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Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the developer, PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science

The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science you can cover using "To MARS with MER" are listed below. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities planned for "To MARS with MER".

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science

Kindergarten

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Kindergarten, science introduces the use of simple classroom and field investigations to help students develop the skills of asking questions, gathering information, communicating findings, and making informed decisions. Using their own senses and common tools such as a hand lens, students make observations and collect information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support their investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components of the natural world including rocks, soil, and water. Students observe the seasons and growth as examples of change. In addition, Kindergarten science includes the identification of organisms and objects and their parts. Students learn how to group living organisms and nonliving objects and explore the basic needs of living organisms.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(K.1) Scientific processes. The student participates in classroom and field investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during classroom and field investigations; and

(K.2) Scientific processes. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in the field and the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) gather information using simple equipment and tools to extend the senses;

(D) construct reasonable explanations using information; and

(E) communicate findings about simple investigations.

(K.3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) make decisions using information;

(B) discuss and justify the merits of decisions; and

(C) explain a problem in his/her own words and propose a solution.

(K.4) Scientific processes. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to verify that organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects can be observed, described, and measured. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and use senses as tools of observation; and

(B) make observations using tools including hand lenses, balances, cups, bowls, and computers.

(K.5) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms, objects, and events have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) describe properties of objects and characteristics of organisms;

(B) observe and identify patterns including seasons, growth, and day and night and predict what happens next; and

(C) recognize and copy patterns seen in charts and graphs.

(K.6) Science concepts. The student knows that systems have parts and are composed of organisms and objects. The student is expected to:

(A) sort organisms and objects into groups according to their parts and describe how the groups are formed;

(D) identify parts that, when separated from the whole, may result in the part or the whole not working, such as cars without wheels and plants without roots; and

(E) manipulate parts of objects such as toys, vehicles, or construction sets that, when put together, can do things they cannot do by themselves.

Grade 1.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 1, the study of science includes simple classroom and field investigations to help students develop the skills of asking questions, gathering information, making measurements using non-standard units, with tools such as a thermometer to extend their senses, constructing explanations, and drawing conclusions. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support their investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components of the natural world including rocks, soil, and natural resources. Students observe that heat from the Sun or friction, is an example of something that causes change. In addition, students identify basic needs of living things, explore ways that living things depend on each other, and separate living organisms and nonliving things into groups. Students identify parts that can be put together with other parts to do new things.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts classroom and field investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during classroom and field investigations; and

(B) learn how to use and conserve resources and materials.

(1.2) Scientific processes. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in the field and the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) gather information using simple equipment and tools to extend the senses;

(D) construct reasonable explanations and draw conclusions; and

(E) communicate explanations about investigations.

(1.3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) make decisions using information;

(B) discuss and justify the merits of decisions; and

(C) explain a problem in his/her own words and identify a task and solution related to the problem.

(1.4) Scientific processes. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to verify that organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects can be observed, described, and measured. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information using tools including hand lenses, clocks, computers, thermometers, and balances;

(B) record and compare collected information; and

(C) measure organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects, using non-standard units such as paper clips, hands, and pencils.

(1.5) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms, objects, and events have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) sort objects and events based on properties and patterns; and

(B) identify, predict, and create patterns including those seen in charts, graphs, and numbers.

(1.6) Science concepts. The student knows that systems have parts and are composed of organisms and objects. The student is expected to:

(C) manipulate objects such as toys, vehicles, or construction sets so that the parts are separated from the whole which may result in the part or the whole not working; and

(D) identify parts that, when put together, can do things they cannot do by themselves, such as a working camera with film, a car moving with a motor, and an airplane flying with fuel.

Grade 2.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 2, the study of science includes planning and conducting simple classroom and field investigations to help students develop the skills of making measurements using standard and non-standard units, using common tools such as rulers and clocks to collect information, classifying and sequencing objects and events, and identifying patterns. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support their investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components and processes of the natural world including the water cycle and the use of resources. They observe melting and evaporation, weathering, and the pushing and pulling of objects as examples of change. In addition, students distinguish between characteristics of living organisms and nonliving objects, compare lifelong needs of plants and animals, understand how living organisms depend on their environments, and identify functions of parts of plants and animals.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(2.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts classroom and field investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during classroom and field investigations; and

(B) learn how to use and conserve resources and dispose of materials.

(2.2) Scientific processes. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in the field and the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) compare results of investigations with what students and scientists know about the world;

(D) gather information using simple equipment and tools to extend the senses;

(E) construct reasonable explanations and draw conclusions using information and prior knowledge; and

(F) communicate explanations about investigations.

(2.3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) make decisions using information;

(B) discuss and justify the merits of decisions; and

(C) explain a problem in his/her own words and identify a task and solution related to the problem.

(2.4) Scientific processes. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to verify that organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects can be observed, described, and measured. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information using tools including rulers, meter sticks, measuring cups, clocks, hand lenses, computers, thermometers, and balances; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects, using standard and non-standard units.

(2.5) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms, objects, and events have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(B) identify, predict, replicate, and create patterns including those seen in charts, graphs, and numbers.

(2.6) Science concepts. The student knows that systems have parts and are composed of organisms and objects. The student is expected to:

(A) manipulate, predict, and identify parts that, when separated from the whole, may result in the part or the whole not working, such as flashlights without batteries and plants without leaves;

(B) manipulate, predict, and identify parts that, when put together, can do things they cannot do by themselves, such as a guitar and guitar strings;

Grade 3.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 3, the study of science includes planning and implementing simple classroom and field investigations to develop the skills of collecting information using tools such as a microscope, making inferences, communicating conclusions, and making informed decisions. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify the importance of components of the natural world including rocks, soils, water, and atmospheric gases. They observe the direction and position of objects as they are pushed and pulled, and movement of the Earth's surface as examples of change caused by a force. Students investigate magnetism and gravity. In addition, students explore organisms' needs, habitats, and competition with other organisms within their ecosystem.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(3.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(3.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect information by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts to organize, examine and evaluate information.

(3.3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information, critical thinking, and scientific problem solving are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on information related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 3 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(3.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, cameras, safety goggles, sound recorders, clocks, computers, thermometers, hand lenses, meter sticks, rulers, balances, magnets, and compasses; and

(B) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(3.5) Science concepts. The student knows that systems exist in the world. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and identify simple systems such as a sprouted seed and a wooden toy car; and

(B) observe a simple system and describe the role of various parts such as a yo-yo and string.

(3.6) Science concepts. The student knows that forces cause change. The student is expected to:

(A) measure and record changes in the position and direction of the motion of an object to which a force such as a push or pull has been applied; and

Grade 4.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 4, the study of science includes planning and implementing field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools such as compasses to collect information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components and processes of the natural world including properties of soil, effects of the oceans on land, and the role of the Sun as our major source of energy. In addition, students identify the physical properties of matter and observe the addition or reduction of heat as an example of what can cause changes in states of matter.

(3) Students learn the roles of living and nonliving components of simple systems and investigate differences between learned characteristics and inherited traits. They learn that adaptations of organisms that lived in the past may have increased some species' ability to survive.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(4.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(4.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect information by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(4.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on information related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 4 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, safety goggles, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, computers, hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, meter sticks, timing devices, balances, and compasses; and

(B) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(4.5) Science concepts. The student knows that complex systems may not work if some parts are removed. The student is expected to:

(B) predict and draw conclusions about what happens when part of a system is removed.

Grade 5.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 5, the study of science includes planning and implementing field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools such as nets and cameras to collect and record information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify structures and functions of Earth systems including the crust, mantle, and core and the effect of weathering on landforms. Students learn that growth, erosion, and dissolving are examples of how some past events have affected present events. Students learn about magnetism, physical states of matter, and conductivity as properties that are used to classify matter. In addition, students learn that light, heat, and electricity are all forms of energy.

(3) Students learn that adaptations can improve the survival of members of a species, and they explore an organism's niche within an ecosystem. Students continue the study of organisms by exploring a variety of traits that are inherited by offspring from their parents and study examples of learned characteristics.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(5.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(5.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect information by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(5.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on information related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 5 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(5.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, computers, hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, compasses, balances, hot plates, meter sticks, timing devices, magnets, collecting nets, and safety goggles; and

(B) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(5.5) Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to:

(A) describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system; and

(B) describe some interactions that occur in a simple system.

Middle School

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter B issued under the Texas Education Code, 28.002, unless otherwise noted.

112.21. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Middle School.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at that time shall supersede 75.28(g) and 75.44 of this title (relating to Science).

Grade 6.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 6, the study of science includes conducting field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing data, making informed decisions, and using tools such as beakers, test tubes, and spring scales to collect, analyze, and record information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components of the solar system including the Sun, planets, moon, and asteroids and learn how seasons and the length of the day are caused by the tilt and rotation of the Earth as it orbits the Sun. Students investigate the rock cycle and identify sources of water in a watershed. In addition, students identify changes in objects including position, direction, and speed when acted upon by a force.

(3) Students classify substances by their chemical properties and identify the water cycle and decay of biomass as examples of the interactions between matter and energy. They identify life processes and the relationships between structure and function of organisms.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(6.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(6.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

(6.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 6 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(6.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, analyze, and record information using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, timing devices, hot plates, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, magnets, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, compasses, computers, and computer probes; and

(B) identify patterns in collected information using percent, average, range, and frequency.

(6.5) Scientific concepts. The student knows that systems may combine with other systems to form a larger system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe a system that results from the combination of two or more systems such as in the solar system; and

(B) describe how the properties of a system are different from the properties of its parts.

(6.6) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the changes in position, direction of motion, and speed of an object when acted upon by force;

(B) demonstrate that changes in motion can be measured and graphically represented; and

(C) identify forces that shape features of the Earth including uplifting, movement of water, and volcanic activity.

Grade 7.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 7, the study of science includes conducting field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, critical-thinking, problem-solving, and using tools such as weather instruments and calculators to collect and analyze information to explain a phenomenon. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify gravity and phases of the moon as components of the solar system and explore the effects of events such as hurricanes on the Earth. Students use pulleys and levers to understand the relationship between force and motion. Students then relate the concept to processes in the human organism such as the movement of blood. In addition, students study chemical and physical properties of substances by examining the tarnishing of metal or burning of wood as examples of chemical processes, and by identifying physical properties used to place elements on the periodic table.

(3) Students learn about kinetic and potential energy and identify photosynthesis as an example of the transformation of radiant energy from the Sun into chemical energy for use by plants. Students investigate systems in humans to identify their structures and functions. Student compare asexual and sexual reproduction to illustrate that genetic materials are responsible for both dominant and recessive traits in organisms.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(7.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(7.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring;

(C) organize, analyze, make inferences, and predict trends from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

(7.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(F) connect Grade 7 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(7.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, analyze, and record information to explain a phenomenon using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, hot plates, dissecting equipment, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, computers, computer probes, timing devices, magnets, and compasses; and

(B) collect and analyze information to recognize patterns such as rates of change.

(7.6) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

(B) demonstrate that an object will remain at rest or move at a constant speed and in a straight line if it is not being subjected to an unbalanced force; and

Grade 8.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 8, the study of science includes planning and conducting field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing data, critical-thinking, scientific problem-solving, and using tools such as telescopes to collect and analyze information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify the roles of both human activities and natural events in altering Earth systems. Students learn that stars and galaxies are part of the universe, identify light years as a way to describe distance, and learn about scientific theories of the origin of the universe. Cycles within Earth systems are studied as students learn about lunar cycles and the rock cycle.

(3) Students examine information on the periodic table to recognize that elements are grouped into families. In addition, students demonstrate that exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions indicate that energy is lost or gained during a chemical reaction. Interactions in matter and energy are explored in solar, weather, and ocean systems. Students identify the origin of waves and investigate their ability to travel through different media.

(4) Students predict possible outcomes that result from different genetic combinations and explore the extinction of some species.

(5) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(6) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(7) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(8.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(8.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

(8.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 8 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(8.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and analyze information using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, hot plates, dissecting equipment, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, computers, computer probes, water test kits, and timing devices; and

(B) extrapolate from collected information to make predictions.

(8.5) Scientific processes. The student knows that relationships exist between science and technology. The student is expected to:

(A) identify a design problem and propose a solution;

(B) design and test a model to solve the problem; and

(C) evaluate the model and make recommendations for improving the model.

(8.7) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate how unbalanced forces cause changes in the speed or direction of an object's motion; and

High School

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter C issued under the Texas Education Code, 28.002, unless otherwise noted.

112.41. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at that time shall supersede 75.64 of this title (relating to Science).

Integrated Physics and Chemistry.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9 or 10.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Integrated Physics and Chemistry, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical-thinking and scientific problem-solving. This course integrates the disciplines of physics and chemistry in the following topics: motion, waves, energy transformations, properties of matter, changes in matter, and solution chemistry.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe connections between physics and chemistry, and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of physics, chemistry, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines;

(B) investigate and describe applications of Newton's laws such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, geological processes, and satellite orbits;

(D) investigate and demonstrate mechanical advantage and efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels and axles, pulleys, and ramps.

Physics.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisites: one unit of high school science, Algebra I, and completion of or concurrent enrollment in a second year of mathematics. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Physics, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: laws of motion; changes within physical systems and conservation of energy and momentum; force; thermodynamics; characteristics and behavior of waves; and quantum physics. This course provides students with a conceptual framework, factual knowledge, and analytical and scientific skills.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement experimental procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) make quantitative observations and measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data;

(D) communicate valid conclusions;

(E) graph data to observe and identify relationships between variables; and

(F) read the scale on scientific instruments with precision.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between physics and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of physics and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the laws governing motion. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and interpret graphs describing motion including the use of real-time technology;

(B) analyze examples of uniform and accelerated motion including linear, projectile, and circular;

(C) demonstrate the effects of forces on the motion of objects;

(6) Science concepts. The student knows forces in nature. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the influence of mass and distance on gravitational forces;

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the laws of thermodynamics. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and explain everyday examples that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics; and

(B) evaluate different methods of heat energy transfer that result in an increasing amount of disorder.

Astronomy.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Astronomy, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study the following topics: information about the universe; scientific theories of the evolution of the universe; characteristics and the life cycle of stars; exploration of the universe; role of the Sun in our solar system; planets; and the orientation and placement of the Earth.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving skills to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between astronomy and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of astronomy and contributions of scientists.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that planets of different size, composition, and surface features orbit around the Sun. The student is expected to:

(A) observe the night-time sky to determine movement of the planets relative to stars;

(B) compare the planets in terms of orbit, size, composition, rotation, atmosphere, moons, and geologic activity;

(D) relate the role of gravitation to the motion of the planets around the Sun and to the motion of moons and satellites around the planets.