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Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the developer, PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.


The Illinois for science you can cover using "To MARS with MER" are listed below. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities planned for "To MARS with MER".


STATE GOAL 11: Understand the processes of scientific inquiry and technological design to investigate questions, conduct experiments and solve problems.
Why This Goal Is Important: The inquiry process prepares learners to engage in science and apply methods of technological design. This understanding will enable students to pose questions, use models to enhance understanding, make predictions, gather and work with data, use appropriate measurement methods, analyze results, draw conclusions based on evidence, communicate their methods and results, and think about the implications of scientific research and technological problem solving.

A. Know and apply the concepts, principles and processes of scientific inquiry.

Early Elementary

11.A.1a Describe an observed event.

11.A.1b Develop questions on scientific topics.

11.A.1c Collect data for investigations using measuring instruments and technologies.

11.A.1d Record and store data using available technologies.

11.A.1e Arrange data into logical patterns and describe the patterns.

11.A.1f Compare observations of individual and group results.

Late Elementary

11.A.2a Formulate questions on a specific science topic and choose the steps needed to answer the questions.

11.A.2b Collect data for investigations using scientific process skills including observing, estimating and measuring.

11.A.2c Construct charts and visualizations to display data.

11.A.2d Use data to produce reasonable explanations.

11.A.2e Report and display the results of individual and group investigations.

Middle/Junior High School

11.A.3a Formulate hypotheses that can be tested by collecting data.

11.A.3b Conduct scientific experiments that control all but one variable.

11.A.3c Collect and record data accurately using consistent measuring and recording techniques and media.

11.A.3d Explain the existence of unexpected results in a data set.

11.A.3e Use data manipulation tools and quantitative (e.g., mean, mode, simple equations) and representational methods (e.g., simulations, image processing) to analyze measurements.

11.A.3f Interpret and represent results of analysis to produce findings.

11.A.3g Report and display the process and results of a scientific investigation.

Early High School

11.A.4a Formulate hypotheses referencing prior research and knowledge.

11.A.4b Conduct controlled experiments or simulations to test hypotheses.

11.A.4c Collect, organize and analyze data accurately and precisely.

11.A.4d Apply statistical methods to the data to reach and support conclusions.

11.A.4e Formulate alternative hypotheses to explain unexpected results.

11.A.4f Using available technology, report, display and defend to an audience conclusions drawn from investigations.

Late High School

11.A.5a Formulate hypotheses referencing prior research and knowledge.

11.A.5b Design procedures to test the selected hypotheses.

11.A.5c Conduct systematic controlled experiments to test the selected hypotheses.

11.A.5d Apply statistical methods to make predictions and to test the accuracy of results.

11.A.5e Report, display and defend the results of investigations to audiences that may include professionals and technical experts.

B. Know and apply the concepts, principles and processes of technological design.

Early Elementary

11.B.1a Given a simple design problem, formulate possible solutions.

11.B.1b Design a device that will be useful in solving the problem.

11.B.1c Build the device using the materials and tools provided.

11.B.1d Test the device and record results using given instruments, techniques and measurement methods.

11.B.1e Report the design of the device, the test process and the results in solving a given problem.

Late Elementary

11.B.2a Identify a design problem and propose possible solutions.

11.B.2b Develop a plan, design and procedure to address the problem identifying constraints (e.g., time, materials, technology).

11.B.2c Build a prototype of the design using available tools and materials.

11.B.2d Test the prototype using suitable instruments, techniques and quantitative measurements to record data.

11.B.2e Assess test results and the effectiveness of the design using given criteria and noting possible sources of error.

11.B.2f Report test design, test process and test results.

Middle/Junior High School

11.B.3a Identify an actual design problem and establish criteria for determining the success of a solution.

11.B.3b Sketch, propose and compare design solutions to the problem considering available materials, tools, cost effectiveness and safety.

11.B.3c Select the most appropriate design and build a prototype or simulation.

11.B.3d Test the prototype using available materials, instruments and technology and record the data.

11.B.3e Evaluate the test results based on established criteria, note sources of error and recommend improvements.

11.B.3f Using available technology, report the relative success of the design based on the test results and criteria.

Early High School

11.B.4a Identify a technological design problem inherent in a commonly used product.

11.B.4b Propose and compare different solution designs to the design problem based upon given constraints including available tools, materials and time.

11.B.4c Develop working visualizations of the proposed solution designs (e.g., blueprints, schematics, flowcharts, cad-cam, animations).

11.B.4d Determine the criteria upon which the designs will be judged, identify advantages and disadvantages of the designs and select the most promising design.

11.B.4e Develop and test a prototype or simulation of the solution design using available materials, instruments and technology.

11.B.4f Evaluate the test results based on established criteria, note sources of error and recommend improvements.

11.B.4g Using available technology, report to an audience the relative success of the design based on the test results and criteria.

Late High School

11.B.5a Identify a design problem that has practical applications and propose possible solutions, considering such constraints as available tools, materials, time and costs.

11.B.5b Select criteria for a successful design solution to the identified problem.

11.B.5c Build and test different models or simulations of the design solution using suitable materials, tools and technology.

11.B.5d Choose a model and refine its design based on the test results.

11.B.5e Apply established criteria to evaluate the suitability, acceptability, benefits, drawbacks and consequences for the tested design solution and recommend modifications and refinements.

11.B.5f Using available technology, prepare and present findings of the tested design solution to an audience that may include professional and technical experts.

STATE GOAL 12: Understand the fundamental concepts, principles and interconnections of the life, physical and earth/space sciences.
Why This Goal Is Important: This goal is comprised of key concepts and principles in the life, physical and earth/space sciences that have considerable explanatory and predictive power for scientists and non-scientists alike. These ideas have been thoroughly studied and have stood the test of time. Knowing and being able to apply these concepts, principles and processes help students understand what they observe in nature and through scientific experimentation. A working knowledge of these concepts and principles allows students to relate new subject matter to material previously learned and to create deeper and more meaningful levels of understanding.

D. Know and apply concepts that describe force and motion and the principles that explain them.

Early Elementary

12.D.1a Identify examples of motion (e.g., moving in a straight line, vibrating, rotating).

12.D.1b Identify observable forces in nature (e.g., pushes, pulls, gravity, magnetism).

Late Elementary

12.D.2a Explain constant, variable and periodic motions.

12.D.2b Demonstrate and explain ways that forces cause actions and reactions (e.g., magnets attracting and repelling; objects falling, rolling and bouncing).

Middle/Junior High School

12.D.3a Explain and demonstrate how forces affect motion (e.g., action/reaction, equilibrium conditions, free-falling objects).

12.D.3b Explain the factors that affect the gravitational forces on objects (e.g., changes in mass, distance).

Early High School

12.D.4a Explain and predict motions in inertial and accelerated frames of reference.

Late High School

12.D.5a Analyze factors that influence the relative motion of an object (e.g., friction, wind shear, cross currents, potential differences).

STATE GOAL 13: Understand the relationships among science, technology and society in historical and contemporary contexts.
Why This Goal Is Important: Understanding the nature and practices of science such as ensuring the validity and replicability of results, building upon the work of others and recognizing risks involved in experimentation gives learners a useful sense of the scientific enterprise. In addition, the relationships among science, technology and society give humans the ability to change and improve their surroundings. Learners who understand this relationship will be able to appreciate the efforts and effects of scientific discovery and applications of technology on their own lives and on the society in which we live.

A. Know and apply the accepted practices of science.

Early Elementary

13.A.1a Use basic safety practices (e.g., not tasting materials without permission, "stop/drop/roll").

13.A.1b Explain why similar results are expected when procedures are done the same way.

13.A.1c Explain how knowledge can be gained by careful observation.

Late Elementary

13.A.2a Demonstrate ways to avoid injury when conducting science activities (e.g., wearing goggles, fire extinguisher use).

13.A.2b Explain why similar investigations may not produce similar results.

13.A.2c Explain why keeping accurate and detailed records is important.

Middle/Junior High School

13.A.3a Identify and reduce potential hazards in science activities (e.g., ventilation, handling chemicals).

13.A.3b Analyze historical and contemporary cases in which the work of science has been affected by both valid and biased scientific practices.

13.A.3c Explain what is similar and different about observational and experimental investigations.

Early High School

13.A.4a Estimate and suggest ways to reduce the degree of risk involved in science activities.

13.A.4b Assess the validity of scientific data by analyzing the results, sample set, sample size, similar previous experimentation, possible misrepresentation of data presented and potential sources of error.

13.A.4c Describe how scientific knowledge, explanations and technological designs may change with new information over time (e.g., the understanding of DNA, the design of computers).

13.A.4d Explain how peer review helps to assure the accurate use of data and improves the scientific process.

Late High School

13.A.5a Design procedures and policies to eliminate or reduce risk in potentially hazardous science activities.

13.A.5b Explain criteria that scientists use to evaluate the validity of scientific claims and theories.

13.A.5c Explain the strengths, weaknesses and uses of research methodologies including observational studies, controlled laboratory experiments, computer modeling and statistical studies.

13.A.5d Explain, using a practical example (e.g., cold fusion), why experimental replication and peer review are essential to scientific claims.

B. Know and apply concepts that describe the interaction between science, technology and society.

Early Elementary

13.B.1a Explain the uses of common scientific instruments (e.g., ruler, thermometer, balance, probe, computer).

13.B.1b Explain how using measuring tools improves the accuracy of estimates.

13.B.1c Describe contributions men and women have made to science and technology.

13.B.1d Identify and describe ways that science and technology affect people's everyday lives (e.g., transportation, medicine, agriculture, sanitation, communication occupations).

13.B.1e Demonstrate ways to reduce, reuse and recycle materials.

Late Elementary

13.B.2a Explain how technology is used in science for a variety of purposes (e.g., sample collection, storage and treatment; measurement; data collection, storage and retrieval; communication of information).

13.B.2b Describe the effects on society of scientific and technological innovations (e.g., antibiotics, steam engine, digital computer).

13.B.2c Identify and explain ways that science and technology influence the lives and careers of people.

13.B.2d Compare the relative effectiveness of reducing, reusing and recycling in actual situations.

13.B.2e Identify and explain ways that technology changes ecosystems (e.g., dams, highways, buildings, communication networks, power plants).

13.B.2f Analyze how specific personal and societal choices that humans make affect local, regional and global ecosystems (e.g., lawn and garden care, mass transit).

Middle/Junior High School

13.B.3a Identify and explain ways that scientific knowledge and economics drive technological development.

13.B.3b Identify important contributions to science and technology that have been made by individuals and groups from various cultures.

13.B.3c Describe how occupations use scientific and technological knowledge and skills.

13.B.3d Analyze the interaction of resource acquisition, technological development and ecosystem impact (e.g., diamond, coal or gold mining; deforestation).

13.B.3e Identify advantages and disadvantages of natural resource conservation and management programs.

13.B.3f Apply classroom-developed criteria to determine the effects of policies on local science and technology issues (e.g., energy consumption, landfills, water quality).

Early High School

13.B.4a Compare and contrast scientific inquiry and technological design as pure and applied sciences.

13.B.4b Analyze a particular occupation to identify decisions that may be influenced by a knowledge of science.

13.B.4c Analyze ways that resource management and technology can be used to accommodate population trends.

13.B.4d Analyze local examples of resource use, technology use or conservation programs; document findings; and make recommendations for improvements.

13.B.4e Evaluate claims derived from purported scientific studies used in advertising and marketing strategies.

Late High School

13.B.5a Analyze challenges created by international competition for increases in scientific knowledge and technological capabilities (e.g., patent issues, industrial espionage, technology obsolescence).

13.B.5b Analyze and describe the processes and effects of scientific and technological breakthroughs.

13.B.5c Design and conduct an environmental impact study, analyze findings and justify recommendations.

13.B.5d Analyze the costs, benefits and effects of scientific and technological policies at the local, state, national and global levels (e.g., genetic research, Internet access).

13.B.5e Assess how scientific and technological progress has affected other fields of study, careers and job markets and aspects of everyday life.