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LIVE FROM MARS - Nebraska Science Standards

Nebraska Science Standards

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Nebraska Science Standards you can cover using LIVE FROM MARS in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in LIVE FROM MARS.

For additional Nebraska Science Standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM THE SUN/LIVE FROM THE AURORA

LIVE FROM A BLACK HOLE/LIVE FROM THE EDGE OF SPACE AND TIME

Grades K-1,   Grades 2-4,   Grades 5-8,   Grades 9-12

Kindergarten - First Grade

Coordination with Mathematics

Science requires the use of mathematics in the collection and treatment of data and in the reasoning used to develop concepts, laws, and theories. The mathematics that students should understand and use in the study of science are listed below.

 

Measure, collect, and organize data

video
hands-on
online

Recognize and describe patterns

video
hands-on
online

Develop skills of estimation and judgment

video
hands-on
online

In the primary grades, students should learn science at their developmental level. Young children develop concepts, vocabulary, and inquiry skills by observing common materials and organisms. When engaged in science inquiry, they develop the ability to ask questions, investigate the world around them, and use their observations to create reasonable explanations for their questions.

video
hands-on
online


1.1 Unifying Concepts and Processes

Unifying concepts and processes help students think about and integrate a range of basic ideas which builds an understanding of the natural world.

 

1.1.1 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of systems, order, and organization.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Use one or more of the five senses to observe objects within the student's environment.

video
hands-on
online

Use observations to sort objects by their characteristics.

video
hands-on
online

1.1.2 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of evidence, models, and explanation.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Describe and record how a model, such as photos, maps, globes, illustrations, stuffed animals, toys, and building blocks can represent an object, living thing, or an event.

video
hands-on
online

1.1.3 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of change, constancy, and measurement.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Recognize that change can be noted and measured.

video
hands-on
online

Recognize that things change in some ways and stay the same in others.

video
hands-on
online

Compare two or more objects using direct comparisons of measurement, such as shorter, longer, taller, heavier, and lighter.

video
hands-on
online

Use both standard units of measurement, such as inches and centimeters, and nonstandard units of measurement, such as string and paper clips.

video
hands-on
online

Use appropriate measurement systems for different purposes.

video
hands-on
online

1.1.4 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of form and function.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Demonstrate how the shape of a tool is related to its use.

video
hands-on
online

Explain how living things interact with their environment because of specific characteristics, such as how the long neck of the giraffe helps it to reach its food.

video
hands-on
online


1.2 Science as Inquiry

Science as inquiry requires students to combine processes and scientific knowledge with scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science.

 

1.2.1 By the end of first grade, students will develop the abilities needed to do scientific inquiry.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Ask questions about their surroundings.

video
hands-on
online

Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

video
hands-on
online

Collect scientific information from careful observation.

video
hands-on
online

Use simple equipment and tools, such as magnifying glasses, thermometers, and balance scales, to extend the senses.

video
hands-on
online

Share findings with classmates, families, and community members.

video
hands-on
online


1.5 Earth and Space Science

Earth and space science focuses on science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use.

 

1.5.1 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of the characteristics of earth materials.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Observe that materials of the earth, such as water, support life.

video
hands-on
online

1.5.2 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of the objects in the sky.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Recognize objects in the sky, such as the sun, moon, and stars.

video
hands-on
online

Recognize that the sun provides heat and light.

video
hands-on
online


1.6 Science and Technology

An understanding of science and technology establishes connections between the natural and designed world, linking science and technology.

 

1.6.1 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of technological design.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Explain how the use of common household tools is determined by their design.

video
hands-on
online

1.6.2 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of science and technology.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Use various tools, such as a magnifying glass, thermometer, or measuring tape, to improve observations and measurements.

video
hands-on
online

Identify, investigate, and solve a problem in the home or school.

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hands-on
online

Identify the technology used in different occupations.

video
hands-on
online


1.7 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

A personal and social perspective of science helps a student to understand and act on personal and social issues. This perspective builds a foundation for future decision making.

 

1.7.1 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of personal health.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Follow safety rules for home and school.

video
hands-on
online

Engage in personal care that will maintain and improve health.

video
hands-on
online

Describe a healthy diet.

video
hands-on
online

Explain that substances can benefit or damage the way the body functions.

video
hands-on
online

1.7.2 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of resources.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Observe and describe how reducing, reusing, and recycling help our environment.

video
hands-on
online


1.8 History and Nature of Science

The history and nature of science illustrates different aspects of scientific inquiry, the human aspects of science, and the role that science has played in the development of various cultures.

 

1.8.1 By the end of first grade, students will develop an understanding of science as a human endeavor.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Recognize the contributions to science made by men and women from many countries.

video
hands-on
online

Conduct an investigation as an individual.

video
hands-on
online

Conduct an investigation as part of a team.

video
hands-on
online


Second - Fourth Grade

Coordination with Mathematics

Science requires the use of mathematics in the collection and treatment of data and in the reasoning used to develop concepts, laws, and theories. The mathematics that students should understand and use in the study of science are listed below.

 

Measure, collect, and organize data

video
hands-on
online

Recognize and describe patterns

video
hands-on
online

Develop skills of estimation and judgment

video
hands-on
online

Explore chance

video
hands-on
online

Use variables to express relationships

video
hands-on
online


4.1 Unifying Concepts and Processes

In the intermediate grades, students learn science concepts, vocabulary, and inquiry skills at their developmental level. Students should develop knowledge and process skills while engaged in science inquiry. They should ask simple questions, design and conduct investigations (in the form of a "fair" test), and present their results to others.

 

Unifying concepts and processes help students think about and integrate a range of basic ideas which builds an understanding of the natural world.

 

4.1.1 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of systems, order, and organization.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Describe the parts that make up a system.

video
hands-on
online

Relate how the parts of a system affect the whole system.

video
hands-on
online

4.1.2 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of evidence, models, and explanation.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Use evidence gathered from an investigation to develop a scientific explanation.

video
hands-on
online

Create a model, graph, or illustration that represents an object, living thing, or an event in the student's environment.

video
hands-on
online

Explain and answer questions about the model created and how it represents a part of their environment.

video
hands-on
online

Use a variety of ways, such as sketches, charts, and graphs, to explain procedures or ideas.

video
hands-on
online

4.1.3 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of change, constancy, and measurement.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Describe observable changes, such as speed, pattern, shape, position, and size.

video
hands-on
online

Measure a change using appropriate tools and units of measurement.

video
hands-on
online

4.1.4 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of form and function.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Construct a device to perform a simple task and explain how it works.

video
hands-on
online


4.2 Science As Inquiry

Science as inquiry requires students to combine processes and scientific knowledge with scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science.

 

4.2.1 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop the abilities needed to do scientific inquiry.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in their surroundings.

video
hands-on
online

Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

video
hands-on
online

Employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses.

video
hands-on
online

Use data to support explanations.

video
hands-on
online

Communicate procedures, results, and explanations of an investigation.

video
hands-on
online


4.3 Physical Science

Physical science focuses on the science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use.

 

4.3.1 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of the characteristics of objects and materials.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Classify objects by observable characteristics, such as shape, size, and color.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate characteristics of common materials using tools, such as rulers, balances, thermometers, microscopes, and hand lenses.

video
hands-on
online

Observe that materials can change from solid to liquid to gas by heating and from gas to liquid to solid by cooling.

video
hands-on
online

4.3.2 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of the position and motion of objects.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Use reference points to describe the position of an object.

video
hands-on
online

Indicate an object's motion by tracing its position over time.

video
hands-on
online

Observe that the position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling.

video
hands-on
online

Demonstrate how sound is produced when objects vibrate.

video
hands-on
online

Change the pitch of sound by changing the rate of vibration.

video
hands-on
online

4.3.3 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of light, heat, electricity, and magnetism.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Distinguish between reflection and refraction of light.

video
hands-on
online

Recognize heat can be produced in many ways, such as burning, rubbing, or mixing one substance with another.

video
hands-on
online

Demonstrate heat can flow from one object to another by conduction.

video
hands-on
online

Use electricity to produce heat, sound, and magnetic effects.

video
hands-on
online

Demonstrate electrical circuits require a complete loop through which an electrical current can pass.

video
hands-on
online

Describe the physical properties of magnets.

video
hands-on
online


4.5 Earth and Space Science

Earth and space science focuses on the science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use.

 

4.5.2 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of objects in the sky.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Describe and observe how objects move in patterns, such as sun, moon, stars, and clouds.

video
hands-on
online


4.6 Science and Technology

An understanding of science and technology establishes connections between the natural and designed world, by linking science with technology.

 

4.6.1 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of technological design.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Identify a simple problem.

video
hands-on
online

Propose a solution to a simple problem.

video
hands-on
online

Implement the proposed solution.

video
hands-on
online

Evaluate the implementation.

video
hands-on
online

Communicate the problem, design, and solution.

video
hands-on
online

4.6.2 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of science and technology.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Recognize science as one way of answering questions and explaining the natural world.

video
hands-on
online

Recognize that technology, such as tools and techniques, uses scientific knowledge to solve problems.

video
hands-on
online

4.6.3 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of the abilities to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Classify an object as either natural or manufactured.

video
hands-on
online


4.7 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

A personal and social perspective of science helps a student understand and act on personal and social issues. This perspective builds a foundation for future decision making.

 

4.7.1 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of personal health.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Explain how the body uses food and how various foods contribute to health.

video
hands-on
online

Describe how different substances, such as tobacco, alcohol, and drugs, can damage the body and alter how it functions.

video
hands-on
online

4.7.2 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of the types of resources.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

List examples of resources which are basic materials, such as air, water, and soil.

video
hands-on
online

List examples of resources produced from basic materials, such as food, fuel, and building materials.

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hands-on
online

List examples of resources which are intangible materials, such as beauty, security, and quiet places.

video
hands-on
online

Research and report on the supply of various resources.

video
hands-on
online

4.7.3 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of environmental changes.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Distinguish between natural environmental changes and human influenced environmental changes.

video
hands-on
online

4.7.4 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of how science and technology helps communities resolve problems.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Research and explain how science and technology affect the quality of life.

video
hands-on
online


4.8 History and Nature of Science

The history and nature of science illustrates different aspects of scientific inquiry, the human aspects of science, and the role of science in the development of various cultures.

 

4.8.1 By the end of fourth grade, students will develop an understanding of science as a human endeavor.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Research and report on the contributions to science and technology throughout history by men and women scientists of diverse cultures.

video
hands-on
online

Research and report on how science is used in different careers.

video
hands-on
online

Research and report on how current scientific discoveries illustrate that science is never finished.

video
hands-on
online


Fifth - Eighth Grade

Coordination with Mathematics

Science requires the use of mathematics in the collection and treatment of data and in the reasoning used to develop concepts, laws, and theories. The mathematics that students should understand and use in the study of science are listed below.

 

Represent situations verbally, numerically, graphically, geometrically, or symbolically

video
hands-on
online

Use estimations

video
hands-on
online

Identify and use functional relationships

video
hands-on
online

Develop and use tables, graphs, and rules to describe situations

video
hands-on
online

Use statistical methods to describe, analyze, evaluate, and make decisions

video
hands-on
online

Use geometry in solving problems

video
hands-on
online

Create experimental and theoretical models of situations involving probabilities

video
hands-on
online


8.1 Unifying Concepts and Processes

At the middle school level, students expand their scientific inquiry skills through knowledge, observations, ideas, and questions. Middle school students will begin to recognize the relationships between explanation and evidence. They understand that background knowledge and theories guide the design of investigations, the types of observations made, and the interpretation of data. Student investigations will shape and modify students' background knowledge.

 

Unifying concepts and processes help students think about and integrate a range of basic ideas which builds an understanding of the natural world.

 

8.1.1 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of systems, order, and organization.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Recognize and describe integral parts and functions of any system.

video
hands-on
online

Analyze and predict the interactions within a system and between systems.

video
hands-on
online

Create and use classification schemes.

video
hands-on
online

Interpret cause and effect relationships within and between systems.

video
hands-on
online

8.1.2 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of evidence, models, and explanation.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Collect, manipulate, and analyze data from an experiment.

video
hands-on
online

Observe and develop models, such as physical, mathematical, mental, and computer simulations.

video
hands-on
online

Interpret and explain products of experimentation.

video
hands-on
online

Review investigative procedures and conclusions for reasonableness.

video
hands-on
online

8.1.3 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of change, constancy, and measurement.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Select and use appropriate measurement units.

video
hands-on
online

Quantify changes in systems.

video
hands-on
online

Use English and metric systems of measurements.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and describe changes in terms of scale, rate, and pattern.

video
hands-on
online

8.1.4 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of form and function.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Demonstrate how the design of an object makes it possible for that object to perform a specialized task, such as a bicycle or airplane.

video
hands-on
online


8.2 Science as Inquiry

Science as inquiry requires students to combine processes and scientific knowledge with scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science.

 

8.2.1 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop the abilities needed to do scientific inquiry.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Identify questions and form hypotheses that can be examined through scientific investigations.

video
hands-on
online

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

video
hands-on
online

Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

video
hands-on
online

Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

video
hands-on
online

Think critically and logically to make the relationship between evidence and explanations.

video
hands-on
online

Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions.

video
hands-on
online

Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

video
hands-on
online

Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

video
hands-on
online


8.3 Physical Science

Physical science focuses on the science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use.

 

8.3.2 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of motion and forces.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate, describe, and represent the motion of an object by its position, direction of motion, and speed.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and demonstrate that the speed and/or direction of an object changes when a force is applied to that object.

video
hands-on
online

8.3.3 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of the transfer of energy.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate, explain, and give examples of the forms of energy, such as heat, light, chemical, sound, electrical, and how energy is transferred.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and describe how heat is transferred from a warmer object to a cooler object until both reach the same temperature.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and describe the properties of sound.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and describe the basic principles of electricity and magnetism.

video
hands-on
online


8.5 Earth and Space Science

Earth and space science focuses on the science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use.

 

8.5.3 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of the earth in the solar system.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and list the components of the solar system, galaxies, and universe.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and describe the motion of solar system objects in terms of the concepts of day, year, seasons, eclipses, and phases of the moon.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and describe gravity's relationship to the solar system.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and understand that the sun is a major source of energy for phenomena in the atmosphere and on the earth's surface.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and describe the effect of the tilt of the earth's axis on seasons.

video
hands-on
online


8.6 Science and Technology

An understanding of science and technology establishes connections between the natural and designed world, linking science and technology.

 

8.6.1 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of technological design.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

video
hands-on
online

Design a solution or product.

video
hands-on
online

Implement a proposed design.

video
hands-on
online

Evaluate completed technological designs or products.

video
hands-on
online

Communicate the process of technological design.

video
hands-on
online

8.6.2 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of science and technology.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Distinguish between scientific inquiry (asking questions about the natural world) and technological design (using science to solve practical problems).

video
hands-on
online

Describe how science and technology are reciprocal.

video
hands-on
online

List the avoidable and unavoidable limits of a technological design.

video
hands-on
online

Recognize that solutions have intended and unintended consequences.

video
hands-on
online


8.7 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

A personal and social perspective of science helps a student understand and act on personal and social issues. This perspective builds a foundation for future decision making.

 

8.7.1 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of personal health.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Research and identify substances harmful to human beings in the natural environment, such as radon, lead, and nitrates.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and explain how personal choices can directly affect a person's health, such as exercise, nutrition, and use of drugs.

video
hands-on
online

8.7.2 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of populations, resources, and environments.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and describe how population levels affect resources and the environment.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and understand that the causes of environmental degradation and resource depletion vary locally and globally.

video
hands-on
online

8.7.3 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of natural hazards.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and describe the effect of natural hazards on the environment, such as earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, and storms.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and describe human activities, such as urban growth, land use, and waste disposal, which can accelerate many natural changes.

video
hands-on
online

8.7.4 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of risks and benefits.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Analyze a type of hazard, such as natural, chemical, or biological, estimating the number of people that might be exposed and the number likely to suffer consequences.

video
hands-on
online

Describe how perceptions of risks and benefits influence personal and social decisions, such as seat belt usage and waste disposal procedures.

video
hands-on
online

8.7.5 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of science and technology in society.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Understand the effect of science on society is neither entirely beneficial nor entirely detrimental.

video
hands-on
online

Understand that societal challenges often inspire questions for scientific research, but that science cannot answer all questions and technology cannot solve all human problems or meet all human needs.

video
hands-on
online

State an example of when societal priorities influenced research priorities.

video
hands-on
online

Practice the ethical codes followed by scientists, such as informing research subjects about risks and benefits, humane treatment of animals, and truth in reporting.

video
hands-on
online


8.8 History and Nature of Science

An understanding of the history and nature of science illustrates different aspects of scientific inquiry, the human aspects of science, and the role of science in the development of various cultures.

 

8.8.1 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of science as a human endeavor.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and understand that women and men of various social and ethnic backgrounds, working alone or in teams, engage in the activities of science, engineering, and related fields.

video
hands-on
online

Investigate and understand that scientists have different abilities, basic human qualities, and scientific habits of mind.

video
hands-on
online

8.8.2 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of the nature of science.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Formulate and test a hypothesis using observations, experiments, and theoretical and mathematical models.

video
hands-on
online

Use questioning, response to criticism, and open communication when defending a conclusion.

video
hands-on
online

Evaluate the results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical models, and the explanations proposed by other scientists.

video
hands-on
online

Distinguish between scientific fact and scientific theory.

video
hands-on
online

8.8.3 By the end of eighth grade, students will develop an understanding of the history of science.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Research and report on the difficulties experienced by a scientific innovator who had to overcome flawed, commonly held beliefs of his/her time to reach conclusions that we now take for granted.

video
hands-on
online


Ninth - Twelfth Grade

Coordination with Mathematics

Science requires the use of mathematics in the collection and treatment of data and in the reasoning used to develop concepts, laws, and theories. The mathematics that students should understand and use in the study of science are listed below.

 

Develop ability to use realistic applications and modeling in trigonometry

video
hands-on
online

Understand connections within a problem situation, its model as a function in symbolic form, and the graph of that function

video
hands-on
online

Use functions that are constructed as models of real-world problems

video
hands-on
online

Know how to use statistics and probability

video
hands-on
online


12.1 Unifying Concepts and Processes

Senior high students should be able to understand scientific inquiry at increasingly higher levels of sophistication. Questions and issues relevant to students should form the basis of investigations. An adequate knowledge base and an understanding of the concepts that guide inquiry are needed to assure success. Students should learn how to analyze evidence and evaluate their own explanations and those of scientists.

 

Unifying concepts and processes help students think about and integrate a range of basic ideas which builds an understanding of the natural world.

 

12.1.1 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of systems, order, and organization.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Predict and evaluate how change within a system affects that system.

video
hands-on
online

Use system analysis to understand how things work and to design solutions to problems.

video
hands-on
online

12.1.2 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of evidence, models, and explanation.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Create a physical, mental, or mathematical model to show how objects and processes are connected.

video
hands-on
online

Test the usefulness of a model by comparing its predictions to actual observations.

video
hands-on
online

Understand that the way data are displayed affects interpretation.

video
hands-on
online

Evaluate the reasonableness of answers to problems by reviewing the process used to find answers and checking against typical values.

video
hands-on
online

Understand that larger well-chosen population samples produce better estimates of population summary statistics.

video
hands-on
online

Use some random process to avoid sample bias.

video
hands-on
online

Understand that a believable correlation between two variables doesn't mean that either one causes the other.

video
hands-on
online

12.1.3 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of change, constancy, and measurement.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Use powers of ten to represent large numbers and to compare things that are greatly different.

video
hands-on
online

Compare data for two groups by representing averages and ranges of values.

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hands-on
online

Understand that measurement errors may affect calculations.

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Use estimates of magnitude of error to analyze disparities between estimates and calculated answers when making measurements.

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Describe rate of change by comparing one measured quantity to another measured quantity.

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Investigate and describe how different characteristics, properties, or relationships within a system change as their dimensions increase or decrease.

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Investigate and understand that as the number of parts within a system change, the number of possible internal interactions varies with the square of the number of parts.

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12.1.4 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of form and function.

 

Student demonstration:

 

Demonstrate the reciprocal aspect of form and function, explaining function by referring to form and explaining form by referring to function.

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12.1.5 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of change over a period of time.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Identify the series of changes that occur in objects, organisms, and natural and human designed systems.

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Explain equilibrium in terms of changes in opposite and off-setting directions.

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12.2 Science as Inquiry

Science as inquiry requires students to combine processes and scientific knowledge with scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science.

 

12.2.1 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop the abilities needed to do scientific inquiry.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations.

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Design and conduct scientific investigations.

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Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications.

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Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence.

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Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models.

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Communicate and defend a scientific argument.

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12.3 Physical Science

Physical science focuses on the science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use.

 

12.3.3 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of chemical reactions.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and describe common chemical reactions.

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Investigate and explain how chemical reactions release or absorb energy.

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Investigate and discuss chemical reactions in terms of bond formation by electron transfers.

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Investigate and describe the factors influencing the rates of chemical reactions.

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Investigate and describe how the use of catalysts accelerates chemical reactions.

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12.3.4 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of motions and forces.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Calculate the effect of forces on the motion of objects.

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Investigate and understand gravity as a universal force that each mass exerts on any other mass.

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Investigate and understand electrical force as a universal force that exists between any two charged objects.

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Describe an electric field and a magnetic field, and compare the interaction between them.

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12.3.5 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of the conservation of energy and increase in disorder.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and understand that the total energy in the universe is constant and can never be destroyed.

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Investigate and distinguish among kinetic energy, potential energy, and energy contained in a field.

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Investigate and describe heat in terms of conduction, convection, and radiation.

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Investigate and demonstrate how systems tend to become less organized and more disorderly over time.

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12.3.6 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of the interactions of energy and matter.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and understand all waves have energy and transfer energy.

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Investigate and demonstrate how electromagnetic waves result when a charged object accelerates.

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Investigate and illustrate how wavelength and frequency of waves are inversely related.

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Investigate and understand that the energy of waves can be changed into other forms of energy, just as other forms of energy can be transformed into wave energy.

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Investigate and identify atoms or molecules by spectral analysis.

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Investigate and describe how the composition and temperature of a material affects electron flow.

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12.5 Earth and Space Science

Earth and space science focuses on the science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use.

 

12.5.4 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop a scientific understanding of the origin of the universe.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and analyze various theories on the origin of the universe.

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Investigate and understand the effects of gravity and nuclear reactions upon stars.

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Research and describe the life cycle of a star.

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12.6 Science and Technology

An understanding of science and technology establishes connections between the natural and designed world, linking science to technology.

 

12.6.1 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of technological design.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Identify a problem.

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Propose designs and choose between alternative solutions.

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Implement a proposed solution.

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Evaluate the solution and its consequences.

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Communicate the problem, process, and solution.

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12.6.2 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding about science and technology.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

State an example of how science advanced with the introduction of new technology.

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Understand creativity, imagination, and a good knowledge base are all needed to advance the work of science and engineering.

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Contrast the reasons for the pursuit of science and the pursuit of technology.

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Contrast the reporting of scientific knowledge and the reporting of technical knowledge.

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12.7 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

A personal and social perspective of science helps a student understand and act on personal and social issues. This perspective builds a foundation for future decision making.

 

12.7.1 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of personal and community health.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and describe the effect of nutritional balance on growth, development, and personal well-being.

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Investigate and explain how diseases are prevented, controlled, and cured.

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Investigate and explain how genetics affect a person's health.

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Investigate and analyze risk versus benefit assessments to facilitate personal and community health.

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12.7.2 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of the effects of population change.

 

vStudent demonstrations:

 

Investigate and state causes of population growth or decline.

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Investigate and explain how various factors influence birth rates and death rates.

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Investigate and describe how population change impacts resource use and environments.

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12.7.3 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of natural resources.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and explain how human populations use environmental resources to maintain and improve their existence.

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Investigate and understand that the earth has renewable and finite resources.

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Investigate and understand the limitations of natural systems to renew and recycle resources.

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12.7.4 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of environmental quality.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and describe how the positive and negative consequences of human intervention or nonintervention impacts the ecosystem.

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Investigate and discuss factors which may influence environmental quality. Factors to consider may include population distribution and consumption.

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12.7.5 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of natural and human-induced hazards.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and describe how human activities increase or reduce the potential for hazards.

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Investigate and distinguish between slow occurring hazards, such as coastal erosion, and rapid occurring hazards, such as tornadoes, and discuss their impact on the environment.

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Investigate and assess potential dangers and risks of a hazard.

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12.7.6 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of the role of science and technology in local, national, and global challenges.

 

vStudent demonstrations:

 

Understand that knowledge of basic concepts about scientific and technological challenges should precede active debate.

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Investigate and understand that social issues and challenges may affect advancements in science and technology.

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Understand that science and technology are essential social enterprises that indicate what could happen, but not what should happen.

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12.8 History and Nature of Science

The history and nature of science illustrates different aspects of scientific inquiry, the human aspects of science, and the role of science in the development of various cultures.

 

12.8.1 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of science as a human endeavor.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Practice the ethical traditions of scientists, such as peer review, truthful reporting, and public disclosure of work.

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Examine and understand the societal, cultural, and personal beliefs that influence scientists.

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12.8.2 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Demonstrate the use of empirical standards, logical arguments, and skepticism in science.

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Create scientific explanations consistent with experimental and observational evidence; make accurate predictions; strive to be logical; respect the rules of evidence; accept criticism; report methods and procedures; and make knowledge public.

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Understand that all scientific knowledge is, in principle, subject to change as new evidence becomes available.

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12.8.3 By the end of twelfth grade, students will develop an understanding of the history of science.

 

Student demonstrations:

 

Investigate and describe the contributions to scientific knowledge and technological inventions by diverse cultures.

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Research and understand that changes in scientific knowledge evolve over time and almost always build on earlier knowledge.

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Research and relate the long-lasting societal effects of science and technology advancements . Examples of such advances include: germ theory, protein synthesis, Newtonian mechanics, quantum theory, geologic time scale, and plate tectonics.

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Updated January 2001