Virginia Standards for Learning

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Virginia Standards for Learning you can cover using PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA.

For additional Virginia Standards for Learning you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE

Elementary Standards: Kindergarten,   Grade 1,   Grade 2,   Grade 3,   Grade 4,   Grade 5,   Grade 6
Middle School Standards: Life Science,   Physical Science,   Earth Science
High School Standards: Biology,   Chemistry,   Physics

Goals
The purposes of scientific investigation and discovery are to satisfy humankind's quest for knowledge and understanding and to preserve and enhance the quality of the human experience. Therefore, as a result of science instruction, students will be able to:

1. Develop and use an experimental design in scientific inquiry

2. Use the language of science to communicate understanding

3. Investigate phenomena using technology

4. Apply scientific concepts, skills, and processes to everyday experiences

5. Experience the richness and excitement of scientific discovery of the natural world through the historical and collaborative quest for knowledge and understanding

6. Make informed decisions regarding contemporary issues taking into account the following:
   * public policy and legislation
   * economic costs/benefits
   * validation from scientific data and the use of scientific reasoning and logic
   * respect for living things
   * personal responsibility
   * history of scientific discovery

7. Develop scientific dispositions and habits of mind including:
   * curiosity
   * demand for verification
   * respect for logic and rational thinking
   * consideration of premises and consequences
   * respect for historical contributions
   * attention to accuracy and precision
   * patience and persistence

8. Explore science-related careers and interests.

Kindergarten:

Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

 

K.1 The student will conduct investigations in which

 

* basic properties of objects are identified by direct observation;

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* observations are made from multiple positions to achieve different perspectives;

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* a set of objects is sequenced according to size;

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* a set of objects is separated into two groups based on a single physical attribute;

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* picture graphs are constructed using 10 or fewer units;

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* nonstandard units are used to measure common objects;

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* an unseen member in a sequence of objects is predicted;

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* a question is developed from one or more observations;

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* objects are described both pictorially and verbally; and

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* unusual or unexpected results in an activity are recognized.

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Matter

 

K.5 The student will investigate and understand that water has properties that can be observed and tested. Key concepts include

 

* water occurs in different forms (solid, liquid, gas);

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* the natural flow of water is downhill; and

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* some materials float in water while others sink.

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Life Processes

 

K.6 The student will investigate and understand basic needs and life processes of plants and animals. Key concepts include

 

* living things change as they grow and need food, water, and air to survive;

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* plants and animals live and die (go through a life cycle); and

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* offspring of plants and animals are similar but not identical to their parents and one another.

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Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems

 

K.7 The student will investigate and understand that shadows occur when light is blocked by an object. Key concepts include

 

* shadows occur in nature when sunlight is blocked by an object; and

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* shadows can be produced by blocking artificial light sources.

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Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change

 

K.8 The student will investigate and understand simple patterns in his/her daily life. Key concepts include

 

* the shapes and forms of many common natural objects including seeds, cones, and leaves;

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* animal and plant growth; and

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* home and school routines.

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K.9 The student will investigate and understand that change occurs over time, and rates may be fast or slow. Key concepts include

 

* natural and human-made things may change over time; and

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* changes can be noted and measured.

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Resources

 

K.10 The student will investigate and understand that materials can be reused, recycled, and conserved. Key concepts include

 

* identifying materials and objects that can be used over and over again;

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* describing everyday materials that can be recycled; and

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* explaining how to conserve water and energy at home and in school.

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Grade 1:

Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

 

1.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

 

* differences in physical properties are observed using the senses and simple instruments to enhance observations (magnifying glass);

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* objects or events are classified and arranged according to attributes or properties;

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* observations and data are communicated orally and with simple graphs, pictures, written statements, and numbers;

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* length, mass, and volume are measured using standard and nonstandard units;

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* inferences are made and conclusions are drawn about familiar objects and events;

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* predictions are based on patterns of observation rather than random guesses; and

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* simple experiments are conducted to answer questions.

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Life Processes

 

1.4 The student will investigate and understand that plants have life needs and functional parts and can be classified according to certain characteristics. Key concepts include

 

* needs (food, air, water, light, and a place to grow);

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* parts (seeds, roots, stems, leaves, blossom, fruit); and

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* characteristics: edible/nonedible, flowering/nonflowering, evergreen/deciduous.

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1.5 The student will investigate and understand that animals, including people, have life needs and specific physical characteristics and can be classified according to certain characteristics. Key concepts include

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* life needs (air, food, water, and a suitable place to live);

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* physical characteristics (body coverings, body shape, appendages, and methods of movement); and

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* characteristics (wild/tame, water homes/land homes).

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Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems

 

1.6 The student will investigate and understand the basic relationships between the sun and the Earth. Key concepts include

 

* the sun is the source of heat and light that warms the land, air, and water; and

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* night and day are caused by the rotation of the Earth.

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Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change

 

1.7 The student will investigate and understand the relationship of seasonal change and weather to the activities and life processes of plants and animals. Key concepts include how temperature, light, and precipitation bring about changes in

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* plants (growth, budding, falling leaves, wilting);

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* animals (behaviors, hibernation, migration, body covering, habitat); and

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* people (dress, recreation, work).

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Resources

 

1.8 The student will investigate and understand that natural resources are limited. Key concepts include

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* identification of natural resources (plants and animals, water, air, land, minerals, forests, and soil);

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* factors that affect air and water quality;

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* recycling, reusing, and reducing consumption of natural resources; and

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* use of land as parks and recreational facilities.

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Grade 2:

Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

 

2.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

 

* observations are repeated to improve accuracy;

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* two or more attributes are used to classify items;

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* pictures and bar graphs are constructed using numbered axes;

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* linear, volume, mass, and temperature measurements are made in metric (centimeters, meters, liters, degrees Celsius, grams, kilograms) and standard English units (inches, feet, yards, pints, quarts, gallons, degrees Fahrenheit, ounces, pounds);

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* observation is differentiated from personal interpretation, and conclusions are drawn based on observations;

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* simple physical models are constructed;

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* conditions that influence a change are defined; and

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* unexpected or unusual quantitative data are recognized.

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Life Processes

 

2.4 The student will investigate and understand that plants and animals go through a series of orderly changes in their life cycles. Key concepts include

 

* some animals (frogs and butterflies) go through distinct stages during their lives while others generally resemble their parents; and

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* flowering plants undergo many changes from the formation of the flower to the development of the fruit.

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Living Systems

 

2.5 The student will investigate and understand that living things are part of a system. Key concepts include

 

* living organisms are interdependent with their living and nonliving surroundings; and

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* habitats change over time due to many influences.

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Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change

 

2.7 The student will investigate and understand that weather and seasonal changes affect plants, animals, and their surroundings. Key concepts include

 

* effects on growth and behavior of living things (migration, estivation, hibernation, camouflage, adaptation, dormancy); and

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* weathering and erosion of the land surface.

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Resources

 

2.8 The student will investigate and understand that plants produce oxygen and food, are a source of useful products, and provide benefits in nature. Key concepts include

 

* important plant products (fiber, cotton, oil, spices, lumber, rubber, medicines, and paper);

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* the availability of plant products affects the development of a geographic area; and

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* plants provide homes and food for many animals and prevent soil from washing away.

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Grade 3:

Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

 

3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

 

* questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;

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* predictions and observations are made;

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* data are gathered, charted, and graphed;

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* objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;

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* inferences are made and conclusions are drawn;

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* natural events are sequenced chronologically;

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* length is measured to the nearest centimeter;

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* mass is measured to the nearest gram;

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* volume is measured to the nearest milliliter and liter;

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* temperature is measured to the nearest degree Celsius; and

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* time is measured to the nearest minute.

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Life Processes

 

3.4 The student will investigate and understand that behavioral and physical adaptations allow animals to respond to life needs. Key concepts include

 

* methods of gathering and storing food, finding shelter, defending themselves, and rearing young; and

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* hibernation, migration, camouflage, mimicry, instinct, and learned behavior.

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Living Systems

 

3.5 The student will investigate and understand relationships among organisms in aquatic and terrestrial food chains. Key concepts include

 

* producer, consumer, decomposer;

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* herbivore, carnivore, omnivore; and

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* predator - prey.

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3.6 The student will investigate and understand that environments support a diversity of plants and animals that share limited resources. Key concepts include

 

* water-related environments (pond, marshland, swamp, stream, river, and ocean environments);

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* dry-land environments (desert, grassland, rainforest, and forest environments); and

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* population and community.

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Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change

 

3.8 The student will investigate and understand basic sequences and cycles occurring in nature. Key concepts include

 

* sequences of natural events (day and night, seasonal changes, phases of the moon, and tides); and

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* animal and plant life cycles.

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Resources

 

3.10 The student will investigate and understand that natural events and human influences can affect the survival of species. Key concepts include

 

* the interdependency of plants and animals;

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* human effects on the quality of air, water, and habitat;

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* the effects of fire, flood, disease, erosion, earthquake, and volcanic eruption on organisms; and

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* conservation, resource renewal, habitat management, and species monitoring.

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3.11 The student will investigate and understand different sources of energy. Key concepts include

 

* the sun's ability to produce light and heat energy;

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* natural forms of energy (sunlight, water, wind);

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* renewable and nonrenewable resources.

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Grade 4:

Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

 

4.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

 

* distinctions are made among observations, conclusions (inferences), and predictions;

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* data are classified to create frequency distributions;

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* appropriate metric measures are used to collect, record, and report data;

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* appropriate instruments are selected to measure linear distance, volume, mass, and temperature;

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* predictions are made based on data from picture graphs, bar graphs, and basic line graphs;

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* hypotheses are formulated based on cause and effect relationships;

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* variables that must be held constant in an experimental situation are defined; and

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* numerical data that are contradictory or unusual in experimental results are recognized.

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Force, Motion, and Energy

 

Life Processes

 

4.4 The student will investigate and understand basic plant anatomy and life processes. Key concepts include

 

* the structures of typical plants (leaves, stems, roots, and flowers);

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* processes and structures involved with reproduction (pollination, stamen, pistil, sepal, embryo, spore, and seed);

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* photosynthesis (chlorophyll, carbon dioxide); and

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* dormancy.

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Living Systems

 

4.5 The student will investigate and understand how plants and animals in an ecosystem interact with one another and the nonliving environment. Key concepts include

 

* behavioral and structural adaptations;

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* organization of communities;

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* flow of energy through food webs;

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* habitats and niches;

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* life cycles; and

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* influence of human activity on ecosystems.

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Resources

 

4.8 The student will investigate and understand important Virginia natural resources. Key concepts include

 

* animals and plants, both domesticated and wild;

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* forests, soil, and land.

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Grade 5:

Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

 

5.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

 

* appropriate instruments are selected and used for making quantitative observations of length, mass, volume, and elapsed time;

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* rocks, minerals, and organisms are identified using a classification key;

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* data are collected, recorded, and reported using the appropriate graphical representation (graphs, charts, diagrams);

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* accurate measurements are made using basic tools (thermometer, meter stick, balance, graduated cylinder);

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* predictions are made using patterns, and simple graphical data are extrapolated; and

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* estimations of length, mass, and volume are made.

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5.3 The student will investigate and understand basic characteristics of white light. Key concepts include

 

* the visible spectrum, light waves, reflection, refraction, diffraction, opaque, transparent, translucent;

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* optical tools (eyeglasses, lenses, flashlight, camera, kaleidoscope, binoculars, microscope, light boxes, telescope, prism, spectroscope, mirrors); and

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* historical contributions in understanding light.

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Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change

 

5.7 The student will investigate and understand how the Earth's surface is constantly changing. Key concepts include

 

* the rock cycle including the identification of rock types;

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* Earth history and fossil evidence;

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* the basic structure of the Earth's interior;

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* plate tectonics (earthquakes and volcanoes);

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* weathering and erosion; and

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* human impact.

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Grade 6:

Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

 

6.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

 

* observations are made involving fine discrimination between similar objects and organisms;

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* a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes;

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* differences in descriptions and working definitions are made;

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* precise and approximate measures are recorded;

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* scale models are used to estimate distance, volume, and quantity;

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* hypotheses are stated in ways that identify the independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables;

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* a method is devised to test the validity of predictions and inferences;

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* one variable is manipulated over time with many repeated trials;

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* data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using appropriate metric measurement;

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* data are organized and communicated through graphical representation (graphs, charts, and diagrams); and

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* models are designed to explain a sequence.

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6.2 The student will demonstrate scientific reasoning and logic. Key concepts include

 

* ideas are investigated by asking for and actively seeking information;

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* multiple tests of ideas are performed before accepting or rejecting them;

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* alternative scientific explanations are analyzed; and

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* conclusions are based on scientific evidence obtained from a variety of sources.

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Force, Motion, and Energy

 

6.3 The student will investigate and understand sources of energy and their transformations. Key concepts include

 

* energy transformations (mechanical to electrical, electrical to heat/light, chemical to light, and chemical to electrical/light).

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Life Processes

 

6.8 The student will investigate and understand that organisms perform life processes that are essential for the survival and perpetuation of the species. Key concepts include

 

* energy transformation (from food or photosynthesis); and

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Living Systems

 

6.9 The student will investigate and understand that organisms depend on other organisms and the nonliving components of the environment. Key concepts include

 

* producers, consumers, and decomposers;

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* food webs and food pyramids; and

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* cycles (water, carbon dioxide/oxygen, nitrogen).

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Resources

 

6.11 The student will investigate and understand public policy decisions relating to the environment. Key concepts include

 

* management of renewable resources (water, air, plant life, animal life);

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* management of nonrenewable resources (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power); and

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* cost/benefit tradeoffs in conservation policies.

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Life Science

LS.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

 

* data are organized into tables showing repeated trials and means;

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* variables are defined;

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* SI (metric) units are used;

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* criteria are established for evaluating a prediction;

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* models are constructed to illustrate and explain phenomena;

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* sources of experimental error are identified;

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* dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are identified;

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* variables are controlled to test hypotheses and trials are repeated;

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* continuous line graphs are constructed, interpreted, and used to make predictions; and

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* interpretations from the same set of data are evaluated and defended.

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LS.4 The student will investigate and understand that the basic needs of organisms must be met in order to carry out life processes. Key concepts include

 

* plant needs (light and energy sources, water, gases, nutrients);

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* animal needs (food, water, gases, shelter, space); and

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* factors that influence life processes.

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LS.5 The student will investigate and understand classification of organisms. Key concepts include

 

* differences in number, color, size, shape, and texture of external and internal structures; and

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* variation in method of locomotion, obtaining nourishment, and reproduction.

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LS.6 The student will investigate and understand the basic physical and chemical processes of photosynthesis and its importance to plant and animal life. Key concepts include

 

* energy transfer between sunlight and chlorophyll;

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* transformation of water and carbon dioxide into sugar, water, and oxygen; and

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* photosynthesis as the foundation of food webs.

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LS.7 The student will investigate and understand that organisms within an ecosystem are dependent on one another and on nonliving components of the environment. Key concepts include

 

* interactions resulting in a flow of energy and matter throughout the system;

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* complex relationships in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems; and

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* energy flow in food chains, food webs, and food pyramids.

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LS.8 The student will investigate and understand that interactions exist among members of a population. Key concepts include

 

* competition, cooperation, social hierarchy, territorial imperative; and

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* influence of behavior on population interactions.

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LS.9 The student will investigate and understand interactions among populations in a biological community. Key concepts include

 

* the relationship among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food chains and food webs;

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* the relationship of predators and prey;

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* competition and cooperation;

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* symbiotic relationships and niches; and

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* the role of parasites and their hosts.

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LS.10 The student will investigate and understand how organisms adapt to biotic and abiotic factors in a biome. Key concepts include

 

* differences between ecosystems and biomes;

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* characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater biomes; and

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* adaptations that enable organisms to survive within a specific biome.

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LS.11 The student will investigate and understand that ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms are dynamic and change over time (daily, seasonal, and long term). Key concepts include

 

* phototropism, hibernation, and dormancy;

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* factors that increase or decrease population size; and

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* eutrophication, climate change, and catastrophic disturbances.

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LS.12 The student will investigate and understand the relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Key concepts include

 

* food production and harvest;

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* change in habitat size, quality, and structure;

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* change in species competition;

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* population disturbances and factors that threaten and enhance species survival; and

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* environmental issues (water supply, air quality, energy production, and waste management).

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LS.14 The student will investigate and understand that organisms change over time. Key concepts include

 

* the relationships of mutation, adaptation, natural selection, and extinction;

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* evidence of evolution of different species in the fossil record; and

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* how environmental influences, as well as genetic variation, can lead to diversity of organisms.

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Earth Science

ES.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

 

* volume, area, mass, elapsed time, direction, temperature, pressure, distance, density, and changes in elevation/depth are calculated utilizing the most appropriate tools;

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* technologies, including computers, are used to collect, analyze, and report data and to demonstrate concepts and simulate experimental conditions;

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* scales, diagrams, maps, charts, graphs, tables, and profiles are constructed and interpreted;

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* variables are manipulated with repeated trials; and

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* a scientific viewpoint is constructed and defended.

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ES.2 The student will demonstrate scientific reasoning and logic by

 

* analyzing how science explains and predicts the interactions and dynamics of complex Earth systems;

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* recognizing that evidence is required to evaluate hypotheses and explanations;

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* comparing different scientific explanations for the same observations about the Earth;

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* explaining that observation and logic are essential for reaching a conclusion;

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* evaluating evidence for scientific theories related to plate tectonics, the structure of the Earth, and its ancient age and origin; and

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* making informed judgments related to resource use and its effects on Earth systems.

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ES.3 The student will investigate and understand how to read and interpret maps, globes, models, charts, and imagery. Key concepts include

 

* maps (bathymetric, geologic, topographic, and weather) and star charts;

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* imagery (aerial photography and satellite images);

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* direction and distance measurements on any map or globe; and

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* location by latitude and longitude and topographic profiles.

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ES.4 The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of the Earth including

 

* plate tectonics;

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* water in all three states;

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ES.10 The student will investigate and understand that many aspects of the history and evolution of the Earth and life can be inferred by studying rocks and fossils. Key concepts include

 

* traces or remains of ancient, often extinct, life are preserved by various means in many sedimentary rocks;

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* rocks and fossils from many different geologic periods and epochs are found in Virginia.

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ES.11 The student will investigate and understand that oceans are complex, interactive physical, chemical, and biological systems and are subject to long- and short-term variations. Key concepts include

 

* physical and chemical changes (tides, waves, currents, sea level and ice cap variations, upwelling, and salinity concentrations);

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* importance of environmental, geologic, and economic implications;

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* systems interactions (energy transfer, weather, and climate);

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* features of the sea floor (continental margins, trenches, mid-ocean ridges, and abyssal plains) reflect tectonic processes; and

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Biology

BIO.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

 

* observations of living things are recorded in the lab and in the field;

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* hypotheses are formulated based on observations;

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* variables are defined and investigations are designed to test hypotheses;

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hands-on
online

* graphing and arithmetic calculations are used as tools in data analysis;

video
hands-on
online

* conclusions are formed based on recorded quantitative and qualitative data;

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hands-on
online

* impacts of sources of error inherent in experimental design are identified and discussed;

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hands-on
online

* validity of data is determined;

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hands-on
online

* alternative explanations and models are recognized and analyzed;

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hands-on
online

* appropriate technology is used for gathering and analyzing data and communicating results; and

video
hands-on
online

* research is used based on popular and scientific literature.

video
hands-on
online

BIO.8 The student will investigate and understand how populations change through time. Key concepts include

 

* examining evidence found in fossil records;

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hands-on
online

* investigating how variation of traits, reproductive strategies, and environmental pressures impact on the survival of populations;

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hands-on
online

* recognizing how adaptations lead to natural selection; and

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hands-on
online

* exploring how new species emerge.

video
hands-on
online

BIO.9 The student will investigate and understand dynamic equilibria within populations, communities, and ecosystems. Key concepts include

 

* interactions within and among populations including carrying capacities, limiting factors, and growth curves;

video
hands-on
online

* nutrient cycling with energy flow through ecosystems;

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hands-on
online

* succession patterns in ecosystems;

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hands-on
online

* the effects of natural events and human influences on ecosystems; and

video
hands-on
online

* analysis of local ecosystems.

video
hands-on
online