prior knowledge and observations to identify and explain in advance what will happen.

video
hands-on
online

b. Discriminate between inferences and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

 

a. Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment.

video
hands-on
online

b. Plan and conduct a simple investigation-a fair test.

video
hands-on
online

c. Use simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses.

video
hands-on
online

d. Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.

video
hands-on
online

e. Communicate investigations and explanations.

video
hands-on
online


II. Life Science
Unit of Study:
Organisms and Their Environment

A. Characteristics of Organisms

 

1. Organisms have basic needs and can survive only in environments in which their needs can be met. The world has many different environments, and distinct environments support the life of different types of organisms.

 

a. Identify the characteristics of different environments, such as wetlands, grasslands, deserts, and and in polar, temperate and tropical regions.

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hands-on
online

b. Describe the diversity of life forms (vertebrate and invertebrate animals and plants)) supported by each environment.

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hands-on
online

2. Organisms have senses that help them detect internal and external cues.

 

a. Analyze specific behaviors influenced by internal cues (e.g., hunger and thirst).

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hands-on
online

b. Analyze specific behaviors influenced by external cues in the environment (e.g., temperature, light and percipitation).

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hands-on
online

c. Describe how animal sensory organs (including human eye and ear) detect external cues. (P)

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hands-on
online

C. Organisms and Their Environments

 

1. An organism's patterns of behavior are related to the nature of that organism's environment, including the kinds and the numbers of other organisms present, the availability of food and resources, and the physical characteristics of the environment.

 

a. Describe how animals behave and interact within groups (e.g., schools, flocks, packs, hives, and herds).

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hands-on
online

b. Describe how animals behave and interact within their environment (living and nonliving).

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hands-on
online

2. All organisms cause changes in the environment where they live.

 

a. Describe how organisms may benefit their environment (e.g., earthworms improve the quality of soil, birds disperse seeds)

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hands-on
online

b. Describe how organisms may harm their environment (e.g., locusts destroy crops, red tides reduce oxygen levels in the ocean).

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hands-on
online

3. Humans change environments in ways that can be either beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

 

a. Describe changes in the environment caused by humans. (H)

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hands-on
online


Fifth Grade:

I. Inquiry

Process skills and inquiries are not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas. Safety issues should be addressed as developmentally appropriate.

 

A. Process Skills

 

1. Observe

 

a. Use the senses and simple tools to gather information about objects or events such as size, shape, color, texture, sound, position, change, and use (qualitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

2. Classify

 

a. Compare, sort and group concrete objects according to two attributes.

video
hands-on
online

b. Arrange objects in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

3. Measure

 

a. Use standard (U.S. Customary and Metric) to estimate and measure mass, length, area, perimeter, volume, and temperature to the nearest whole unit (quantitative observations).

video
hands-on
online

4. Communicate

 

a. Use drawings, tables, graphs, written and oral language to describe objects and explain ideas and actions.

video
hands-on
online

5. Infer

 

a. Explain or interpret an observation based on data and prior knowledge.

video
hands-on
online

b. Discriminate between observations and inferences.

video
hands-on
online

6. Predict

 

a. Use prior knowledge and observations to identify and explain in advance what will happen.

video
hands-on
online

b. Discriminate between inferences and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

7. Hypothesize

 

a. Devise a statement of assumption, based on observations, experiences, and research, that can be supported or refuted through experimentation.

video
hands-on
online

8. Define variables

 

a. Identify independent (manipulated), dependent (responding), and controlled variables in an experiment.

video
hands-on
online

B. Inquiry

 

1. Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

 

a. Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.

video
hands-on
online

b. Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

video
hands-on
online

c. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

video
hands-on
online

d. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

video
hands-on
online

e. Use mathematical thinking in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

video
hands-on
online

f. Communicate outcomes and explanations.

video
hands-on
online

C. Abilities of Technological Design

 

1. Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

 

a. Identify a specific need for a product.

video
hands-on
online

b. Determine whether the product will meet the needs and be used.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design a solution or product.

 

a. Compare and contrast different proposals using selected criteria (e.g., cost, time, trade-off, and materials needed.

video
hands-on
online

b. Communicate ideas with drawings and simple models.

video
hands-on
online


II. Life Science
Units of Study:
Microorganisms, Cells and Systems
Ecosystems (Aquatic/Terrestrial)

B. Populations and Ecosystems

 

1. A population consists of all individuals of a species that occur together at a given place and time. All populations live together and the physical factors with which they interact compose an ecosystem.

 

a. Define a population.

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hands-on
online

b. Investigate and understand how plants and animals in aquatic/terrestrial ecosystems interact with one another and with the nonliving environment.

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hands-on
online

2. Populations of organisms can be categorized by the function they serve in an ecosystem. Plants and some microorganisms are producers--they make their own food. All animals, including humans, are consumers, which obtain food by eating other organisms. Decomposers, primarily bacteria and fungi, are consumers that use waste materials and dead organisms for food.

 

a. Explain the role organisms serve in the food web (producers, decomposers, consumers, prey and predators).

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hands-on
online

b. Describe an organism by its niche in an ecosystem.

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hands-on
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3. For ecosystems, the major source of energy is sunlight. Energy entering ecosystems as sunlight is used by producers through photosynthesis.

 

a. Recognize that energy passes from organism to organism in food webs.

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hands-on
online

b. Diagram how energy flows through food webs.

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hands-on
online

4. The number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available.

 

a. Identify and investigate the abiotic factors in an ecosystem such as quantity of light and water, range of temperature, salinity, water pressure, and soil composition.

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hands-on
online

b. Identify and investigate the biotic factors in an ecosystem.

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c. Describe the effect of limiting factors such as food, water, space and predator-prey ratios, on a population.

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online

d. Evaluate the impact of the environment on populations of organisms.

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e. Draw conclusions about the influence of human activity on ecosystems. (P)

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f. Discuss ways to minimize the negative impact of technology/industrialization on the ecosystem and maximize the positive impact. (T)

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g. Explore and identify career opportunities in environmental/marine science. (P)

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hands-on
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Sixth Grade:

I. Inquiry

A. Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry

 

1. Identify process skills that can be used in scientific investigations.

 

a. Observe

 

1. Observe patterns of objects and events.

video
hands-on
online

2. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative observations.

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hands-on
online

b. Classify

 

1. Arrange data in sequential order.

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hands-on
online

2. Use scientific (field guides, charts, periodic tables, etc.) and dichotomous keys for classification.

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hands-on
online

c. Measure

 

1. Select and use appropriate tools (e.g. metric ruler, graduated cylinder, thermometer, balances, spring scales, and stopwatches) and units (e.g. meter, liter, Celsius, gram, Newton, and second) to measure to the unit required in a particular situation.

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hands-on
online

2. Select and use appropriate metric prefixes to include milli-, centi-, and kilo-.

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d. Infer

 

1. Make inferences based on observations.

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e. Predict

 

1. Predict the results of actions based on patterns in data and experiences.

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online

2. Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

 

a. Recognize potential hazards within a scientific investigation and practice appropriate safety procedures.

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b. Pose questions and problems to be investigated.

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c. Obtain scientific information from a variety of sources (such as Internet, electronic encyclopedias, journals, community resources, etc.).

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d. Distinguish and operationally define independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

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e. Manipulate one variable over time with repeated trials.

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f. Collect and record data using appropriate metric measurements.

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g. Organize data in tables and graphs.

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h. Analyze data to construct explanations and draw conclusions.

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3. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

 

a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as calculators, computers, probes, thermometers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, binoculars, and hand lenses) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.

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b. Analyze and interpret data using computer hardware and software designed for these purposes.

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4. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

 

a. Discriminate among observations, inferences, and predictions.

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hands-on
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b. Construct and/or use models to carry out/support scientific investigations.

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hands-on
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5. Think critically and logically to make relationships between evidence and explanations.

 

a. Review and summarize data to show cause-effect relationships in experiments.

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b. State explanations in terms of independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

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c. State hypotheses in ways that include the independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

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6. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.

 

a. Analyce different ideas and explanations to consider alternative ideas.

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b. Accept the skepticism of others as part of the scientific process. (N)

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7. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

 

a. Use drawings, written and oral expression to communicate information.

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b. Create drawings, diagrams, charts, tables and graphs to communicate data.

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c. Interpret and describe patterns of data on drawings, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

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d. Create and/or use scientific models to communicate information.

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8. Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

 

a. Use mathematics to gather, organize and present data.

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hands-on
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b. Use mathematics to structure convincing explanations.

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hands-on
online

B. Abilities of Technological Design

 

1. Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

 

a. Identify a specific need for a product.

video
hands-on
online

b. Determine whether the product will meet the needs and be used.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design a solution or product.

 

a. Compare and contrast different proposals using selected criteria (e.g., cost, time, trade-off, and materials needed).

video
hands-on
online

b. Communicate ideas with drawings and simple models.

video
hands-on
online

3. Implement a proposed design.

 

a. Select suitable tools and techniques to ensure adequate accuracy.

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b. Organize materials, devise a plan and work collaboratively where appropriate.

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4. Evaluate completed technological designs or products.

 

a. Measure the quality of the product based on the original purpose or need and the degree to which it meets the needs of the users.

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b. Suggest improvements and try proposed modifications to the design.

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5. Communicate the process of technological design.

 

a. Identify the stages of problem design: (1) problem identification, (2) solution design, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation.

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C. Understandings about Science and Technology

 

1. Scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences.

 

a. Compare and contrast scientific inquiry and technological design.

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2. Many different people in different cultures have made and continue to make contributions to science and technology.

 

a. Describe examples of contributions people have made to science and technology. (H, N

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3. Science and technology are reciprocal.

 

a. Explain how science and technology are essential to each other. (T)

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4. Perfectly designed solutions do not exist.

 

a. Discuss factors that affect product design and alter the original design. (T)

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b. Discuss risk versus benefit factors in product design. (P)

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5. Technological designs have constraints.

 

a. Describe examples of constraints on technological designs. (T)

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b. Explain why constraints on technological design are unavoidable. (T, N)

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6. Technological solutions have intended benefits and unintended consequences.

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II. Life Science
Unit of Study:
Fungi and Plants

C. Regulation and Behavior

 

1. All organisms must be able to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly changing external environment.

 

a. Observe, draw, and explain the structure and function of xylem and phloem tissues in roots and stems of vascular plants.

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b. Identify guard cells and explain their function in the operation of stomata.

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c. Explain why stomata in most plants are closed at night and open during the day.

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2. Behavior is one kind of response an organism can make to an internal or environmental stimulus.

 

a. Define tropisms in plants.

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b. Describe examples of tropisms in plants in response to specific stimuli (e.g., light, gravity, touch, and water).

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hands-on
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3. An organismís behavior evolves through adaptation to its environment.

 

a. Compare and contrast the major characteristics of land biomes (e.g., Tropical rainforests, Temperate rainforests, deserts, tundra, coniferous forests/taiga, and deciduous forests).

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hands-on
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b. Distinguish adaptations of various plants to survive in different biomes.

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hands-on
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Seventh Grade:

I. Inquiry

A. Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry

 

1. Identify process skills that can be used in scientific investigations.

 

a. Observe

 

1. Observe patterns of objects and events.

video
hands-on
online

2. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative observations.

video
hands-on
online

b. Classify

 

1. Arrange data in sequential order.

video
hands-on
online

2. Use scientific (e.g., field guides, charts, periodic tables, etc.) and dichotomous keys for classification.

video
hands-on
online

c. Measure

 

1. Select and use appropriate tools (e.g., metric ruler, graduated cylinder, thermometer, balances, spring scales, and stopwatches) and units (e.g., meter, liter, Celsius, gram, Newton, and second) to measure to the unit required in a particular situation.

video
hands-on
online

2. Select and use appropriate metric prefixes to include milli-, centi-, and kilo-.

video
hands-on
online

d. Infer

 

1. Make inferences based on observations.

video
hands-on
online

e. Predict

 

1. Predict the results of actions based on patterns in data and experiences.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

 

a. Recognize potential hazards within a scientific investigation and practice appropriate safety procedures.

video
hands-on
online

b. Pose questions and problems to be investigated.

video
hands-on
online

c. Obtain scientific information from a variety of sources (such as Internet, electronic encyclopedias, journals, community resources, etc.).

video
hands-on
online

d. Distinguish and operationally define independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

video
hands-on
online

e. Manipulate one variable over time with repeated trials.

video
hands-on
online

f. Collect and record data using appropriate metric measurements.

video
hands-on
online

g. Organize data in tables and graphs. h. Analyze data to construct explanations and draw conclusions.

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hands-on
online

3. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

 

a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as calculators, computers, probes, thermometers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, binoculars, and hand lenses) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.

video
hands-on
online

b. Analyze and interpret data using computer hardware and software designed for these purposes.

video
hands-on
online

4. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

 

a. Discriminate among observations, inferences, and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

b. Construct and/or use models to carry out/support scientific investigations.

video
hands-on
online

5. Think critically and logically to make relationships between evidence and explanations.

 

a. Review and summarize data to show cause-effect relationships in experiments.

video
hands-on
online

b. State explanations in terms of independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

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hands-on
online

c. State hypotheses in ways that include the independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables.

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hands-on
online

6. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.

 

a. Analyze different ideas and explanations to consider alternative ideas.

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hands-on
online

b. Accept the skepticism of others as part of the scientific process.

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hands-on
online

7. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

 

a. Use drawings, written and oral expression to communicate information.

video
hands-on
online

b. Create drawings, diagrams, charts, tables, and graphs to communicate data.

video
hands-on
online

c. Interpret and describe patterns of data on drawings, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

video
hands-on
online

d. Create and/or use scientific models to communicate information.

video
hands-on
online

8 Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

 

a. Use mathematics to gather, organize, and present data.

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hands-on
online

B. Abilities of Technological Design

 

1. Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

 

a. Identify a specific need for a product.

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hands-on
online

b. Determine whether the product will meet the needs and be used.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design a solution or product.

 

a. Compare and contrast different proposals using selected criteria (e.g., cost, time, trade-off, and materials needed).

video
hands-on
online

b. Communicate ideas with drawings and simple models.

video
hands-on
online

3. Implement a proposed design.

 

a. Select suitable tools and techniques to ensure adequate accuracy.

video
hands-on
online

b. Organize materials, devise a plan, and work collaboratively where appropriate.

video
hands-on
online

4. Evaluate completed technological designs or products.

 

a. Measure the quality of the product based on the original purpose or need and the degree to which it meets the needs of the users.

video
hands-on
online

b. Suggest improvements and try proposed modifications to the design.

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hands-on
online

5. Communicate the process of technological design.

 

a. Identify the stages of problem design: (1) problem identification, (2) solution design, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation.

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hands-on
online

C. Understandings about Science and Technology

 

1. Scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences.

 

a. Compare and contrast scientific inquiry and technological design.

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hands-on
online

2. Many different people in different cultures have made and continue to make contributions to science and technology.

 

a. Describe examples of contributions people have made to science and technology.

video
hands-on
online

3. Science and technology are reciprocal.

 

a. Explain how science and technology are essential to each other.

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hands-on
online

4. Perfectly designed solutions do not exist.

 

a. Discuss factors that affect product design and alter the original design.

video
hands-on
online

b. Discuss risk versus benefit factors in product design.

video
hands-on
online

5. Technological designs have constraints.

 

a. Describe examples of constraints on technological designs.

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hands-on
online

b. Explain why constraints on technological design are unavoidable.

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hands-on
online

6. Technological solutions have intended benefits and unintended consequences.

 


II. Life Science
Unit of Study:
Organization of Living Things

C. Regulation and Behavior

 

1. All organisms must be able to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly changing external environment.

 

a. Describe the basic characteristics and needs of living things.

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hands-on
online

b. Compare and contrast how organisms use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions (homeostasis).

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hands-on
online

2. Regulation of an organisms internal environment involves sensing the internal environment and changing physiological activities to keep conditions within the range required to survive.

 

a. Contrast warm-blooded and cold-blooded animalsí mechanisms to control their internal environment.

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hands-on
online

b. Explain how environmental stimuli cause changes in hormone production that allow organisms to survive (e.g., adrenaline is produced in response to fear or excitement).

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hands-on
online

3. Behavior is one kind of response an organism can make to an internal or environmental stimulus. A behavioral response requires coordination and communication at many levels, including cells, organ systems, and whole organisms. Behavioral response is a set of actions determined in part by heredity and in part from experience.

 

a. Evaluate behaviors to determine if they are inherited or learned.

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hands-on
online

b. Predict an organismís response to an environmental stimulus based on its level of organization (e.g., endospore formation, and hibernation).

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hands-on
online


II. Life Science
Unit of Study:
Ecology - The Biotic Environment

A. Populations and Ecosystems

 

1. A population consists of all individuals of a species that occur together at a given place and time. All populations living together and the physical factors with which they interact compose an ecosystem.

 

a. Describe the characteristics of populations.*

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hands-on
online

* Indicates concept has been taught at a previous grade level.

 

b. Distinguish between populations and communities.

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online

c. Distinguish between habitats and niches.

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online

d. Differentiate between an ecosystem and a biome.

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hands-on
online

2. Populations of organisms can be categorized by the function they serve in an ecosystem. All animals, including humans, are consumers, which obtain food by eating other organisms. Decomposers, primarily bacteria and fungi, are consumers that use waste materials and dead organisms for food. Food webs identify the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

 

a. Analyze the role of producers, consumers and decomposers in an ecosystem.

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hands-on
online

b. Identify kinds of relationships organisms have with each other (predator/prey, competition).

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online

c. Describe a food chain and its relationship to a food web.

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hands-on
online

3. The number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the biotic resources available. Given adequate biotic resources and no disease or predators, populations (including humans) increase at rapid rates. Lack of resources and other factors, such as predation and climate, limit the growth of populations in specific niches in the ecosystem.

 

a. Describe how cooperation, competition and predation affect population growth.

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hands-on
online

b. Analyze the effects of overpopulation within an ecosystem on the amount of resources available. (P)

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c. Analyze how natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, volcanic eruptions, floods, and storms) affect populations. (P)

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Eighth Grade:

I. Inquiry

A. Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry

 

1. Identify process skills that can be used in scientific investigations.

 

a. Observe

 

1. Observe patterns of objects and events.

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hands-on
online

b. Classify

 

1. Arrange data in sequential order.

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hands-on
online

2. Use scientific (field guides, charts, periodic tables, etc.) and dichotomous keys for classification.

video
hands-on
online

c. Measure

 

1. Select and use appropriate tools (e.g. metric ruler, graduated cylinder, thermometer, balances, spring scales, and stopwatches) and units (e.g. meter, liter, Celsius, gram, Newton, and second) to measure to the unit required in a particular situation.

video
hands-on
online

2. Select and use appropriate metric prefixes to include milli-, centi-, and kilo-.

video
hands-on
online

d. Infer

 

1. Make inferences based on data (measurements and observations).

video
hands-on
online

e. Predict

 

1. Predict the results of actions based on patterns in data and experiences.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

 

a. Recognize potential hazards within a scientific investigation and practice appropriate safety procedures.

video
hands-on
online

b. Pose questions and problems to be investigated.

video
hands-on
online

c. Obtain scientific information from a variety of sources (such as Internet, electronic encyclopedias, journals, community resources, etc.).

video
hands-on
online

d. Distinguish and operationally define manipulated (independent) and responding (dependent) variables.

video
hands-on
online

e. Manipulate one variable over time with repeated trials.

video
hands-on
online

f. Collect and record data using appropriate metric measurements.

video
hands-on
online

g. Organize data in graphical representations.

video
hands-on
online

3. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data

 

a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as calculators, computers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.

video
hands-on
online

b. Analyze and interpret data using hardware and software designed for these purposes.

video
hands-on
online

4. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

 

a. Discriminate among observations, inferences, and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

b. Construct and/or use models to carry out/support scientific investigations.

video
hands-on
online

5. Think critically and logically to make relationships between evidence and explanations.

 

a. Review and summarize data to form a logical argument about the cause-effect relationships in experiments.

video
hands-on
online

b. State explanations in terms of the relationship between two or more variables.

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hands-on
online

c. State hypotheses in ways that include the manipulate (independent) and responding (dependent) variables.

video
hands-on
online

6. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

7. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

 

a. Use drawings, written and oral expression to communicate information.

video
hands-on
online

b. Create drawings, diagrams, charts, tables and graphs to communicate data.

video
hands-on
online

c. Interpret and describe patterns of data on drawings, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

video
hands-on
online

d. Create and/or use scientific models to communicate information.

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hands-on
online

8. Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

 

a. Use mathematics to gather, organize and present data.

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hands-on
online

b. Use mathematics to structure convincing explanations.

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hands-on
online

B. Understandings about Scientific Inquiry

 

1. Different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigations.

 

a. Relate how the kind of question being asked directs the type of investigation conducted (e.g. observing and describing, collecting, experimenting, surveying, inventing, and making models).

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hands-on
online

2. Current scientific knowledge and understanding guide scientific investigations.

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hands-on
online

3. Mathematics is important in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

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hands-on
online

4. Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results.

 

a. Compare and contrast the quality of data collected with and without technological devices.

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hands-on
online

5. Scientific explanations emphasize evidence, have logically consistent arguments and use scientific principles, models and theories.

 

a. Discuss how scientific knowledge advances when new scientific explanations displace previously accepted knowledge.

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hands-on
online

6. Science advances through legitimate skepticism.

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hands-on
online

7. Scientific investigations sometimes result in new ideas and phenomena for study.

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hands-on
online

C. Abilities of Technological Design

 

1. Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

 

a. Identify a specific need for a product.

video
hands-on
online

b. Determine whether the product will meet the needs and be used.

video
hands-on
online

2. Design a solution or product.

 

a. Compare and contrast different proposals using selected criteria (e.g. cost, time, trade-off, and materials needed).

video
hands-on
online

b. Communicate ideas with drawings and simple models.

video
hands-on
online

3. Implement a proposed design.

 

a. Select suitable tools and techniques to ensure adequate accuracy.

video
hands-on
online

b. Organize materials, devise a plan and work collaboratively where appropriate.

video
hands-on
online

4. Evaluate completed technological designs or products.

 

a. Measure the quality of the product based on the original purpose or need and the degree to which it meets the needs of the users.

video
hands-on
online

b. Suggest improvements and try proposed modifications to the design.

video
hands-on
online

5. Communicate the process of technological design.

 

a. Identify the stages of problem design: (1) problem identification, (2) solution design, (3) implementation, (4) evaluation.

video
hands-on
online

D. Understandings about Science and Technology

 

1. Scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences.

 

a. Compare and contrast scientific inquiry and technological design.

video
hands-on
online

2. Many different people in different cultures have made and continue to make contributions to science and technology.

 

a. Describe examples of contributions people have made to science and technology.

video
hands-on
online

3. Science and technology are reciprocal.

 

a. Explain how science and technology are essential to each other.

video
hands-on
online

4. Perfectly designed solutions do not exist.

 

a. Discuss factors that affect product design and alter the original design

video
hands-on
online

b. Discuss risk versus benefit factors in product design.

video
hands-on
online

5. Technological designs have constraints.

 

a. Describe examples of constraints on technological designs

video
hands-on
online

b. Explain why constraints on technological design are unavoidable

video
hands-on
online

6.; Technological solutions have intended benefits and unintended consequences.

video
hands-on
online


II. Life Science
Unit of Study:
Classification, Diversity, and Adaptations of Organisms

A. Diversity and Adaptations of Organisms

 

1. Millions of species of animals, plants, and microorganisms are alive today. Although different species might look dissimilar, the unity among organisms becomes apparent from an analysis of internal structures, the similarity of their chemical processes and the evidence of common ancestry.

 

a. Observe, describe and examine the diversity of living things including differences and similarities based on kingdoms, phyla, classes (e.g., structure, body temperature, size, and shape).

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hands-on
online

b. Infer how animal and plant adaptations help organisms to survive in their particular habitats (e.g., cacti needles/leaves and fur/scales).

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hands-on
online

2. Biological change accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. Biological adaptations, which involve the selection of naturally occurring variations in populations, enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment. How a species moves, obtains food, reproduces, and responds to danger are based in the speciesí evolutionary history.

 

a. Suggest evidence of how species have adapted to changes in their habitats.

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hands-on
online

b. Explain how an adaptation can increase an organismís chances for survival. (Concept has been taught at a previous grade level)

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hands-on
online

c. Describe how natural selection increases the variations within populations.

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hands-on
online

3. Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient to allow its survival.

 

a. Determine the factors of how an organism becomes extinct.

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hands-on
online

b. Explain some of the natural and human-made pressures that can cause extinction.

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hands-on
online

c. Examine ways to prevent the extinction of an organism.

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hands-on
online

4. Fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed. (Earthís History: Earth Science) Fossils indicate that many organisms that lived long ago are extinct. Extinction of species is common. Most of the species that have lived on the earth no longer exist.

 

a. Describe how scientists use fossils as clues to study the earthís past.

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hands-on
online

b. Observe, interpret and analyze fossilized tracks.

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hands-on
online

c. List different types of fossils and explain how each formed (petrifaction, mold and cast, imprint).

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hands-on
online

d. Describe how to determine the relative age of rocks and fossils (index fossil, oldest rock layer, and youngest rock layer).

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hands-on
online

e. Explain how scientists use technology to date rocks and fossils (e.g., radioactive dating). (T)

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hands-on
online


Ninth to Twelfth Grade:

I. Inquiry

Inquiry is not an isolated unit of instruction and should be embedded throughout the content areas.

 

The nature of science and technology are incorporated within this area.

 

A. Identify Questions and Concepts that Guide Scientific Investigations

 

Experimental design should demonstrate logical connections between a knowledge base and conceptual understanding.

 

1. Formulate a testable hypothesis based on literary research and previous knowledge.

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hands-on
online

2. Identify and select experimental variables (independent and dependent) and controlled conditions.

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hands-on
online

B. Design and Conduct Investigations

 

Prior knowledge about major concepts, laboratory apparatus, laboratory techniques and safety should be used in designing and conducting a scientific investigation.

 

1. Design a scientific investigation based on the major concepts in the area being studied.

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hands-on
online

2. Select and use appropriate instruments to make the observations necessary for the investigation, taking into consideration the limitations of the equipment.

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hands-on
online

3. Identify technologies that could enhance the collection of data.

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hands-on
online

4. Select the appropriate safety equipment needed to conduct an investigation (e.g., goggles, aprons, etc.).

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hands-on
online

5. Suggest safety precautions that need to be implemented for the handling of materials and equipment used in an investigation.

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hands-on
online

6. Describe the proper response to emergency situations in the laboratory.

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hands-on
online

7. Conduct the laboratory investigation with repeated trials and systematic manipulation of variables.

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hands-on
online

8. Identify possible sources of error inherent in the experimental design.

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hands-on
online

9. Organize and display data in useable and efficient formats, such as tables, graphs, maps, and cross sections.

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hands-on
online

10. Draw conclusions based on qualitative and quantitative data.

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hands-on
online

11. Discuss the impact of sources of error on the experimental results.

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hands-on
online

12. Communicate and defend the scientific thinking that resulted in the conclusions.

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hands-on
online

C. Use Technology and Mathematics to Improve Investigations and Communications

 

Scientific investigations can be improved through the use of technology and mathematics. While it is acknowledged that the SI system is the accepted measurement system in science, opportunities to use the English System are encouraged.

 

1. Select and use appropriate technologies (computers, calculators, CBLís) to enhance the precision and accuracy of data collection, analysis and display.

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hands-on
online

2. Discriminate between data that may be valid or anomalous.

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hands-on
online

3. Select and use mathematical formulas and calculations to extend the usefulness of laboratory measurements.

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hands-on
online

4. Draw a "best fit" curve through data points.

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hands-on
online

5. Calculate the slope of the curve and use correct units for the value of the slope for linear relationships.

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hands-on
online

6. Calculate interpolated and predict extrapolated data points.

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hands-on
online

7. Perform dimensional analysis calculations.

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hands-on
online

D. Formulate and Revise Scientific Explanations and Models Using Logic and Evidence

 

Scientific explanations and models are developed and revised through discussion and debate.

 

1. Construct experimental explanations or models through discussion, debate, logic and experimental evidence.

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hands-on
online

2. Develop explanations and models that eliminate bias and demonstrate the use of ethical principles. (P)

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hands-on
online

3. Revise explanations or models after review.

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hands-on
online

E. Recognize and Analyze Alternative Explanations and Models

 

Scientific criteria are used to discriminate among plausible explanations.

 

1. Compare current scientific models with experimental results.

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hands-on
online

2. Select and defend, based on scientific criteria, the most plausible explanation or model.

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hands-on
online

F.; Communicate and Defend a Scientific Argument

 

1. Develop a set of laboratory instructions that someone else can follow.

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2. Develop a presentation to communicate the process and conclusion of a scientific investigation.

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hands-on
online

G. Understandings about Scientific and Technological Inquiry

 

Historical scientific knowledge, current research, technology, mathematics and logic should be the basis for conducting investigations and drawing conclusions.

 

1. Analyze how science and technology explain and predict relationships.

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online

a. Defend the idea that conceptual principles and knowledge guide scientific and technological inquiry.

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hands-on
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b. Explain how historical and current scientific knowledge influences the design, interpretation, and evaluations of investigations.

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1. Discuss the reasons scientists and engineers conduct investigations.

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2. Defend the use of technology as a method for enhancing data collection, data manipulation and advancing the fields of science and technology.

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3. Explain how mathematics is important to scientific and technological inquiry.

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hands-on
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4. Explain why scientific models and explanations need to be based on historical and current scientific knowledge.

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5. Understand that scientific explanations must be logical, supported by the evidence, and open to revision.

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II. Life Science

C. Biological Evolution

 

1. Species evolve over time. Evolution is the consequence of the interactions of (1) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection by the environment of those offspring better able to survive and leave offspring.

 

a. Discuss evolution as a consequence of various interactions, such as the number of offspring, genetic variability, finite supply of resources, and environmental factors.

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b. Discuss the scientific evidence that illustrates change over time.

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2. Natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific explanation for the fossil record of ancient life forms, as well as for the striking molecular similarities observed among the diverse species of living organisms.

 

a. Describe the process of natural selection and its consequences.

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b. Explain how the fossil record can reveal evolutionary changes over time.

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c. Describe how carbon dating is utilized in the study of evolution. (H, T)

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d. Discuss Darwinís contribution to the study of evolution. (H)

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3. Biological classifications are based on how organisms are related.

 

a. Investigate the basis for the modern classification system based on fossil record interpretation and similarities in structural and chemical make-up.

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b. Analyze the complexity of classifying organisms based on such as structural adaptations, physiology, nutritional strategies, biochemical similarities, genetic similarities, embryological similarities and methods of reproduction.

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c. Justify why many scientists group viruses in a category separate from living things.

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D. Interdependence of Organisms

 

1. The atoms and molecules on the earth cycle among the living and nonliving components of the biosphere.

 

a. Evaluate the importance of nutrient cycles in the ecosystem.

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b. Describe how organisms interact with the biosphere as part of the geochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and water cycles).

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2. Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, from photosynthetic organisms to herbivores to carnivores and decomposers.

 

a. Trace the flow of energy through various trophic levels.

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b. Assess the value of the carbon cycle to the flow of energy through the ecosystems.

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3. Organisms both cooperate and compete in ecosystems. The interrelationships and interdependencies of these organisms may generate ecosystems that are stable for hundreds or thousands of years.

 

a. Relate the terms cooperation and competition to organisms with an ecosystem.

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b. Explain how interrelationships and interdependencies of living things contribute to the homeostasis of ecosystems.

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4. Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of infinite size, but environments and resources are finite. This fundamental tension has profound effects on the interactions between organisms.

 

a. Describe and give examples of demographic characteristics of populations (e.g., birth and death rates, age structure, and sex ratio).

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hands-on
online

b. Give examples and explain how limiting factors such as water, food, oxygen and living space play a role in the stability of ecosystems.

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c. Predict how interactions among organisms, such as predation, competition, and parasitism affect population growth.

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d. Discuss the effects of succession on terrestrial ecosystems.

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e. Evaluate dynamic equilibria as a result of checks and balances within populations, communities, and ecosystems.

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5. Human beings live within the worldís ecosystems. Increasingly, humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes, and other factors is threatening current global stability, and if not addressed, ecosystems will be irreversibly affected.

 

a. Identify events that led to awareness of environmental concerns such as fish kills, destruction of the ozone layer, global warming, and decline of the bald eagle. (H)

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b. Describe the conflicts that could occur between land developers and conservationists. (P)

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c. Debate the consequences of extinction and introduction of species within ecosystems.

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d. Assess the consequences of acid rain on ecosystems. (P)

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e. Give examples of how technology has advanced the study of environmental science. (T, P)

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E. Matter, Energy and Organization in Living Systems

 

1. The energy for life primarily derives from the sun. Plants capture energy by absorbing light and using it to form strong (covalent) chemical bonds between the atoms of carbon-containing (organic) molecules. These molecules can be used to assemble larger molecules with biological activity (including proteins, DNA, sugars, and fats). In addition, the energy stored in bonds between the atoms (chemical energy) can be used as sources of energy for life processes.

 

a. Summarize the general process by which photosyntheis converts solar energy into chemical energy (food molecules)

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b. Summarize the general process by which cellular respiration breaks down food molecules into energy that can be used by cells.

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3. The complexity and organization of organisms accommodates the need for obtaining, transforming, transporting, releasing, and eliminating the matter and energy used to sustain the organism.

 

a. Explain why energy is necessary for the development, growth, and maintenance of organisms.

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b. Explain homeostasis and predict the consequences of a lack of energy on homeostasis.

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4. As matter and energy flow(s) through different levels of organization of living systems--cells, organs, organisms, communities--and between living systems and the physical environment, chemical elements are recombined in different ways. Each recombination results in storage and dissipation of energy into the environment as heat. Matter and energy are conserved in each change.

 

a. Discuss the first and second Laws of Thermodynamics as they relate to living things.

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b. Analyze energy in biological systems in terms of transformation, conservation, and efficiency.

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