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Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the developer, PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.

Louisiana Content Strands

The Louisiana Content Strands for science you can cover using "To MARS with MER" are listed below. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities planned for "To MARS with MER".

Louisiana Content Strands

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY

FOCUS

The process of scientific inquiry involves "asking a question, planning and conducting an investigation, using appropriate tools, mathematics, and techniques, thinking critically and logically about the relationships between evidence and explanations, constructing and analyzing alternative explanations, and communicating scientific arguments" (NSE Standards, pp. v-4). Students develop these skills as they are encouraged to think scientifically rather than simply memorize and/or study science facts.

STANDARD

The students will do science by engaging in partial and full inquiries that are within their developmental capabilities.

BENCHMARKS K-4

In Grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes:

A. THE ABILITIES NECESSARY TO DO SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

SI-E-A1 asking appropriate questions about organisms and events in the environment;
(1, 3)

SI-E-A2 planning and/or designing and conducting a scientific investigation;
(2, 3)

SI-E-A3 communicating that observations are made with one's senses;
(1, 3)

SI-E-A4 employing equipment and tools to gather data and extend the sensory observations;
(3)

SI-E-A5 using data, including numbers and graphs, to explain observations and experiments;
(1, 2, 3)

SI-E-A6 communicating observations and experiments in oral and written formats;
(1, 3)

SI-E-A7 utilizing safety procedures during experiments.
(3, 5)

B. UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

SI-E-B1 categorizing questions into what is known, what is not known, and what questions need to be explained;
(2, 4)

SI-E-B2 using appropriate experiments depending on the questions to be explored;
(2, 4)

SI-E-B3 choosing appropriate equipment and tools to conduct an experiment;
(2, 3, 5)

SI-E-B4 developing explanations by using observations and experiments;
(1, 2, 3, 4)

SI-E-B5 presenting the results of experiments;
(1, 3)

SI-E-B6 reviewing and asking questions about the results of investigations.
(1, 3, 4)

BENCHMARKS 5-8

As students in Grades 5-8 extend their knowledge, what they know and are able to do includes:

A. THE ABILITIES NECESSARY TO DO SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

SI-M-A1 identifying questions that can be used to design a scientific investigation;
(1, 2, 3)

SI-M-A2 designing and conducting a scientific investigation;
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

SI-M-A3 using mathematics and appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data;
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

SI-M-A4 developing descriptions, explanations, and graphs using data;
(1, 2, 3, 4)

SI-M-A5 developing models and predictions using the relationships between data and explanations;
(1, 2, 3, 4)

SI-M-A6 comparing alternative explanations and predictions;
(1, 3, 4)

SI-M-A7 communicating scientific procedures, information, and explanations;
(1, 3)

SI-M-A8 utilizing safety procedures during scientific investigations.
(3, 5)

B. UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

SI-M-B1 recognizing that different kinds of questions guide different kinds of scientific investigations;
(2, 4)

SI-M-B2 communicating that current scientific knowledge guides scientific investigations;
(1, 3, 4)

SI-M-B3 understanding that mathematics, technology, and scientific techniques used in an experiment can limit or enhance the accuracy of scientific knowledge;
(3, 4)

SI-M-B4 using data and logical arguments to propose, modify, or elaborate on principles and models;
(1, 2, 3, 4)

SI-M-B5 understanding that scientific knowledge is enhanced through peer review, alternative explanations, and constructive criticism;
(1, 4, 5)

SI-M-B6 communicating that scientific investigations can result in new ideas, new methods or procedures, and new technologies;
(1, 3, 4)

SI-M-B7 understanding that scientific development/technology is driven by societal needs and funding.
(4, 5)

BENCHMARKS 9-12

As students in Grades 9-12 extend their knowledge, what they know and are able to do includes:

A. THE ABILITIES NECESSARY TO DO SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

SI-H-A1 identifying questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations;
(2, 4)

SI-H-A2 designing and conducting scientific investigations;
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

SI-H-A3 using technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications;
(1, 2, 3)

SI-H-A4 formulating and revising scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence;
(1, 2, 3, 4)

SI-H-A5 recognizing and analyzing alternative explanations and models;
(4)

SI-H-A6 communicating and defending a scientific argument;
(1, 3, 4)

S1-H-A7 utilizing science safety procedures during scientific investigations.
(3, 5)

B. UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

SI-H-B1 communicating that scientists usually base their investigations on existing models, explanations, and theories;
(1, 3, 4)

SI-H-B2 communicating that scientists conduct investigations for a variety of reasons, such as exploration of new areas, discovery of new aspects of the natural world, confirmation of prior investigations, evaluation of current theories, and comparison of models and theories;
(1, 3, 4)

SI-H-B3 communicating that scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering and manipulation of data;
(1, 3)

SI-H-B4 analyzing a proposed explanation of scientific evidence according to the following criteria: follow a logical structure, follow rules of evidence, allow for questions and modifications, and is based on historical and current scientific knowledge;
(2, 4, 5)

SI-H-B5 communicating that the results of scientific inquiry, new knowledge, and methods emerge from different types of investigations and public communication among scientists.
(1, 3, 4, 5)

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

FOCUS

Exploring the characteristics, forces, and changes in objects and materials encourages students to develop an understanding of the world in which they live to establish a basis for a lifelong study of their world. As students increase their understanding and abilities, they will be able to use more sophisticated qualitative and quantitative methods to construct and analyze information. This study will enable them to make informed decisions based on a better understanding of how things work in the physical world.

STANDARD

Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and interrelationships of matter and energy in the physical world.

BENCHMARKS K-4

In Grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes:

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

FOCUS

Exploring the characteristics, forces, and changes in objects and materials encourages students to develop an understanding of the world in which they live to establish a basis for a lifelong study of their world. As students increase their understanding and abilities, they will be able to use more sophisticated qualitative and quantitative methods to construct and analyze information. This study will enable them to make informed decisions based on a better understanding of how things work in the physical world.

STANDARD

Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and interrelationships of matter and energy in the physical world.

BENCHMARKS K-4

In Grades K-4, what students know and are able to do includes:

A. PROPERTIES OF OBJECTS AND MATERIALS

PS-E-A1 observing, describing, and classifying objects by properties (size, weight, shape, color, texture, and temperature);
(4)

PS-E-A2 measuring properties of objects using appropriate materials, tools, and technology;
(3, 4, 5)

PS-E-A3 observing and describing the objects by the properties of the materials from which they are made (paper, wood, metal);
(2, 4)

B. POSITION AND MOTION OF OBJECTS

PS-E-B1 observing and describing the position of an object relative to another object or the background;
(1, 2)

PS-E-B2 exploring and recognizing that the position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling (force) over time;
(1, 2, 3)

PS-E-B3 describing an object's motion by tracing and measuring its position over time;
(1, 2, 3, 4)

PS-E-B4 investigating and describing how the motion of an object is related to the strength of the force (pushing or pulling) and the mass of the object.
(1, 2, 3, 4)

BENCHMARKS 5-8

As students in Grades 5-8 extend their knowledge, what they know and are able to do includes:

A. PROPERTIES AND CHANGES OF PROPERTIES IN MATTER

PS-M-A1 investigating, measuring, and communicating the properties of different substances which are independent of the amount of the substance;
(1, 2, 3, 4)

PS-M-A2 understanding that all matter is made up of particles called atoms and that atoms of different elements are different;
(2, 4)

PS-M-A3 grouping substances according to similar properties and/or behaviors;
(4)

B. MOTIONS AND FORCES

PS-M-B1 describing and graphing the motions of objects;
(1, 2, 3)

PS-M-B2 recognizing different forces and describing their effects (gravity, electrical, magnetic);
(1, 2)

PS-M-B3 understanding that, when an object is not being subjected to a force, it will continue to move at a constant speed and in a straight line;
(2, 3, 4)

PS-M-B4 describing how forces acting on an object will reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon their direction and magnitude;
(1, 2)

PS-M-B5 understanding that unbalanced forces will cause changes in the speed or direction of an objectís motion.
(2, 4)

BENCHMARKS 9-12

As students in Grades 9-12 extend their knowledge and abilities, what they know and are able to do includes:

E. FORCES AND MOTION

PS-H-E1 recognizing the characteristics and relative strengths of the forces of nature (gravitational, electrical, magnetic, nuclear);
(4, 5)

PS-H-E2 understanding the relationship of displacement, time, rate of motion, and rate of change of motion; representing rate and changes of motion mathematically and graphically;
(1, 2, 3, 4)

PS-H-E3 understanding effects of forces on changes in motion as explained by Newtonian mechanics;
(1, 4)

PS-H-E4 illustrating how frame of reference affects our ability to judge motion.
(1, 2, 4)