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Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the developer, PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.

Hawaii Science Content Standards

The Hawaii Science Content Standards you can cover using "To MARS with MER" are listed below. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities planned for "To MARS with MER".

Hawaii Science Content Standards

Domain I: How Humans think While Understanding the Natural World

Doing Scientific Inquiry

K - 3

1. Students demonstrate the skills necessary to engage in scientific inquiry.

 • Generate ideas, questions, and/or predictions about objects, organisms, events, places, and/or relationships in the environment.

 • Design and conduct simple investigations using systematic observations.

 • Collect and organize data using simple tools, equipment, and techniques.

 • Analyze data to construct a reasonable explanation.

 • Appropriately communicate their investigations and explanations to an audience.

 • Defend explanations based on evidence and revise explanations when they are faulty or inadequate.

4 - 5

 • Explain how the question or problem arose. Develop a hypothesis or prediction based on the question.

 • Design and conduct simple investigations to answer their questions or to test their ideas about the environment.

 • Collect and organize data for analysis, using simple tools and equipment.

 • Use appropriate models to summarize data and construct concluions based on observations and findings.

 • Communicate investigations and results appropriately to an audience.

 • Defend concluions based on evidence; reflect and revise conclusions based on recommendations from other points of view.

6 - 8

 • Develop questions and hypotheses that can be answered through scientific investigations.

 • Design and conduct scientific investigations to answer questions or to test hypotheses.

 • Collect, organize, analyze and display data/information, using tools, equipment, and techniques that will help in data collection, analysis, and interpretation.

 • Develop conclusions and explanations showing the relationship between evidence and results drawn.

 • Communicate and defend scientific procedure used and conslusion and explanation drawn from evidence.

 • Reflect and revise conclusion and explanation based on new evidence given from other valid points of view.

9 - 12

 • Develop and clarify questions and hypotheses that guide scientific investigations.

 • Design and conduct scientific investigations to test hypotheses.

 • Organize, analyze, validate and display data/information in ways appropriate to scientific investigations, using technology and mathematics.

 • Formulate scientific explanations and conclusions and models using logic and evidence

 • Communicate and defend scientific explanations and conclusions.

 • Identify and analyze alternative explanations and conclusions and models.

 • Revise scientific explanations and conclusions based on additional information/data gathered.

Domain I:How Humans Think While Understanding the Natural World

Living the Values, Attitudes, and Commitments of the Inquiring Mind

2. Students apply the values, attitudes, and commitments characteristic of an inquiring mind.

K - 3

Honesty

 • Report observations accurately

Critical-mindedness

 • Ask many questions starting with What, Where, Why, Whom, and How, to gather informationa about their "wonderings".

Objectivty

Examine many perspectives of a quesitons, situation or problem

Open-mindedness

 • Ask "wondering" questions.

Self-directed

 • Share new experiences and knowledge learned from individual investigations.

Value Science

 • Ask questions and describe the wonderings about the world around us.

4 - 5

Honesty

 • Report all observations accurately and precisely

 • Asknowledge work done by others.

Critical-mindedness

 • Validate and evaluate multiple sources of information (texts, periodicals, web sites, and people) to support research.

Objectivity

 • Examine many prerspectives of a question, situation, or problem and consider many possible solutions.

Open-mindedness

 • Acknowledge that ideas, conclusions, and expectations may change

Questioning

 • Ask quesitons to clarify and expand an idea or statement.

Self-directed

 • Plan and carry out tasks as an individual and as a member of a group

Value Science

 • Ask questions and give examples of how science explains what is happening in the world around us.

6 - 8

Honesty

 • Report observaitons even when they contradict a hypothesis

 • Acknowledge references, contributions, and work done by others.

Critical-mindedness

 • Evaluate empirical evidence to develop reasonable conclusions and explanations and compare them to current scientific knowledge.

Objectivity

 • Examine several possible options when investigations a problem. Distinguish between facts and speculations/inferences.

Open-mindedness

 • When appropriate, modify ideas, explanations, and hypotheses, based on empirical data or evidence.

Quesitoning

 • Ask questions to clarify or validate purpose, perspective, assumptions, interpretations, and implications of a problem, situations, or solution.

Self-directed

 • Use research techniques and a variety of resources to complete a report on a project of one's choice.

Value Science

 • Ask questions, explain, and elaborate how science is a way of thinking and knowing the world around us.

Domain I: How Humans think While Understanding the Natural World

Using Unifying Concepts and Themes

3. Students use concepts and themes such as system, change, scale, and nodel to help them understand and explain the natural world.

K - 3

System

 • Identify the components of a system that interact to perform a function (examples of systems are human body, clock. solar system, or automobile.

Change

 • Observe and describe changes that occur in nature.

Scale

 • Describe changes in the size, weight, color, or movement of thins, and note which of their other qualities remains the same.

Model

 • Use a model, such as a toy or a picture, to descirbe the feature or function of the original object, device, thing, etc.

4 - 5

System

 • Observe and describe how poarts influence one another in a system.

Change

 • Identify patterns of change in theings (such as steady, repetitive, or irregular change) using data as evidence.

Scale

 • Measure things that are difficult to measure because they are very large or very small (e'g', buildings, trees, seeds, pinhead).

Model

 • Use geometric figures, number sequences, graphs, diagrams, sketches, number lines, maps, or stories to represent corresponding features of objects, events, and processes in the real world. Identify ways in which the representations do not match their original counterparts.

6 - 8

System

 • Explain how a given system works.

Change

 • Identify patterns of change and the implications on a system.

Scale

 • Calculate very large or very small numbers using exponential numbers. (e.g. distances to other planets.)

Model

 • Idenfity several different models that could be used to represent the same thing, and evaluate their usefulness, taking into account such things as the models' purpose and complexity.

9 - 12

System

 • Explain the function of a given system and its' relationship to other systems in the natural world.

Change

 • Explain the effect of large and small disturbances on systems in the natural world.

Scale

 • Report how large changes in scale typically change the way things work in physical, biological, or social systems.

Model

 • Design or create a model to represent a device, a plan, an equations, or a mental image.

Domain I: How Humand Think While Understnding the Natural World

Doing Safety

4. Students demonstrate the importance of safely by applying safety skills in all activities.

K - 3

 • Apply school, classroom, laboratory, and field trip rules, as appropriate, to maintain a safe learning environment.

 • Identify potentially unsafe conditions prior to the activity and explain how accidents can be prevented.

 • Follow prescribed procedures of science activity under teacher supervision.

 • Apply appropriate safety protocols when conducting scientific activities in and out of the classroom.

4 - 5

 • Apply school, classroom, laboratory, and field trip rules, as appropriate, to maintain a safe learning environment.

 • Identify potentially unsafe conditons prior to the activity and explain how accidents can be prevented.

 • Conduct authorized science activities with teacher present.

 • Use supplies, chemicals, and equipment, as instructed.

 • Document and apply appropriate safety protocols when conducting scientific activities in and out of the classroom.

6 - 8

 • Apply school, classroom, laboratory, and field trip rules, as appropriate, to maintain a safe learning environment.

 • Identify potentially unsafe conditions prior to the activity and explain how accidnets can be prevented.

 • Use supplies, chemicals, and equipment as instructed and for the purposes they were intended under teacher supervision.

 • Operate emergency equipment, such as eyewash, shower, and fire blanket when needed.

 • Assist teacher as requested in case of emergency.

9 - 12

 • Apply school, classroom, laboratory, and field trip rules, as appropriate, to maintain a safe learning environment.

 • Identify potentially unsafe conditions prior to the activity and explain how accidents can be prevented.

 • Operate emergency equipment, such as eyewash, shower, and fire blanket when needed.

 • Assist teacher as requested in case of emergency.

 • Document and apply appropriate safety protocols when conducting scientific activities in and out of the classroom.

Domain I: How Humans Think While Understanding the Natural World

Science and Technology in Society

Relating the Nature of Technology to Science

5. Students use the problem-solving process to address current issues involving human adaptation in the environment.

K - 3

 • Identify a simple problem.

 • Gather information needed to solve the problem.

 • Determine relevant information, draw conclusions and arrive at alternative solutions.

 • Make inferences for each alternative solution and select a solution based on information collected.

 • State solution as a recommendation and give reasons for the decision made.

4 - 5

 • Identify and state a problem.

 • Collect, organize, and analyze information from various sources and identify possible alternatives based on the information.

 • Make inferences for each alternative solution and select a tentative solution.

 • Test the solution and document the results.

 • Analyze the results and propose recommendations/modifications to the solution.

6 - 8

 • Identify and elaborate on a problem or issue.

 • Collect and analyze information to identify alternative solutions.

 • Apply appropriate criteria for evaluating alternative solutions in solving a problem or issue.

 • Select and carry out action steps for the most suitable alternative solution.

 • Evaluate the effectiveness of the processes and actions used in solving the problem or issue.

9 - 12

 • Identify and explain current issues or problems based on evidence found in available information.

 • Collect, organize, and analyze information from reliable sources to identify alternative solutions.

 • Evaluate alternative solutions for effectiveness based on appropriate criteria.

 • Predict consequences or implications of proposed decisions and related actions.

 • Select and carry out actions for the alternative solutions selected.

 • Evaluate the effectiveness of the actions taken to resolve the problem or issue and its overall effect on self, others, and the environment.

Domain II: What We Know Today About the World Around Us

Historical Perspective

Understanding Scientific Inquiry and the Character of Scientific Knowledge

1. Students explain the process of how scientific knowledge is generated by scientific inquiry, and be able to critique a scientific investigation.

K - 3

Scientific Inquiry

 • Identify and describe the skills of inquiry including asking questions, doing a scientific investigation, and comparing the answers with what is already known.

 • Give examples where scientists use technology to increase their ability to observe, measure, and compare things more accurately.

Scientific Knowledge

 • Describe how scientists prove that their conclusions are valid.

4 - 5

Scientific Inquiry

 • Describe scientific inquiry including the asking of quesitons, conducting investigations, answering the quesions, and presenting the results to others.

 • Explain how scientific methods for understanding are not perfect and results are not "magic."

Scientific Knowledge

 • Explain how knowledge is acquired through scientific investigation.

 • Describe the events/people that made major contributions to science and technology throughout history.

6 - 8

Scientific Inquiry

 • Describe how scientific inquiry is a way of knowing.

 • Identify good scientific explanations and justify their soundness based on evidence, logical and consistent arguments, and use of scientific principles, models, or theories.

 • Give examples where scientists used mathematics and technology to gather, quantify, and analyze results of an investigation.

Scientific Knowledge

 • Give examples of how science advances through legitimate questions.

 • Describe and exemplify the nature of scientific explanations.

9 - 12

Scientific Inquiry

 • Critique a scientific investigation for logic and validity based on evidence.

 • Examine and elaborate how ethics and integrity play important roles in scientific research.

 • Explain how scientists prevent biases in research.

Scientific Knowlege

 • Compare and contrast the different science disciplines in terms of areas of study, techniques used, outcomes sought, purpose and philosophy.

 • Generalize that the human need to satisfy curiosity results in scientific knowledge and expanded ideas about the world.

Domain II: What We Know Today About the World Around Us

Historical Perspectives

Interdependence of Science, Technology, and Society

2. Students analyze and evaluate the interdependence of science, technology, and society.

K - 3

 • Interdependence of Science, Technology and Society

 • Identify new and old technologies and the impact they have/had on society and the environment.

Technological Impacts

 • Give examples of how various technologies such as agriculture, information, manufacturing, and communication have affected the students' lives.

4 - 5 Interdependence of Science, Technology and Society

 • Examine how techology influenced the economy, demography, and environment of the state and nation.

Technological Impacts

 • Analyze how the various technologies have changed the nature of work and affected the economy, demography, and environment.

6- 8

Interdependence of Science, Technology and Society

 • Give an example of the interdepencence of science, technology, and society and how it changed the course of history.

 • Give examples of societal influence on the development and use of technology and peoples' responses to these developments. (e.g., development of dynamite).

Technological Impacts

 • Describe and exemplify how information and communication technologies affect research and work done in the field of science.

9 - 12

Interdependence of Science, Technology and Society

 • Analyze, conclude, and defend how technology and science impacted the social, cultural, legal, political, economic, and/or ecological systems locally or globally and vice versa.

Technological Impacts

 • Analyze and evaluate the uses and impact of technologies locally and/or globally and propose possible solutions to address negative issues.

Domain II: What We Know Today About the World Around Us

The Physical Environment

Forces, Motion, Sound, and Light

15. Students explain the relationship between force, mass and motion of object; they analyze the nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation.

K - 3

Motion

 • Describe the various ways or paths in which things can move such as back and forth, zigzag, and circular.

 • Describe a method to change how something is moving, such as applying more or less force (e.g., push-pull).

4 - 5

Motion and Forces

 • Explain how force and mass can change the speed or direction of an object.

 • Use time to describe motion.

6 - 8

Motion and Forces

 • Explain the interaction between force and matter and the relationships among force, mass and motion.

9 - 12

Motion and Forces

 • Analyze the forces and motions of moving objects and simple machines.

 • Describe and explain the effects of multiple forces acting on an object.

Domain II: What We Know Today About the World Around Us

Earth Systems and The Universe

Universe

16. Students discuss current scientific views of the Universe.

4 - 5

 • Describe what constitutes the solar system of which Earth is part.

 • Describe the tools used to gather information about the solar system.

6 - 8

Give examples of objects in the solar system that are in regular and predictable motion.

 • Describe what constitutes the universe.

 • Describe how a telescope works and the optimal conditons for its use on Earth.

Forces of the Universe

17. Students explain the major forces in nature: gravitational, electrical and magnetic.

6 - 8

 • Build a model that illustrates that every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object.

 • Illustrate and explain what holds the Earth and other planets in their orbits and keeps their moons in orbit around them.

9 - 12

 • Create an analogy showing the relationship between gravitational force, masses of objects, and the distance between them.