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LIVE FROM MARS - California Academic Content Standards

California Academic Content Standards

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which California Academic Content Standards you can cover using LIVE FROM MARS in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in LIVE FROM MARS.

For additional California Academic Content Standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM THE SUN/LIVE FROM THE AURORA

LIVE FROM A BLACK HOLE/LIVE FROM THE EDGE OF SPACE AND TIME

Elementary Standards: Kindergarten,   Grade One,   Grade Two,   Grade Three,   Grade Four,   Grade Five
Middle School Standards: Grade Six,   Grade Seven,   Grade Eight
High School Starndards: Grades 9-12

Kindergarten

Investigation and Experimentation

4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

 

a. Observe common objects by using the five senses.

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b. describe the properties of common objects.

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c. describe the relative position of objects using one reference (e.g., above or below).

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d. compare and sort common objects based on one physical attribute (including color, shape, texture, size, weight).

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e. communicate observations orally and in drawings.

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Grade One

Investigation and Experimentation

4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

 

a. draw pictures that portray some features of the thing being described.

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b. Record observations and data with pictures, numbers, or written statements.

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c. record observations on a bar graph.

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d. describe the relative position of objects using two references (e.g., above and next to, below and left of).

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e. Make new observations when discrepancies exist between two descriptions of the same object or phenomenon.

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Grade Two

Physical Sciences

1. The motion of objects can be observed and measured. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know the position of an object can be described by locating it in relation to another object or to the background.

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b. Students know an object’s motion can be described by recording the change in position of the object over time.

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c. Students know the way to change how something is moving is by giving it a push or a pull. The size of the change is related to the strength, or the amount of force, of the push or pull.

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d. Students know tools and machines are used to apply pushes and pulls (forces) to make things move.

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e. Students know objects fall to the ground unless something holds them up.

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f. Students know magnets can be used to make some objects move without being touched.

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g. Students know sound is made by vibrating objects and can be described by its pitch and volume.

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Earth Science

3. Earth is made of materials that have distinct properties and provide resources for human activities. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

d. Students know that fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and that scientists learn about the past history of Earth by studying fossils.

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Investigation and Experimentation

4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

 

a. Make predictions based on observed patterns and not random guessing.

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b. Measure length, weight, temperature, and liquid volume with appropriate tools and express those measurements in standard metric system units.

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c. Compare and sort common objects according to two or more physical attributes (e.g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).

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d. Write or draw descriptions of a sequence of steps, events, and observations.

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e. Construct bar graphs to record data, using appropriately labeled axes.

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f. Use magnifiers or microscopes to observe and draw descriptions of small objects or small features of objects.

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g. Follow oral instructions for a scientific investigation.

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Grade Three

Physical Sciences

1. Energy and matter have multiple forms and can be changed from one form to another. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know energy comes from the Sun to Earth in the form of light.

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b. Students know sources of stored energy take many forms, such as food, fuel, and batteries.

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c. Students know machines and living things convert stored energy to motion and heat.

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d. Students know energy can be carried from one place to another by waves, such as water waves and sound waves, by electric current, and by moving objects.

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h. Students know all matter is made of small particles called atoms, too small to see with the naked eye.

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i. Students know people once thought that earth, wind, fire, and water were the basic elements that made up all matter. Science experiments show that there are more than 100 different types of atoms, which are presented on the periodic table of the elements.

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2. Light has a source and travels in a direction. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know sunlight can be blocked to create shadows.

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b. Students know light is reflected from mirrors and other surfaces.

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c. Students know the color of light striking an object affects the way the object is seen.

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d. Students know an object is seen when light traveling from the object enters the eye.

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Earth Science

4. Objects in the sky move in regular and predictable patterns. As a basis for under-standing this concept:

 

a. Students know the patterns of stars stay the same, although they appear to move across the sky nightly, and different stars can be seen in different seasons.

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b. Students know the way in which the Moon’s appearance changes during the four-week lunar cycle.

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c. Students know telescopes magnify the appearance of some distant objects in the sky, including the Moon and the planets. The number of stars that can be seen through telescopes is dramatically greater than the number that can be seen by the unaided eye.

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d. Students know that Earth is one of several planets that orbit the Sun and that the Moon orbits Earth.

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e. Students know the position of the Sun in the sky changes during the course of the day and from season to season.

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Investigation and Experimentation

5. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

 

a. Repeat observations to improve accuracy and know that the results of similar scientific investigations seldom turn out exactly the same because of differences in the things being investigated, methods being used, or uncertainty in the observation.

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b. Differentiate evidence from opinion and know that scientists do not rely on claims or conclusions unless they are backed by observations that can be confirmed.

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c. Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects, events, and measurements.

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d. Predict the outcome of a simple investigation and compare the result with the prediction.

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e. Collect data in an investigation and analyze those data to develop a logical conclusion.

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Grade Four

Physical Sciences

1. Electricity and magnetism are related effects that have many useful applications in everyday life. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

c. Students know electric currents produce magnetic fields and know how to build a simple electromagnet.

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d. Students know the role of electromagnets in the construction of electric motors, electric generators, and simple devices, such as doorbells and earphones.

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e. Students know electrically charged objects attract or repel each other.

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f. Students know that magnets have two poles (north and south) and that like poles repel each other while unlike poles attract each other.

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g. Students know electrical energy can be converted to heat, light, and motion.

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Investigation and Experimentation

6. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

 

a. Differentiate observation from inference (interpretation) and know scientists’ explanations come partly from what they observe and partly from how they interpret their observations.

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b. Measure and estimate the weight, length, or volume of objects.

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c. Formulate and justify predictions based on cause-and-effect relationships.

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d. Conduct multiple trials to test a prediction and draw conclusions about the relationships between predictions and results.

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e. Construct and interpret graphs from measurements.

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f. Follow a set of written instructions for a scientific investigation.

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Grade Five

Physical Sciences

1. Elements and their combinations account for all the varied types of matter in the world. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know that during chemical reactions the atoms in the reactants rearrange to form products with different properties.

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b. Students know all matter is made of atoms, which may combine to form molecules.

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d. Students know that each element is made of one kind of atom and that the elements are organized in the periodic table by their chemical properties.

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Earth Science

5. The solar system consists of planets and other bodies that orbit the Sun in predict-able paths. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know the Sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system and is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium.

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b. Students know the solar system includes the planet Earth, the Moon, the Sun, eight other planets and their satellites, and smaller objects, such as asteroids and comets.

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c. Students know the path of a planet around the Sun is due to the gravitational attraction between the Sun and the planet.

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Investigation and Experimentation

6. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

 

a. Classify objects (e.g., rocks, plants, leaves) in accordance with appropriate criteria.

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b. Develop a testable question.

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c. Plan and conduct a simple investigation based on a student-developed question and write instructions others can follow to carry out the procedure.

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d. Identify the dependent and controlled variables in an investigation.

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e. Identify a single independent variable in a scientific investigation and explain how this variable can be used to collect information to answer a question about the results of the experiment.

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f. Select appropriate tools (e.g., thermometers, meter sticks, balances, and gradu-ated cylinders) and make quantitative observations.

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g. Record data by using appropriate graphic representations (including charts, graphs, and labeled diagrams) and make inferences based on those data.

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h. Draw conclusions from scientific evidence and indicate whether further informa-tion is needed to support a specific conclusion.

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i. Write a report of an investigation that includes conducting tests, collecting data or examining evidence, and drawing conclusions.

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Grade Six

Focus on Earth Sciences
Heat (Thermal Energy) (Physical Science)

3. Heat moves in a predictable flow from warmer objects to cooler objects until all the objects are at the same temperature. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know energy can be carried from one place to another by heat flow or by waves, including water, light and sound waves, or by moving objects.

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b. Students know that when fuel is consumed, most of the energy released becomes heat energy.

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c. Students know heat flows in solids by conduction (which involves no flow of matter) and in fluids by conduction and by convection (which involves flow of matter).

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d. Students know heat energy is also transferred between objects by radiation (radia-tion can travel through space).

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Investigation and Experimentation

7. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

 

a. Develop a hypothesis.

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b. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, comput-ers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.

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c. Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop qualitative statements about the relationships between variables.

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d. Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and oral presentations.

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e. Recognize whether evidence is consistent with a proposed explanation.

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f. Read a topographic map and a geologic map for evidence provided on the maps and construct and interpret a simple scale map.

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g. Interpret events by sequence and time from natural phenomena (e.g., the relative ages of rocks and intrusions).

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h. Identify changes in natural phenomena over time without manipulating the phenomena (e.g., a tree limb, a grove of trees, a stream, a hillslope).

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Grade Seven

Focus on Life Sciences
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)

6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions. As a basis for un-derstanding this concept:

 

a. Students know visible light is a small band within a very broad electromagnetic spectrum.

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b. Students know that for an object to be seen, light emitted by or scattered from it must be detected by the eye.

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c. Students know light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does not change.

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d. Students know how simple lenses are used in a magnifying glass, the eye, a camera, a telescope, and a microscope.

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e. Students know that white light is a mixture of many wavelengths (colors) and that retinal cells react differently to different wavelengths.

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f. Students know light can be reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed by matter.

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g. Students know the angle of reflection of a light beam is equal to the angle of incidence.

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Investigation and Experimentation

7. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

 

a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, comput-ers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.

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b. Use a variety of print and electronic resources (including the World Wide Web) to collect information and evidence as part of a research project.

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c. Communicate the logical connection among hypotheses, science concepts, tests conducted, data collected, and conclusions drawn from the scientific evidence.

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d. Construct scale models, maps, and appropriately labeled diagrams to communi-cate scientific knowledge (e.g., motion of Earth’s plates and cell structure).

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e. Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and oral presentations.

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Grade Eight

Focus on Physical Sciences
Motion

1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. As a basis for under-standing this concept:

 

a. Students know position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions.

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b. Students know that average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary.

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c. Students know how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed.

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d. Students know the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of the object.

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e. Students know changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both.

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f. Students know how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction.

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Forces

2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know a force has both direction and magnitude.

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b. Students know when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces.

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c. Students know when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change.

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d. Students know how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or com-pression in matter, and friction.

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e. Students know that when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction).

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f. Students know the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion.

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g. Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.

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Structure of Matter

3. Each of the more than 100 elements of matter has distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know the structure of the atom and know it is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

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f. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple compounds.

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Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science)

4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know galaxies are clusters of billions of stars and may have different shapes.

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b. Students know that the Sun is one of many stars in the Milky Way galaxy and that stars may differ in size, temperature, and color.

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c. Students know how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distances between the Sun, stars, and Earth.

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d. Students know that stars are the source of light for all bright objects in outer space and that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, not by their own light.

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e. Students know the appearance, general composition, relative position and size, and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids.

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Investigation and Experimentation

9. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

 

a. Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.

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b. Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.

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c. Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.

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d. Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship yÊ =Ê kx and apply this principle in interpreting graphs constructed from data.

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e. Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables.

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f. Apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two remaining terms (including speed = dis-tance/ time, density = mass/volume, force = pressure ´ area, volume = area ´ height).

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g. Distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships on a graph of data.

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Grade Nine to Twelve

Physics
Motion and Forces

1. Newton’s laws predict the motion of most objects. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average speed.

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b. Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton’s first law).

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c. Students know how to apply the law FÊ =Ê ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (Newton’s second law).

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d. Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).

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e. Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.

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f. Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth’s gravita-tional force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).

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g. Students know circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.

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h.* Students know Newton’s laws are not exact but provide very good approxima-tions unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.

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Conservation of Energy and Momentum

2. The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide a way to predict and describe the movement of objects. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know how to calculate kinetic energy by using the formula E=(1/2)mv2.

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b. Students know how to calculate changes in gravitational potential energy near Earth by using the formula (change in potential energy) =mgh (change in the elevation).

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c. Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems, such as falling objects.

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d. Students know how to calculate momentum as the product mv.

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e. Students know momentum is a separately conserved quantity different from energy.

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f. Students know an unbalanced force on an object produces a change in its momentum.

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Heat and Thermodynamics

3. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, although in many processes energy is trans-ferred to the environment as heat. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know heat flow and work are two forms of energy transfer between systems.

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b. Students know that the work done by a heat engine that is working in a cycle is the difference between the heat flow into the engine at high temperature and the heat flow out at a lower temperature (first law of thermodynamics) and that this is an example of the law of conservation of energy.

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c. Students know the internal energy of an object includes the energy of random motion of the object’s atoms and molecules, often referred to as thermal energy. The greater the temperature of the object, the greater the energy of motion of the atoms and molecules that make up the object.

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Waves

4. Waves have characteristic properties that do not depend on the type of wave. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know waves carry energy from one place to another.

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b. Students know how to identify transverse and longitudinal waves in mechanical media, such as springs and ropes, and on the earth (seismic waves).

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c. Students know how to solve problems involving wavelength, frequency, and wave speed.

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d. Students know sound is a longitudinal wave whose speed depends on the proper-ties of the medium in which it propagates.

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e. Students know radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately 3x108 m/s (186,000 miles/second).

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f. Students know how to identify the characteristic properties of waves: interference (beats), diffraction, refraction, Doppler effect, and polarization.

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Electronic and Magnetic Phenomena

5. Electric and magnetic phenomena are related and have many practical applications. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

e. Students know charged particles are sources of electric fields and are subject to the forces of the electric fields from other charges.

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f. Students know magnetic materials and electric currents (moving electric charges) are sources of magnetic fields and are subject to forces arising from the magnetic fields of other sources.

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g. Students know how to determine the direction of a magnetic field produced by a current flowing in a straight wire or in a coil.

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h. Students know changing magnetic fields produce electric fields, thereby inducing currents in nearby conductors.

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i. Students know plasmas, the fourth state of matter, contain ions or free electrons or both and conduct electricity.

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Earth Science Earth's Place in the Universe

1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system’s structure, scale, and change over time. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know how the differences and similarities among the sun, the terrestrial planets, and the gas planets may have been established during the formation of the solar system.

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b. Students know the evidence from Earth and moon rocks indicates that the solar system was formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas approximately 4.6 bil-lion years ago.

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d. Students know the evidence indicating that the planets are much closer to Earth than the stars are.

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e. Students know the Sun is a typical star and is powered by nuclear reactions, prima-rily the fusion of hydrogen to form helium.

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f. Students know the evidence for the dramatic effects that asteroid impacts have had in shaping the surface of planets and their moons and in mass extinctions of life on Earth.

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g.* Students know the evidence for the existence of planets orbiting other stars.

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2. Earth-based and space-based astronomy reveal the structure, scale, and changes in stars, galaxies, and the universe over time. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know the solar system is located in an outer edge of the disc-shaped Milky Way galaxy, which spans 100,000 light years.

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b. Students know galaxies are made of billions of stars and comprise most of the visible mass of the universe.

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c. Students know the evidence indicating that all elements with an atomic number greater than that of lithium have been formed by nuclear fusion in stars.

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d. Students know that stars differ in their life cycles and that visual, radio, and X-ray telescopes may be used to collect data that reveal those differences.

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e.* Students know accelerators boost subatomic particles to energy levels that simulate conditions in the stars and in the early history of the universe before stars formed.

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f.* Students know the evidence indicating that the color, brightness, and evolution of a star are determined by a balance between gravitational collapse and nuclear fusion.

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g.* Students know how the red-shift from distant galaxies and the cosmic background radiation provide evidence for the "big bang" model that suggests that the uni-verse has been expanding for 10 to 20 billion years.

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Energy in the Earth System

4. Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation and eventually escapes as heat. As a basis for understanding this concept:

 

a. Students know the relative amount of incoming solar energy compared with Earth’s internal energy and the energy used by society.

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b. Students know the fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection, absorption, and photosynthesis.

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c. Students know the different atmospheric gases that absorb the Earth’s thermal radiation and the mechanism and significance of the greenhouse effect.

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d.* Students know the differing greenhouse conditions on Earth, Mars, and Venus; the origins of those conditions; and the climatic consequences of each.

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Updated September 2001