    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the developer, PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.  Arizona Science Standards

The Arizona Science Standards you can cover using "To MARS with MER" are listed below. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities planned for "To MARS with MER".

### Arizona Science Standards

Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following:

1SC-E1. Identify a question, formulate a hypothesis, control and manipulate variables, devise experiments, predict outcomes, compare and analyze results, and defend conclusions

(Grades 4-5) PO 1. Distinguish between a question and a hypothesis
PO 2. Describe the functions of variables in an investigation
PO 3. Predict an outcome based on experimental data
PO 4. Draw a conclusion based on a set of experimental data

PO 1. Design an experiment using a scientific method
PO 2. Conduct an experiment using a scientific method
PO 3. Analyze the results of an experiment
PO 4. Defend conclusions drawn from the analysis

1SC-E2. Create a model (e.g., a computer simulation, a stream table) to predict change

PO 1. Design a model to illustrate a system

PO 1. Construct a model that demonstrates change within a system
PO 2. Describe variables that cause change
PO 3. Explain cause and effect of variables within a system

1SC-E3. Organize and present data gathered from their own experiences, using appropriate mathematical analyses and graphical representations

PO 1. Organize gathered data into an appropriate format
PO 2. Construct a representation of data (e.g., bar graph, line graph, frequency table, Venn diagram)

PO 1. Construct a representation of data (e.g., histogram, stem-and-leaf plot, scatter plot, circle graph, flow chart)
PO 2. Interpret patterns in collected data

1SC-E4. Identify and refine questions from previous investigations

PO 1. Identify questions from previous investigations
PO 2. Refine questions from previous investigations

PO 1. Analyze the results of previous investigations
PO 2. Refine hypotheses from a previous investigation

1SC-E5. Analyze the processes, parts and subsystems of a bicycle, a clock or other mechanical or electrical device

PO 1. Identify the parts of a subsystem within a system
PO 2. Describe the functions of the parts of a subsystem
PO 3. State cause-and-effect relationships among components in mechanical or electrical devices

1SC-E6. Analyze scientific reports from magazines, television or other media

PO 1. Analyze the reliability of scientific information from a variety of sources

PO 1. Evaluate information for accuracy, logic, bias and impact

Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following:

2SC-E1. Identify major milestones in science that have revolutionized the thinking of the time

PO 1. Describe major scientific contributions

(Grades 6-8) PO 1. Describe the effects of major scientific events on society

2SC-E2. Describe how science and technology are interrelated

PO 1. Describe how science has helped technology change over time
PO 2. Describe how technology has helped science change over time

PO 1. Describe a technological discovery that influences science
PO 2. Describe a scientific discovery that influences technology
PO 3. Determine scientific processes involved in a technological advancement

2SC-E3. Provide different explanations for a phenomenon; defend and refute the explanations

PO 1. Propose several possible explanations for a scientific phenomenon
PO 2. Provide evidence to defend an explanation for a scientific phenomenon
PO 3. Provide evidence to refute an explanation for a scientific phenomenon

PO 1. Analyze different theories to explain a phenomenon
PO 2. Defend or refute the explanation of a phenomenon

2SC-E4. Identify characteristics of scientific ways of thinking

PO 1. Describe a variety of ways scientists generate ideas

PO 1. Describe the following scientific processes: observing, communicating, comparing, organizing, relating, inferring and applying

2SC-E5. Explain how scientific theory, hypothesis generation and experimentation are interrelated

PO 1. Explain the role of a hypothesis in scientific inquiry
PO 2. Explain the role of experimentation in scientific inquiry
PO 3. Describe how a scientific theory can be developed and modified

PO 1. Describe the relationship between theory and hypotheses
PO 2. Describe how experimental procedures can be formulated to test a hypothesis
PO 3. Explain how experimental results may affect a hypothesis and a theory

2SC-E6. Demonstrate how Science is an ongoing process of gathering and evaluating information, assessing evidence for and against theories and hypotheses, looking for patterns, and then devising and testing possible explanations.

PO 1. Explain how a scientific theory has changed over time
PO 2. Explain how a hypothesis has changed over time

PO 1. Compare and contrast the evidence of a hypothesis
PO 2. Compare and contrast the evidence of a theory
PO 3. Analyze a hypothesis
PO 4. Analyze a theory

Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following:

3SC-E1. Recognize how scientific knowledge, thinking processes and skills are used in a great variety of careers

PO 1. Explain how scientific knowledge and skills are integral to a variety of careers

PO 1. Explain how scientific knowledge, thinking processes and skills are used to solve problems in a variety of careers

3SC-E2. Develop and use a systematic approach to analyze the risks associated with natural and biological hazards

PO 1. Identify a human or environmental need
PO 2. Describe the various factors affecting the need
PO 3. Propose a solution or product that addresses the need

PO 1. Evaluate the possible strengths and weaknesses of a given solution to a problem

PO 1. Apply a proposed solution to a problem
PO 2. Evaluate the merit of a proposed solution

PO 1. Define force
PO 2. Describe the effects of various forces on an object
PO 3. Describe how a change in energy will affect matter

5SC-E5. Describe, measure and calculate characteristics (e.g., speed, distance, mass, force, gravity) of moving objects and their interactions (e.g., force, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, and kinetic energy) within a system

PO 1. Define terms associated with moving objects
PO 2. Describe interactions of moving objects

PO 1. Analyze moving objects within a system using Newton’s laws of motion

Students know and are able to do all of the above and the following:

6SC-E2. Describe common objects in the solar system and explain their relationships

PO 1. Describe common objects in the solar system
PO 2. Explain how objects in the solar system are related  