Live From Mars was active July 1996-December 1997.
Here is the draft script of the television program. Some small bits may change, but this should provide a fairly good preview for those who are interested.
LIVE FROM MARS "CRUISING BETWEEN THE PLANETS"
To air live from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Thursday, April 24, 1997 Final script as of April 23, 1997
Live guests at JPL are:
DONNA SHIRLEY, Manager of the Mars Exploration Directorate: in "SANDBOX" and MISSION CONTROL (aka MSA) BRIAN MUIRHEAD, MPF Deputy Project Manager, in MISSION CONTROL... ROB MANNING, MPF Surface PATHFINDER CHIEF ENGINEER in SANDBOX WAYNE LEE, MGS Mission Planner, MGS in "RUMPUS ROOM" STUDENTS FROM LA USD who will both ASK e-mail questions AND their own, in "RUMPUS ROOM" Also note the following abbreviations: S.N.O.R.T. = Surface Nominal Operations Readiness Test MPF = Mars Pathfinder (to land July 4) MGS = Mars Global Surveyor (to orbit beginning 9/97) JPL = Jet Propulsion Lab. (NASA/Caltech) MSU = Mississippi State University PET = LFM's Planet Explorer Toolkit, online activity resulting in kids taking data about local Earth sites in parallel to MPF work EDL = Entry, Descent and Landing sequence of MPF, slated for July 4, '97 TPS = The Planetary Society, sponsor of Red Rover, Red Rover *** 1) UNDERWRITER ANNOUNCE / VTR (00:15) RT 00:15 LIVE FROM MARS IS MADE POSSIBLE BY... PUBLIC TELEVISION 2) TEASE / VTR & LIVE JPL SANDBOX (01:00) RT 01:15 aerials TODAY WE'RE BROADCASTING LIVE FROM NASA'S JET PROPULSION LABORATORY, NESTLED NEAR PASADENA IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE SAN GABRIEL MOUNTAINS IN SUNNY SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. MANAGED FOR NASA BY CALTECH -- THE CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY -- JPL IS THE NERVE CENTER FOR ALL AMERICA'S ROBOTIC EXPLORATIONS OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. Low angle buildings SOME PARTS OF JPL LOOK LIKE A COLLEGE CAMPUS... BUT MULTIPLE GUARD GATES AND CAREFUL CHECK-IN PROCEDURES REMIND YOU OF THE HIGH-TECH, HIGH SECURITY RESEARCH BEING DONE HERE. JPL HAS BEEN HOME ON EARTH TO THE HONOR ROLL... OF SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORERS... PIONEER, MARINER, VIKING, MAGELLAN, VOYAGER... AND MANY MORE... Upstairs, etc., to SFOF AND IT'S FROM HERE THAT MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR AND MARS PATHFINDER -- NOW SOME CHECK MILLION MILES AWAY IN SPACE -- ARE BEING MONITORED AND CONTROLLED. back at JPL MORE GUARDS SECURE SFOF -- THE SPACE FLIGHT OPERATIONS FACILITY -- CONTROL CENTER FOR NASA'S DEEP SPACE NETWORK, WHICH LINKS ALL THESE SPACECRAFT TO SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS ON EARTH. Card reader, elevator PAST ANOTHER SECURITY CHECK, UP A FEW FLOORS AND THROUGH A MAZE OF CORRIDORS WE'RE AT PATHFINDER MISSION CONTROL AND THE SO-CALLED "SANDBOX"... 2A) CUT TO CAMILLE, LIVE CAMERA TO CONTINUE SEQ. AND ARRIVE AT SANDBOX FROM WHICH WE'RE COMING TO YOU, LIVE, TODAY, APRIL 24TH... HELLO, I'M CAMILLE MOODY. TODAY IS "TAKE OUR DAUGHTERS TO WORK DAY" >AND< FALLS WITHIN NSF'S "NATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WEEK," WHOSE THEME IS "WEBS, WIRES AND WAVES" -- THE FUTURE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS. see kids in RUMPUS ROOM and workers in MSA WE HOPE YOU FIND THIS "ELECTRONIC FIELD TRIP" AN EXCITING WAY FOR STUDENTS ALL ACROSS AMERICA TO VISIT THIS VERY SPECIAL >WORKPLACE<, USING INTERACTIVE TV AND THE INTERNET TO CONNECT TO REAL WORLD SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS IN REAL TIME WELCOME TO LIVE FROM MARS PROGRAM 2, "CRUISING BETWEEN THE PLANETS." 3) SHOW OPEN / VTR (01:00) RT 02:15 PTK, AMNH, MSU LOGOS PROGRAM 2 TITLE 4) LIVE FROM MARS UPDATE / VTR (02:30) RT 04:45 scenes from LFM 101, focusing on kids LAST TIME WE TOOK YOU BEHIND THE SCENES AT CAPE CANAVERAL, LAUNCH SITE FOR BOTH MARS MISSIONS. Kids in the flame pit. STUDENTS FROM McNAIR MIDDLE SCHOOL SHOWED US AROUND THE SHUTTLE PADS... kids with signs watching the launch, and a quick shot of the rocket taking off and in flight ...WITNESSED SURVEYOR'S LAUNCH... kids with hard hats close to the Delta pad ...TOOK US UP CLOSE TO PATHFINDER'S DELTA ROCKET... at the beginning of the show, they walk into SAEF 2 with Camille, and the yellow warning light blinks AND RIGHT UP TO THE HIGH SECURITY CLEAN ROOM WHERE PROJECT MANAGER TONY SPEAR SHOWED US THE FINAL PREPARATIONS BEFORE LAUNCH. Camille gets into bunny boots and goes thru air shower... high, wide shot shows crew down below TAKING SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS CAMILLE MOODY AND OUR CAMERAMAN WERE ALLOWED IN TO GIVE YOU AN INSIDER'S VIEW! Wayne boxed over Delta on pad, and following box shots GLOBAL SURVEYOR'S WAYNE LEE DESCRIBED THE ROCKETS THAT CARRY BOTH MARS MISSIONS AWAY FROM EARTH. Quick blips of the air bag test, CU of Sojourner roving, etc. AND WE SAW THE YEARS OF TESTING IT TAKES TO GET SPACECRAFT "GOOD TO GO." Classroom scene with bottom super already on it UP IN WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS, STUDENTS INTERACTED WITH PATHFINDER PROJECT SCIENTIST MATT GOLOMBEK... Neil shows CU of meteorite AND THE AMERICAN MUSEUM'S NEIL TYSON SHOWED US A METEORITE WHICH HAD COME FROM MARS! Kids speak to camera, and map/box shots zoom up... DOWN AT THE CAPE, STUDENTS PASSED ALONG E-MAIL QUESTIONS FROM ALL ACROSS AMERICA TO TONY, MATT AND WAYNE... stream-table activity, see variety of kids AND WE SHOWED HANDS-ON EXPERIMENTS WHICH >YOU< CAN DO IN CLASS TO SIMULATE THE EXPLORATION OF MARS. ON DECEMBER 4TH, MARS PATHFINDER TOOK OFF IN A SPECTACULAR 2:00 A.M. LAUNCH... ON MARCH 14, 1997, PATHFINDER, TAKING A MORE DIRECT PATH TO MARS, OVERTOOK GLOBAL SURVEYOR. BOTH MISSIONS HAVE HAD A FEW GLITCHES TO KEEP JPL ENGINEERS WORKING HARD, PATHFINDER WITH COMMUNICATIONS, SURVEYOR WITH STICKY SOLAR PANELS, BUT BOTH NOW SEEM ON COURSE AND A-OK. PET imagery, from Lindgren, etc. DOWN HERE ON EARTH, STUDENTS CREATED THEIR OWN "PLANET EXPLORER TOOLKITS" SIMULATING HOW MARS SCIENTISTS SELECT SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTS... PDI form from the LFM Web site STUDENTS DEBATED ONLINE, THEN WENT INTO THE FIELD, AND RECENTLY HAVE SUBMITTED RESULTS, FROM SUSSEX, ENGLAND TO ALASKA. WE'LL SEE MORE LATER... Theresa Hall and Joy Selberg footage MANY SCHOOLS HAVE ALSO WORKED ON "RED ROVER, RED ROVER" WHICH LETS STUDENTS CONTROL MODEL ROBOTS VIA THE INTERNET... MEANWHILE ASTRONOMERS AROUND THE WORLD HAVE BEEN STUDYING MARS DURING ITS CLOSEST APPROACH TO EARTH... THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROVIDED THESE GREAT IMAGES... AND AMATEURS AND STUDENTS WERE ALSO WATCHING... 5) SHOW SET-UP / LIVE JPL (01:00) RT 05:45 CAMILLE in RUMPUS ROOM, with kids BRIAN in MISSION CONTROL ROB in SANDBOX CAMILLE: PATHFINDER DEPUTY PROJECT MANAGER BRIAN MUIRHEAD IS OVER IN PATHFINDER "MISSION CONTROL"... HI BRIAN... we see him, he waves CAMILLE: AND IN THE SANDBOX ALONG WITH A MOCKUP OF THE LANDER AND ROVER IS CHIEF ENGINER ROB MANNING... we see him, he waves AND WE'VE GOT STUDENTS FROM THE LA UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT... AND QUESTIONS FROM KIDS AROUND THE COUNTRY. kids wave IF YOU WANT TO SEND IN QUESTIONS DURING THIS PROGRAM, THIS IS THE ADDRESS... address graphic IT'S ONAIR-DASH-LFM@QUEST.ARC.NASA.GOV Today, April 24, 1997 ONLY 13:00-14:00 Eastern send questions to email@example.com BUT REMEMBER, THAT'S ONLY GOOD DURING THE NEXT HOUR... WE'LL TELL YOU LATER HOW TO SEND QUESTIONS AFTER THIS LIVE PROGRAM. 5A) MARVELLOUS MARS / VTR (00:30) RT MARS... WHAT'S IN A NAME? The "Red Planet" was known as "Horus" to the Egyptians... "Ares" to the Greeks... and "Mars" to the Romans... Mars -- God of War, Agriculture and the State, and father of Romulus and Remus. Now here's a question... Pathfinder arrives on July 4, 1997... but there's a month that might be even more appropriate... when and why? March -- named, of course, for Mars... 6) "FIRST WEEK ON MARS" / LIVE & VTR (03:00) RT 08:45 CAMILLE: WELL BRIAN, WE SAID TODAY'S >APRIL 24<, BUT AROUND HERE PEOPLE THINK IT'S JULY 8TH... WHAT'S GOING ON? BRIAN... Well, Camille, we're right in the middle of what's called a "SNORT"... a SURFACE NOMIAL OPERATIONS READINESS TEST and we've got all the Pathfinder scientists out here at JPL from around the country... and what we're doing is rehearsing exactly what we hope will happen during Pathfinder's first week on Mars... CAMILLE: ROB, YOU GUYS CALL WHERE YOU'RE STANDING THE "SANDBOX"... PLAY AROUND MUCH THERE? ROB: No, we're pretty serious in this sandbox. This is a full-size... see the airbags... and these rocks... and this is where Sojourner has gotten by day 4... so that's what we mean by saying it's "July 8." CAMILLE: SO BRIAN, IF YOU'VE GOT ALL THESE SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS OUT HERE, WHERE ARE THEY? BRIAN: Well, it's not just July 8, it's also 03:00 hours, 3 a.m. in our simulation, and we kept the team up working all night! CAMILLE ROB, HOW'S IT BEEN GOING? ROB: We've found a few things that didn't go quite as we expected... this is a very risky mission... but in fact we're testing the human team as much as anything else... roll VTR of scientists debating, discussing, late night, etc... CAMILLE, BRIAN and ROB ad lib comments on what's been going on, just as Camille and Bill Fraser did about birds in LFA2 CAMILLE: OK, KIDS, WE'VE SEEN WHAT'S BEEN GOING ON HERE, NOW IT'S TIME FOR YOUR QUESTIONS TO BRIAN MUIRHEAD AND ROB MANNING... 7) Q&A / LIVE & VTR (04:00) RT 12:45 CAMILLE calls on kids in RUMPUS ROOM, includes 2 live questions from kids at JPL (RUMPUS ROOM) CAMILLE: THE FIRST QUESTION IS FROM WASHINGTON, DC Kid What did you use to test the Pathfinder if there's no atmosphere here like the atmospher on Mars? ROB answers 2nd kid: My question is: does the Sojourner Rover have artificial intelligence on board to guide it since it takes 20 minutes to transfer data between the Rover and Earth? BRIAN answers CAMILLE: AND THE FIRST QUESTION FROM ONE OF OUR LOS ANGELES STUDENTS... LAUSD #1: How do you know that the Rover is going to land rightside up so that it can drive? What are you going to do if the rover turns over or on its side? Are their any provisions for righting it? direct to 2nd LAUSD student Can the camera on the Rover be raised and/or lowered to get different views? Is there a range finder built into the camera to help determine distances and angles? If not, how do you do that? CAMILLE: AND THIS JUST IN... BY E-MAIL... LAUSD student reads EMAIL: Brian Ganter, a student at the Kessler School in Helena, Montana emailed this question: "Are the Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner prepared for any kind of weather conditions on Mars?" BRIAN answers Direct to 2nd LAUSD e-mail Students from Mr. Farmer's class at Mack Elementary School in Ann Arbor, Michigan emailed the following questions: Could you tell us a little more about the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (we call it the 'sniffer') and how it works? Does it really sniff rocks and will it be able to detect any chemicals which are necessary for life? ROB answers Camille leads to tape: GREAT QUESTIONS KIDS... AND GREAT ANSWERS, GUYS! WELL, WE SAW A LITTLE OF JPL EARLIER IN THE VIDEO, BUT SINCE WE'RE INSIDE THIS WINDOWLESS AREA WE THOUGHT WE SHOULD SHOW YOU MORE OF WHERE WE ARE, SINCE JPL IS "DISCOVERY CENTRAL" FOR ALL AMERICA'S UNMANNED MISSIONS TO THE PLANETS... OVER TO MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR MISSION PLANNER WAYNE LEE AND ROB MANNING, TO SHOW US AROUND... 8) JPL TOUR / VTR (04:30) RT 17:15 Wayne Lee and Rob Manning take us behind the scenes at JPL and show us sites associated with MPF and JPL's "Greatest Hits" 8A) MARVELLOUS MARS #2 / VTR (00:30) RT MARVELLOUS MARS Highest Temperature: 17 Celsius / 63 F. Lowest Temperature: -143 Celsius / -225 F. Martian Year: 687 Earth days Martian Day: 24 hours 37 minutes 9) ANATOMY OF A S/C / LIVE & VTR (04:00) RT 21:15 DONNA SHIRLEY IN SANDBOX, W/ CAMILLE CAMILLE: THANKS, GUYS... GREAT. NOW IT'S TIME TO GET UP CLOSE TO THE THE SPACECRAFT THAT SHOULD "STAR" IN THE WEEK OF JULY 4TH... PATHFINDER... AND DONNA SHIRLEY IS THE PERSON WHO'S SHEPHERDED IT FROM DESIGN TO LAUNCH TO CRUISE... DONNA, WHAT HAVE WE GOT HERE? DONNA describes Pathfinder... gets up close and points out the CAMERA system... we roll in tape showing how IMP builds up its pictures... we see the WEATHER MAST and the conical wind vanes... get a kid to blow on them... CAMILLE: DONNA, THAT'S GREAT... WE'LL GET TO MEET THE SOJOURNER ROVER A LITTLE LATER... AND STUDENTS WILL BE ASKING YOU QUESTIONS IN JUST A FEW MOMENTS... IN FACT YOU WILL BE ANSWERING LOTS MORE QUESTIONS LATER TODAY... WHAT'S THAT ALL ABOUT? DONNA talks about the online WebChat for TAKE OUR DAUGHTERS TO WORK day, and we give the LFM Web address, as a poiner to the WebChat site CAMILLE: SO THAT'S AN INTRODUCTION TO MARS PATHFINDER AND SOME OF ITS INSTRUMENTS... AND DONNA, BRIAN, ROB AND THEIR COLLEAGUES ARE THE PEOPLE WHO PUT IT ALL TOGETHER. BUT YOU STUDENTS OUT THERE ALSO HAD THE CHANCE TO DESIGN AN INSTRUMENT PACKAGE, DEPLOY IT TO EXPLORE A SITE ON A NEARBY PLANET -- EARTH -- AND SEE WHAT KIND OF DATA YOU COULD OBTAIN. CAMILLE AND DONNA MOVE TO MISSION CONTROL AREA, ALLOWING ROB TO GET SET-UP IN THE SANDBOX. 10) PET REPORT / LIVE and VTR (02:34) RT 23:15 Camille reviews student involvement in PET, shows what kids have done (relate to kick-off msg from MATT, and note scientist mentors througout) and sets Mystery Site challenge. Opening graphic with text I.D. P.E.T. REPORT WE CALLED IT THE "PLANET EXPLORER TOOLKIT" AND CLASSES ACROSS AMERICA AND OVERSEAS PARTICIPATED. STUDENTS DEBATED WHAT TOOLS TO INCLUDE, FIRST IN CLASS, AND THEN ONLINE. JUST AS ON PATHFINDER, THERE WAS A SIZE AND BUDGET RESTRICTION... IN OUR CASE, THE INSTRUMENTS HAD TO FIT WITHIN A REGULAR SHOEBOX, AND THE TOTAL PACKAGE COULDN'T COST MORE THAN $200 -- BUT WE EXPECTED SCHOOLS TO >BORROW< NOT BUY THE INSTRUMENTS. 84 PROPOSALS WERE RECEIVED, OVER 3,000 STUDENTS ACTIVELY PARTICIPATED, SUGGESTING MORE THAN 350 UNIQUE TOOLS! THE ONLINE DISCUSSIONS WERE MENTORED BY SPACE SCIENTISTS, INCLUDING ONE PATHFINDER MISSION PLANNER. TEACHERS AND STUDENTS DEBATED THE BEST CHOICES, AND EVENTUALLY ARRIVED AT A STANDARD TOOLKIT OF SOME 14 INSTRUMENTS, INCLUDING THERMOMETER, DISPOSABLE CAMERA AND AN ANEMOMETER TO MEASURE WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION -- JUST AS ON PATHFINDER! IN EARLY APRIL, STUDENTS "LAUNCHED" THEIR INSTRUMENT PACKAGE. KEN GRANGER'S 5TH GRADE IN MORRIS, MINNESOTA, WENT OUT IN THE SNOW... SAMPLED SOIL AND VEGETATION... COLLECTED WATER SAMPLES... CHECKED TEMPERATURES AT 3 DIFFERENT HEIGHTS, JUST AS PATHFINDER WILL DO... TOOK PICTURES... AND THEN ANALYZED THE SAMPLES BACK AT SCHOOL, AS IF OPERATING A FUTURE SAMPLE RETURN MISSION. DOWN IN WET AND WARMER GEORGIA, RHONDA TOON'S 3RD GRADERS FOLLOWED THE SAME PROCEDURES WITH THE SAME SET OF INSTRUMENTS. TEACHERS REPORTED STUDENTS FROM 2ND THROUGH 12TH GRADES FOUND IT EXCITING AND INSTRUCTIVE TO PLAN AN EXPLORATION, FOLLOWING THE ONLINE DISCUSSIONS, COMPROMISING PERSONAL PREFERENCES WITH AN EXTENDED TEAM OF COLLABORATORS, SELECTING INSTRUMENTS, AND THEN ACTUALLY COLLECTING DATA. IN LA CENTER, WASHINGTON, BONNIE LOCK'S 8TH GRADE TOOK THEIR SHOEBOX TOOLKIT ON THE ROAD. THEY NOT ONLY MEASURED SOIL AND WATER, BUT ALSO WORMS AND WILDLIFE -- WHICH SO FAR WE'VE NOT SEEN ON MARS! UP IN MASSACHUSETTS, DELAYED A WEEK BY A LATE SPRING SNOWSTORM, CHARLIE LINDGREN'S 8TH GRADERS WENT OUT TO THE SHORE, TAKING MEASUREMENTS WHICH SHOW HOW VERY DIFFERENT SITES ON EARTH CAN BE. 10A) CAMILLE LIVE on camera (MISSION CONTROL!) RT CAMILLE: WE HOPE YOU STUDENTS DISCOVERED FOR YOURSELVES THAT WHAT YOU FIND OUT ABOUT AN "ALIEN SITE" DEPENDS ON THE INSTRUMENTS YOU CHOSE TO STUDY IT... AND THAT ANY >ONE< SITE CAN'T EASILY CHARACTERIZE AN ENTIRE PLANET!!! NOW COMES ANOTHER EXCITING CHALLENGE OPEN TO ALL OF YOU! SEE IF YOU CAN DETECT PATTERNS IN PLANETARY DATA, AND SOLVE A CHALLENGE. Web site address graphic: LIVE FROM MARS World Wide Web http://passporttoknowledge.com/lfm ONLINE YOU'LL FIND DATA FROM 5 "MYSTERY SITES", ALL CATEGORIZED BY ONE OF OUR PLANET EXPLORER TOOLKITS. YOUR MISSION, WHICH WE SURE HOPE YOU'LL >CHOOSE TO ACCEPT<, IS TO FIGURE OUT WHERE THESE SITES ARE! CHECK OUT OUR WEB SITE, UNDER "FEATURED EVENTS", FOR FULL INFORMATION, AND SUBMIT YOUR ANSWERS ONLINE! THERE'LL BE WINNERS AT ELEMENTARY, MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL GRADES... WIN OR LOSE, YOU'LL BE SIMULATING THE WORK OF REAL WORLD SCIENTISTS -- TRYING TO UNDERSTAND A PLANET FROM LIMITED DATA! 10A) MARVELLOUS MARS #3 / VTR (00:30) RT BIGGER, LONGER, DEEPER! "Vallis Marineris", named for the Mariner 9 spacecraft which imaged it in 1972. 4,000 kilometers long, large enough to stretch from New York to Los Angeles, and 7 kilometers deep... Now as we "fly" through this computer simulation of Vallis Marineris, you have 10 seconds to estimate... HOW MUCH >LONGER< AND >DEEPER< IS THIS VALLEY THAN EARTH'S GRAND CANYON??? Answer: Arizona's Grand Canyon is 277 kilometers long and 1.6 kilometers deep, so Vallis Marineris is about 14 times longer, and 4 times deeper! 11) "MY MARS" LIVE / STILL STORE (02:00) RT 25:15 CAMILLE AND DONNA IN MISSION CONTROL! CAMILLE WELL, DONNA, YOU'VE BUILT AND LAUNCHED A REAL-WORLD "PLANET EXPLORER TOOLKIT"... WHAT DO WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT MARS, AND WHAT DO YOU THINK IS MOST INTERESTING ABOUT WHAT WE MIGHT FIND OUT IN THE COMING YEARS? Donna refers to some of her favorite Mars images, and interacts with Camille, to provide areological data... comparing and contrasting Earth and Mars. CAMILLE: WELL, I CAN SEE WHY YOU FIND MARS SO FASCINATING... BUT NOW IT'S TIME FOR STUDENT QUESTIONS ONCE AGAIN... 12) Q&A: MARS THE PLANET / LIVE & VTR (04:00) RT 29:15 VTR question: We would like to know... how do you put a mission like this together, exactly what is the very first step? the payload? the budget? the design of the spacecraft? CAMILLE: OK, NEXT QUESTION FROM OUT IN WASHINGTON STATE! VTR question: My name is Jeremy Rosenblum and I was wondering why NASA doesn't start terraforming Mars now? CAMILLE: OVER TO YOU, LOS ANGELES... LAUSD: Why didn't you include an arm to scoop up rock samples and why isn't this a return mission to bring back samples? CAMILLE: NOW THANKS TO IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION, WHERE THE WHOLE STATE'S WATCHING... LIVE FROM SIOUX CENTER! SIOUX CENTER AUDIO UPLINK QUESTION How does last summer's discovery of the Mars Meteorite in Antarctica affect future Mars Missions? CAMILLE: AND THIS E-MAIL QUESTION... LA USD kid reads: Rex, Christina, and Yi-Ying, Rover Project Team Leaders in the 5th Grade, Encinal School, Atherton, CA ask: What were the most important feaures about the surface of Mars that you had to think about when you designed the Sojourner? MORE E-MAIL TO COME!!! CAMILLE: AS WE SAID, DONNA WILL BE ONLINE ANSWERING MORE QUESTIONS ABOUT WHAT IT'S LIKE TO BE AN ENGINEER, AND MOTHER OF A FIRST YEAR COLLEGE STUDENT. LATER... BY THE WAY DONNA... IS THAT YOUR DAUGHTER? DONNA describes her "student shadow"! CAMILLE: WELCOME, WHITNEY... WE'LL PUT YOU TO WORK ON SOME E- MAIL QUESTIONS! NOW IT'S TIME TO MEET THE LANDER'S MOBILE SIDEKICK... SOJOURNER... AND TO TELL US ABOUT IT, WHO BETTER THAN BRIAN COOPER, WHO'LL BE THE PRINCIPAL DRIVER DOWN HERE ON EARTH FOR THAT FIRST WEEK... 13) ROVING ROUND MARS / LIVE & VTR (04:00) RT 33:15 BRIAN COOPER VTR sequence... VR PATHFINDER animation CAMILLE IN SANDBOX WITH ROB MANNING... WELL ROB, THAT'S THE WAY IT'S S'POSED TO BE... DID IT RUN QUITE THAT SMOOTHLY ON THIS WEeK'S TEST? ROB describes the events of SNORT... CAMILLE to camera: THANKS BRIAN... WELL, DRIVING SOJOURNER FOR REAL OBVIOUSLY INVOLVES ADVANCED COMPUTERS. BUT STUDENTS ACROSS AMERICA AND AROUND THE WORLD ALSO HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO CONTROL ROBOT EXPLORERS AND SIMULATE, HANDS-ON, SOME PRETTY EXCITING ASPECTS OF PLANETARY EXPLORATION. 14) RED ROVER, RED ROVER / VTR (03:00) RT 35:15 Super graphic over CU of Rover on "Mars"... text: "RED ROVER, RED ROVER" THE PROJECT IS CALLED "RED ROVER, RED ROVER" AND IS COORDINATED BY THE PLANETARY SOCIETY, A PUBLICLY-SUPPORTED GROUP PROMOTING THE EXPLORATION OF SPACE. Kids at La Canada THESE 5TH GRADERS AT PARADISE CANYON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN LA CANADA, JUST A FEW MILES FROM JPL, ARE A PRINCIPAL RED ROVER SITE. See backdrop, volcanoes, etc. WITH PARENT SUPPORT, THEY'VE BUILT A LANDSCAPE THAT RESEMBLES MARS. USING A KIT OF PARTS FROM LEGO DACTA, AND AN INEXPENSIVE CAMERA, THEY BUILD A SIMPLE REMOTELY- CONTROLLED ROVER. UT site BUT THE MOST EXCITING THING IS THAT THIS ROVER IN CALIFORNIA IS ACTUALLY BEING DRIVEN BY STUDENTS AT INDIAN HILLS SCHOOL IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH! Computers, technology, kids at work, etc. HERE'S HOW IT WORKS. THESE STUDENTS IN UTAH CALL UP THE REMOTE RED ROVER SITE OVER THE INTERNET. USING SIMPLE CONTROLS, THEY'RE ABLE TO DRIVE THE ROVER IN CALIFORNIA IN REAL TIME. JUST LIKE BRIAN COOPER, THEY HAVE TO FIGURE OUT WHERE THEY WANT TO GO... AND WHAT ROUTE LOOKS SAFEST. SOME SITES FIND IT'S FUN TO HIDE OBJECTS, JUST AS FOSSILS MAY BE HIDDEN BELOW SURFACE ON MARS, CREATING A KIND OF ROBOTIC TREASURE HUNT... Scenes of kids having fun, frustration, triumph -- perhaps split screen from the two sites. UNLIKE SOJOURNER, "RED ROVERS" HAVE NO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, SO HOW CLEVERLY >YOU< DRIVE DETERMINES HOW FAR YOU GET, AND IF YOU GET STUCK! Scenes in the CA classroom. MEANWHILE STUDENTS IN CALIFORNIA CAN DRIVE OTHER ROVERS AROUND THE WORLD! THE CAMERAS BRING BACK IMAGES OF THE ALIEN LANDSCAPE, JUST LIKE SOJOURNER WILL BRING US MARS. STUDENTS PRACTISE TEAMWORK, COORDINATION, LEARN THE PRINCIPLES OF ROBOTICS... AND HAVE A LOT OF FUN. THERE ARE SITES IN THE UK, AND IN SCANDINAVIA... AND MORE AND MORE SCIENCE MUSEUMS ARE CREATING INTERACTIVE SITES -- SO THIS SUMMER, FIND THE CLOSEST SITE, AND GO OUT AND TRY YOUR HAND! 14A) CAMILLE / LIVE to camera WELL, REMEMBER WE SAID WE HAD PRIZES FOR THE PLANET EXPLORER TOOLKIT WINNERS? EACH CLASS WILL BE GETTING A "RED ROVER" STARTER KIT, COURTESY OF THE PLANETARY SOCIETY AND "LIVE FROM MARS"... GOOD LUCK, AND GET THOSE ROBOTS ROVING! THIS SUMMER, WE HOPE IT'LL BE PATHFINDER THAT'S IN THE NEWS... LAST SUMMER IT WAS METEORITES FROM MARS... AND THE POSSIBILITY OF FINDING EVIDENCE OF MICROSCOPIC FOSSIL LIFE. ODDLY ENOUGH, THAT STORY TAKES US WAY DOWN SOUTH TO THE SITE OF OUR EARLIER "LIVE FROM" ELECTRONIC FIELD TRIP... ANTARCTICA! 15) MESSENGERS FROM MARS / VTR (04:30) RT 39:45 segment graphic: MARS ON EARTH? 15A) MARVELLOUS MARS #4 / VTR (00:30) RT RED PLANET RISKS! Getting to Mars is risky. Since 1960, America and Russia have launched 29 spacecraft to Mars... but only 8 have returned useful data. Some talk about a "Great Galactic Ghoul", waiting out there to gobble up craft like America's Global Observer, lost in 1993. So... GOOD LUCK and Bon Voyage to Mars Pathfinder and Global Surveyor, and the men and women who control them... CAMILLE: DONNA, A QUICK QUESTION BEFORE WE BEGIN TO LOOK AT GLOBAL SURVEYOR... IF WE'RE LUCKY ENOUGH TO FIND CHUNKS OF MARS DOWN HERE ON EARTH, WHY DO WE NEED TO SEND SPACECRAFT TO THE RED PLANET ANYWAY? DONNA answers... 16) MGS MATH / VTR (05:00) RT 44:45 CAMILLE leads to MGS Math. WE'VE BEEN LOOKING AT MARS PATHFINDER QUITE A LOT TODAY, WHICH IS OKAY -- SINCE IT GETS TO MARS FIRST... BUT IT'S BY NO MEANS THE ONLY MARS MISSION... to tape!!! MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR WON'T ARRIVE TILL SEPTEMBER AND ITS BEST SCIENCE WON'T EVEN START COMING BACK TILL SPRING 1998... BUT HOW IT GETS TO MARS ILLUSTRATES THE MATH AND PHYSICS OF ROCKET SCIENCE. WAYNE LEE: Cruising between the planets is not an easy task. It involves using the laws of physics namely those derived by Newton and Kepler over 400 years ago. These laws govern how s/c and planets move arond the sun. Now I know this sounds really complicated, but I can show you what's happening in a simplified way. The s/c MGS is here at the time of launch. Notice that Mars is here at the time of launch. Because Mars is a moving target we have to follow this green path around the sun and intercept Mars right about here. Today, April 24, we're here at this red star, 41 million kms from reaching Mars. Now let me show you a CU view of what happens when we get to Mars, right here. Now this view that we are seeing here shows you what happens during the last 20 minutes. We follow this blue line here over the North Pole of Mars, and our ultimate goal is to aim for a point right here. It's our point of closest approach, and it will occur on September 12, and we'll be three hundred kms above the Martian surface. How tough is it to do this? Imagine sinking a free throw from LA and hitting a moving basket all the way in New York. Now that's a really tough throw!!! THESE ARE THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE TO MAKE THAT COSMIC THREE- POINTER HAPPEN, THE NAVIGATION TEAM. HEADED BY PAT ESPOSITO, THEY HAVE BACKGROUNDS IN PHYSICS, ENGINEERING, AND -- OF COURSE -- MATH. SOME OF THEM WROTE THE GLOBAL SURVEYOR MISSION PLAN YEARS AGO... OTHERS JOINED MORE RECENTLY. ALL HAVE TO USE THEIR MATH >AND< THEIR IMAGINATIONS TO REACH OUT MILLIONS OF KILOMETERS INTO SPACE TO FIGURE OUT -- FIRST JUST WHERE THE SPACECRAFT IS... AND THEN -- HOW TO CHANGE ITS SPEED AND DIRECTION TO GET IT WHERE THEY >WANT< IT TO BE. JUST LIKE TRAFFIC COPS USING RADAR, THEY TRACK CHANGES IN THE SIGNALS COMING BACK FROM THE SPACECRAFT TO FIGURE OUT CHANGES IN ACCELERATION. BUT THESE COSMIC COPS, ALSO HAVE TO ACCOUNT FOR HEAVENLY PROBLEMS AS THE PRESSURE OF SUNLIGHT ON THE SOLAR PANELS, AND SMALL INSTABILITIES IN HOW THE SPACECRAFT SPINS. THEY OFTEN GATHER TO SHARE DATA... AND COMPARE CALCULATIONS, USING ANY DISCREPANCIES TO COME UP WITH THE BEST POSSIBLE CALCULATION OF WHERE THEY ARE, AND HOW THEY NEED TO CHANGE THE SPACECRAFT'S SPEED. DURING SURVEYOR'S VOYAGE TO MARS, THEY HAVE 4 CHANCES TO FINE TUNE THEIR COURSE. WAYNE Now Mars is far from the Earth, and it is a moving target. So it's hard to hit Mars on the first try, in fact it's impossible. So our navigators face a very tough job. It turns out that in the course of the journey from Earth to Mars there are 4 opportunities to make Trajectory Correction Maneuvers, and I'll show you where these are. Each one of these maneuvers involves firing the the spacecraft's main rocket to slightly change the direction and speed of the s/c. Now what kind of change are we talking about? The s/c has a velocity of 55,000 mph around the Sun, and we're talking about changing the velocity by less than 25 mph, so it's a very small change, but it makes a big difference at the end. 18:27 THIS WAS THE SCENE AT JPL DURING TCM #2, MARCH 20, 1997. GLENN CUNNINGHAM, MGS PROJECT MANAGER, GATHERED HIS TEAM TO AWAIT FIRST EVIDENCE THAT SURVEYOR'S ENGINES HAD BURNED FOR THE CORRECT TIME, AND THAT A NEW COURSE HAD BEEN TAKEN. UNLIKE PATHFINDER, SURVEYOR IS ACTUALLY CONTROLLED BY LOCKHEED MARTIN ASTRONAUTICS, IN DENVER, COLORADO -- LINKED IN BY AUDIO-CONFERENCE TO JPL. SURVEYOR ITSELF IS MILLIONS OF KILOMETERS FARTHER OFF IN SPACE. ITS RADIO SIGNALS TRAVELING AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT, ALREADY TAKE 2 MINUTES TO REACH EARTH. DOWN HERE ON EARTH, THEY KNOW WHEN THE BURN >SHOULD< HAVE HAPPENED. BUT THERE'S NOTHING THEY CAN DO BUT WAIT. THE EVIDENCE ON THE SCREEN SEEMS GOOD... BUT IRONICALLY IT TAKES A FAXED PRINTOUT FROM DENVER TO DEMONSTRATE THE CHANGE IN ACCELERATION THAT WILL TELL THEM "ALL IS WELL." IN FACT THINGS WENT SO WELL THAT TCM 3 WAS CANCELLED... AS OF TODAY, APRIL 24, 1997... MGS SEEMS 100% ON COURSE FOR MARS. TO LIVE INTERACTION, CAMILLE AND WAYNE. WAYNE live, with doppler gun (police?) and large s/c model CAMILLE WAYNE... WHY DO YOU HAVE THAT RADAR GUN? WAYNE answers 17) MGS Q&A / LIVE, VTR and e-mail (04:00) RT 49:45 CAMILLE: THANKS, WAYNE... AND NOW IT'S TIME FOR QUESTIONS TO YOU ABOUT HOW BOTH SPACECRAFT USE MATH AND PHYSICS TO GET TO MARS... AND MORE MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR... VTR I'm wondering... is there a more direct route to Mars than the one taken? And, if so, why wasn't it taken? VTR #2: What kinds of problems do or can occur in the travels of spaceships to Mars? CAMILLE: HERE'S A QUESTION FROM LOS ANGELES... LAUSD: How will the pictures be sent back from Mars Global Surveyor? And how are they translated from data into photographs that we recognize? CAMILLE ONCE MORE, LIVE FROM IOWA! SIOUX CENTER AUDIO UPLINK QUESTION: What happens when Mars Global Surveyor is in Mars' shadow and not receiving solar rays on its solar panels? Is there back-up power? CAMILLE: LA, LET'S HAVE THAT E-MAIL QUESTION... LA STUDENT reads EMAIL: Jackie Gebhart, a fifth grade student from Muncie, Indiana emails: What type of device do you use to execute the Trajectory Correction Maneuvers as MGS and MPF are traveling to Mars? LA STUDENT reads 2nd question: And this email question comes from the eighth grade classes at Spring Creek Jr. High in Elko, Nevada: Was it ever determined why the Global Surveyor's solar array failed to fully deploy? Will this have any effect on the aero-braking which is to slow the Surveyor's approach? CAMILLE: WE CAN ONLY ANSWER A FEW OF YOUR QUESTIONS DURING THIS HOUR, BUT ALL OF YOU CAN GET YOUR QUESTIONS ANSWERED, WHETHER YOU'VE ONLY GOT E-MAIL ACCESS TO THE INTERNET, OR A DIRECT CONNECTION TO THE WORLD WIDE WEB. TO FIND OUT HOW, PLEASE REGISTER FOR OUR ONLINE NEWSLETTER. SEND E-MAIL TO AND IN THE BODY OF THE MESSAGE WRITE ONLY subscribe updates-lfm 18) LFM WEB SITE / LIVE & VTR (01:17) RT 51:15 Netscape browser "reads on" the opening page, with the various icons THE BEST WAY TO KEEP UP TO DATE WITH WHAT'S HAPPENING TO THE MARS MISSIONS IS VIA THE INTERNET. What's New section OUR LIVE FROM MARS SITE IS UNDER "CONTINUOUS CONSTRUCTION" AND WILL KEEP YOU COOL AND CONNECTED EVEN DURING THE SUMMER. Teacher's Lounge, and Guide links THERE'S AN ONLINE VERSION OF THE TEACHER'S GUIDE, WITH LOTS OF HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES. Links to MPF and MGS THERE ARE LINKS, OF COURSE, TO BOTH MARS MISSIONS OWN HOME PAGES HERE AT JPL, SO YOU CAN FIND OUT THE LATEST ABOUT BOTH MISSIONS. Team logo, and pages THERE'S THE CHANCE TO MEET SOME OF THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO OPERATE THE SPACECRAFT. ONLINE YOU CAN READ "FIELD JOURNALS" AND "BIOGRAPHIES" WHICH TAKE YOU BEHIND THE SCENES, WITH ANECDOTES ABOUT WHAT IT'S LIKE TO WORK ON THESE MISSIONS. ANY STUDENT CAN SEND A QUESTION VIA RESEARCHER "Q&A" AND WITHIN A WEEK OR SO, YOU'LL GET AN ANSWER BACK FROM ONE OF NASA'S EXPERTS. Featured events, WebChats THERE'S THE CHANCE TO INTERACT IN REAL TIME WITH MARS SCIENTISTS, VIA WEB CHAT. Featured events: PET, etc. AND AS YOU'VE SEEN, THERE ARE ALSO OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENTS TO COLLABORATE WITH OTHER STUDENTS -- IN ACTIVITIES LIKE THE "PLANET EXPLORER TOOLKIT"... discuss-lfm pages AND FOR TEACHERS TO INTERACT WITH OTHER TEACHERS, AND SHARE IDEAS. Links page ALL THIS PLUS LOTS OF LINKS TO OTHER COOL MARS, NASA AND SCIENCE SITES! 18A) CAMILLE: LIVE IN MISSION CONTROL (00:??) RT WHEW... PRETTY EXCITING!!! AND WAY, WAY, EXCITING IS WHAT WE HOPE TO EXPERIENCE VIA TV AND THE INTERNET THIS SUMMER. THROUGHOUT THIS PROGRAM, WE'VE SEEN WHAT THE SCIENTISTS WILL BE DOING DOWN HERE AT JPL. BUT WHAT WILL PATHFINDER BE DOING UP THERE ON MARS? 19) JULY 4TH ON MARS / VTR (01:00) RT 52:15 MPF animation featuring EDL sequence, inc. airbags, etc.) MPF animation TRAVELING ON A BALLISTIC TRAJECTORY, PATHFINDER'S ARRIVAL SHOULD PROCEED ACCORDING TO PLAN AND TIMETABLE. DURING THE MARTIAN NIGHT, PATHFINDER ARRIVES... ITS BACKSHELL HITS THE ATMOSPHERE, SLOWS THE SPACECRAFT DOWN THRU FRICTION, AND BURNS AWAY. THEN A PARACHUTE DEPLOYS, SLOWING THE SPACECRAFT STILL MORE. THEN RETRO-ROCKETS FIRE... THIS JULY 4TH, THERE'LL BE ROCKETS GLOWING OVER THE RED PLANET! LASTLY STURDY, KEVLAR-STRENGHTENED AIRBAGS DEPLOY, THE SPACECRAFT BOUNCES, PERHAPS AS HIGH AS A TEN STORY BUILDING, AND REBOUNDS OFF ACROSS THE SURFACE, PERHAPS FOR ANOTHER 20 MINUTES! ONCE IT SETTLES, PETALS UNFOLD, RIGHTING THE SPACECRAFT NO MATTER WHICH SIDE IT LANDS ON. THE LANDERS INSTRUMENTS THEN COME TO LIFE, SENDING A FIRST BURST OF DATA BACK TO EARTH, SOME TIME AROUND 13:00 HOURS PACIFIC, SIGNALING THAT THE SPACECRAFT IS ON THE SURFACE AND OPERATIONAL. A FEW HOURS LATER, IN THE EARLY EVENING, PACIFIC TIME, THE FIRST NEW IMAGES FROM MARS SHOULD BEGIN TO ARRIVE... Sojourner rolls off and around... AND WE'LL ALL KNOW WHERE WE'VE LANDED... AND WHAT SCENES SOJOURNER SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPLORE OVER THE FOLLOWING DAYS AND WEEKS. 20) JULY 4TH ON EARTH / LIVE & VTR (01:00) RT 53:15 VHS/Hi-8 video from LFM schools around US show how students and families can simulate events on Mars egg drop sequences DOWN HERE ON EARTH, NASA-TV AND THE NEWS CHANNELS WILL CARRY THE LATEST ON THE LANDING... scenes of various schools BUT MANY SCHOOLS HAVE ALREADY GOTTEN STUDENTS, PARENTS AND THEIR COMMUNITIES INVOLVED IN SIMULATIONS OF PATHFINDER'S ARRIVAL. LAST YEAR, TEACHER FRAN O'ROURKE IN WASHINGTON STATE GOT HER LOCAL FIRE DEPARTMENT TO LOAN A LADDER TO DROP TEST PAYLOADS TO SEE IF THEY'D SURVIVE. THIS YEAR RHONDA TOON'S CLASS IN LAMAR, GEORGIA, MADE MODEL LANDERS... HER SCHOOL BORROWED A CHERRY PICKER FROM A LOCAL UTILITY! SOME STUDENTS WERE SUCCESSFUL... SOME LOST THEIR PAYLOADS!!! OUT IN MONTANA TEACHER DETLEF JOHL HAD HIS MIDDLE STUDENTS GO A FEW STEPS FURTHER. THEY USED BALLOONS TO SIMULATE PATHFINDER'S AIR BAGS... WHETHER THE FRAGILE PAYLOADS SURVIVED OR NOT, ALL PARTICIPANTS EXPERIENCED THE CHALLENGE OF HIGH VELOCITY ENCOUNTERS... AND THE FUN OF SEEING WHAT WORKED AND WHAT DID NOT. 21) ROUND ROBIN Q&A / VTR and e-mail (04:00) RT 57:15 CAMILLE THROWS QUESTIONS TO ROB, BRIAN, DONNA, WAYNE... FROM LA KIDS, VTR, E-MAIL... CAMILLE: OVER TO WASHINGTON, DC... What is the reason for the July 4th landing... why not July 5th or July 3rd? DONNA answers... 2ND DC QUESTION Are you afraid of anything floating around in space hitting and damaging any of the probes? WAYNE answers... CAMILLE: SOME LAST QUESTIONS FROM OUR LA STUDENTS! LAUSD: Why is the Rover only designed to operate for 30 days? Is there any device built into the Rover to clean dust off the camera lens once it gets moving or will the images be "dirty?" ROB answers... CAMILLE: ANOTHER E-MAIL QUESTION: Is the Pathfinder going to explore the volcanoes on Mars? BRIAN answers... VTR: Why are we working on going to Mars and building a space station at the same time? Shouldn't we concentrate our efforts toward one thing? CAMILLE: WOULDN'YA JUST KNOW THAT QUESTION COMES FROM DC... DONNA, THAT'S FOR YOU! DONNA answers... CAMILLE: ANOTHER E-MAIL??? LA STUDENT READS EMAIL: Nikki Bennett, a 9th grader at Allegany-Limestone Central School, in Allegany, NY asks: When the Pathfinder lands on Mars, it has two ramps that open up to let the Sojourner Rover roll off. What would happen if one of the ramps was blocked by a rock and the other ramp opened into a crater? Would the Sojourner be able to right itself if it rolled over and be able to go down into the crater? BRIAN answers... VTR: How is the bubble which protects the Rover durable enough to hit Mars at such a fast speed? RON answers... What would happen if the homebase was damaged in some way and what would happen to the Rover? BRIAN answers...\ What is the one thing you'd say you have to be most careful and most alert about when conducting these Mars experiments? WAYNE answers 22) WRAP / LIVE (01:00) RT 58:15 CAMILLE BYES. WE SAID AT THE BEGINNING THAT IT WAS THE "WEBS, WAVES AND WIRES" BEING CELEBRATED DURING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WEEK THAT MAKE POSSIBLE THIS NEW KIND OF LEARNING, IN WHICH ALL OF US CAN GET UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL WITH REAL SCIENCE AND REAL SCIENTISTS... BUT IT'S NOT JUST ADVANCED TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY WHICH MAKES THIS POSSIBLE... IT'S THE RESEARCHERS AND ENGINEERS WHO MAKE TIME TO WRITE JOURNALS, ANSWER QUESTIONS AND PASS ON SOME OF THEIR EXCITEMENT. CAMILLE gestures to the Mars team... WITHOUT THESE PEOPLE, AND THEIR WILLINGNESS TO SHARE THEIR LIFE AND WORK, THEIR DREAMS AND HIGH HOPES, THE INTERNET AND INTERACTIVE TV WOULD JUST BE "WIRES IN A BOX..." SO AS WE WRAP UP THIS SIMULATION OF JULY 8TH ON MARS... AND LOOK FORWARD TO THE CHALLENGE AND HIGH DRAMA OF THIS COMING JULY 4TH, LET'S HEAR IT FOR THE MEN AND WOMEN OF NASA, AND THE MARS EXPLORATION DIRECTORATE... FOR LIVE FROM MARS, I'M CAMILLE MOODY... BYE TO ALL, THANKS FOR JOINING US... AND STAY COOL AND CONNECTED! SEE YOU IN JULY... >LIVE --- FROM -- MARS! 23) CREDITS (01:00) RT 59:15 24) UNDERWRITER ANNOUNCE (00:15) RT 59:29