Lakes, Ponds and Pools

Kroner Lake, on Deception Island, was a well known volcanic lake in the Antarctic, but it disappeared in the 1969 eruption, though new lakes have been formed since. Kroner Lake was heated by volcanic activity and never froze completely in winter, maximum temperatures of 10 degrees C being recorded. It contained a community of bacteria, fungi and algae.

Lakes and pools in sub-Antarctic regions freeze over only for a few weeks each year. Ice scour is minimal and the water is fringed by an emergent vegetation of reeds, grasses and the Antarctic buttercup. Fully aquatic vascular plants, such as starworts, colonize shallow water, and mosses and algae extend into deep water. Algae form a phytoplankton.

The freshwater fauna of the sub-Antarctic is richer in species and contains, in addition to the Antarctic forms, beetles and fly larvae. There are, however, no native freshwater fish or amphibia.


Phytoplankton     Vascular

 • Antarctic Biology and Medicine
Information about the biological ecosystems of Antarctica and how the animals adapt to the extreme climate.
 • McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER)
The homepage for the LTER project in the McMurdo Dry Valleys.
 • Underwater Field Guide to Ross Island & McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
Images of the organisms living on Ross Island and McMurdo Sound.
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