Vermont Science Standards

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Vermont Science Standards you can cover using PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA.

For additional Vermont Science Standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE

Grades K-4,   Grades 5-8,   Grades 9-12

Grades PreK - 4

Inquiry, Experimentation, and Theory
Scientific Method

7.1: Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena Raise questions;

 

Generate alternative explanations hypotheses based on observations and prior knowledge;

 

Design inquiry that allows these explanations to be tested;

 

Deduce the expected results;

 

Gather and analyze data to compare the actual results to the expected outcomes; and

 

Make and communicate conclusions, generating new questions raised by observations and readings.

 

This is evident when students::

 

a. Ask questions about objects, organisms, and events in the world around them;

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b. Use reliable information obtained from scientific knowledge, observation, and exploration;

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c. Create hypotheses for problems, design a "fair test" of their hypothesis, collect data through observation and instrumentation, and analyze data to draw conclusions; use conclusions to clarify understanding and generate new questions to be explored;

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d. Use evidence to construct an explanation, including scientific principles they already know and observations they make;

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e. Explain a variety of observations and phenomena using concepts that have been learned;

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f. Use either deductive or inductive reasoning to explain observations and phenomena, or to predict answers to questions;

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g. Recognize other points of view, and check their own and others' explanations against experiences, observations, and knowledge;

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h. Identify problems, propose and implement solutions, and evaluate products and designs; and

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i. Work individually and in teams to collect and share information and ideas.

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Investigation

7.2: Students design and conduct a variety of their own investigations and projects. These should include:

 

Questions that can be studied using the resources available;

 

Procedures that are safe, humane, and ethical;

 

Data that are collected and recorded in ways that others can verify;

 

Data and results that are represented in ways that address the question at hand;

 

Recommendations, decisions, and conclusions that are based on evidence, and that acknowledge references and contributions of others;

 

Results that are communicated appropriately to audiences; and

 

Reflections and defense of conclusions and recommendations from other sources, and peer review.

 

This is evident when students:

 

a. Design and conduct an experiment (a "fair test");

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b. Design and conduct a systematic observation;

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c. Complete a design of a physical structure or technological system (e.g., simple machines and measurement devices);

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d. Complete a data study;

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e. Plan and manage a schedule;

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f. Complete a pure mathematics investigation; or

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g. Complete research.

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Theory

7.3: Students understand the nature of mathematical, scientific, and technological theory. This is evident when students:

 

a. Show understanding that concepts form the foundation for theories;

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b. Look for evidence that explains why things happen; and

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c. Modify explanations when new observations are made or new knowledge is gained.

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History of Science, Mathematics, and Technology

7.4: Students understand the history of science, mathematics, and technology.

 

This is evident when students:

 

a. Investigate contributions made to science, technology, and mathematics by many different kinds of people, and explain their importance.

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Roles and Responsibilities

7.5: Students analyze the roles and responsibilities of scientists, mathematicians, and technologists in social, economic, cultural, and political systems. This is evident when students:

 

a. Explain how discoveries or inventions can help or hurt people (e.g., the environmental impact of energy consumption).

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Systems
Analysis

7.11: Students analyze and understand living and non-living systems (e.g., biological, chemical, electrical, mechanical, optical) as collections of interrelated parts and interconnected systems. This is evident when students:

 

a. Demonstrate understanding that systems are made of interrelated parts that influence one another;

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b. Demonstrate understanding that systems include inputs, processes and outputs; and

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c. Use physical and mathematical models to show how, in a system, inputs affect outputs.

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The Living World
Organisms, Evolution, and Interdependence

7.13: Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life. This is evident when students:

 

a. Identify characteristics of organisms (e.g., needs, environments that meet them; structures, especially senses; variation and behaviors, inherited and learned)

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b. Categorize living organisms (e.g., plants; fruits, vegetables);

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c. Describe and show examples of the interdependence of all systems that support life (e.g., family, community, food chains, populations, life cycles, effects on the environment), and apply them to local systems; and

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d. Provide examples of change over time (e.g., extinctions, changes in organisms).

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The Universe, Earth and the Environment
Theories, Systems, and Forces

7.15: Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently explain their evolution. This is evident when students:

 

a. Identify and record evidence of change over time (e.g., erosion, weathering, fossilization);

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e. Analyze and explain natural resource management (e.g., properties and uses of rocks, soils, water, fish, wildlife, plants, trees and gases).

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Design and Technology
Natural Resources

7.16: Students understand how natural resources are extracted, distributed, processed, and disposed of. This is evident when students:

 

a. Recognize that steps need to be followed in extracting natural resources;

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b. Identify the most appropriate materials for particular constructions;

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c. Recognize that there are differences between natural and synthetic materials; and

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d. Show that some materials can be reused and recycled, while others will be disposed of in landfills.

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Technological Systems

7.17: Students apply knowledge and understanding of technological systems to respond to a variety of issues. This is evident when students:

 

a. Describe the processes involved within each technological system (e.g. construction, power and transportation, communication, and manufacturing);

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b. Recognize the basic inputs of all technological systems;

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c. Identify the outputs for each technological system; and

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d. Evaluate technological outputs, and recognize the changes necessary to improve the system.

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Outputs and Impacts

7.18: Students understand that people control the outputs and impacts of our expanding technological activities in the areas of communication, construction, manufacturing, power and transportation, energy sources, health technology, and biotechnology. This is evident when students:

 

a. Understand that technology is a human endeavor;

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b. Use tools to extend their capabilities; and

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c. Use tools and machines in a safe manner.

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Designing Solutions

7.19: Students use technological/engineering processes to design solutions to problems. This is evident when students:

 

a. Recognize that there are several steps in planning solutions to technological problems; and

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b. Recognize that several steps are usually involved in making things.

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Grades 5 - 8

Inquiry, Experimentation, and Theory
Scientific Method

7.1: Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena Raise questions;

 

Generate alternative explanations hypotheses based on observations and prior knowledge;

 

Design inquiry that allows these explanations to be tested;

 

Deduce the expected results;

 

Gather and analyze data to compare the actual results to the expected outcomes; and

 

Make and communicate conclusions, generating new questions raised by observations and readings.

 

Evidence PreK - 4, plus -

 

aa. Frame questions in a way that distinguishes causes and effects; identify variables that influence the situation and can be controlled;

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bb. Seek, record, and use information from reliable sources, including scientific knowledge, observation, and experimentation;

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cc. Create hypotheses to problems, design their own experiments to test their hypothesis, collect data through observation and instrumentation, and analyze data to draw conclusions; use conclusions to clarify understanding and generate new questions to be explored;

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dd. Describe, explain, and model, using evidence that includes scientific principles and observations;

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gg. Propose, recognize, and analyze alternative explanations; and

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ii. Work individually and in teams to collect, share, and present information and ideas.

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hands-on
online


Investigation

7.2: Students design and conduct a variety of their own investigations and projects. These should include:

 

Questions that can be studied using the resources available;

 

Procedures that are safe, humane, and ethical;

 

Data that are collected and recorded in ways that others can verify;

 

Data and results that are represented in ways that address the question at hand;

 

Recommendations, decisions, and conclusions that are based on evidence, and that acknowledge references and contributions of others;

 

Results that are communicated appropriately to audiences; and

 

Reflections and defense of conclusions and recommendations from other sources, and peer review.

 

This is evident when students:

 

aa. Design and conduct a controlled experiment;

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bb. Design and conduct field work;

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cc. Completely design a physical structure or technological system (e.g., spring scales, bicycle gear shifts, timing of traffic lights);

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dd. Complete a data study based on civic, economic, or social issues;

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ee. Design a resource or system management plan; or

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ff. Illustrate mathematical models of a physical phenomenon.

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Theory

7.3: Students understand the nature of mathematical, scientific, and technological theory.

 

This is evident when students:

 

aa. Explain theories based upon observations, concepts, principles, and historical perspective;

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bb. Determine the validity of a theory by examining the principles on which it was founded, the constraints that apply to its application, and the body of physical evidence that supports it; and

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cc. Show understanding that new theories develop when phenomena are observed that are not fully explained by old theories.

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History of Science, Mathematics, and Technology

7.4: Students understand the history of science, mathematics, and technology.

 

This is evident when students:

 

aa. Examine important contributions made to the advancement of science, technology, and mathematics, and respond to their impact on past, present, and future understanding.

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Roles and Responsibilities

7.5: Students analyze the roles and responsibilities of scientists, mathematicians, and technologists in social, economic, cultural, and political systems. This is evident when students:

 

aa. Analyze the roles and responsibilities of scientists, mathematicians, and technologists in relation to ongoing research and discoveries that impact society (e.g., the dangers and benefits of nuclear energy).

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hands-on
online


Systems
Analysis

7.11: Students analyze and understand living and non-living systems (e.g., biological, chemical, electrical, mechanical, optical) as collections of interrelated parts and interconnected systems. This is evident when students:

 

aa. Demonstrate understanding that systems are connected to other systems, and that onesystem affects how others work;

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hands-on
online

bb. Demonstrate understanding that systems are effectively designed when specifications and constraints are understood; and

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hands-on
online

cc. Use physical and mathematical models to express how systems behave given a set of inputs or outputs.

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hands-on
online


The Living World
Organisms, Evolution, and Interdependence

7.13: Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life. This is evident when students:

 

bb. Identify and use anatomical structures to classify organisms (e.g., plants, animals, fungi);

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hands-on
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cc. Describe, model, and explain the principles of the interdependence of all systems that support life (e.g., food chains, webs, life cycles, energy levels, populations, oxygen-carbon dioxide cycles), and apply them to local, regional, and global systems; and

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dd. Describe evolution in terms of diversity and adaptation, variation, extinction, and natural selection.

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The Universe, Earth and the Environment
Theories, Systems, and Forces

7.15: Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently explain their evolution. This is evident when students:

 

ee. Analyze and explain natural resource management and the ecological interactions and interdependencies between humans and their resource demands on environmental systems (e.g., waste disposal, energy resources, recycling, pollution reduction).

video
hands-on
online


Design and Technology
Natural Resources

7.16: Students understand how natural resources are extracted, distributed, processed, and disposed of. This is evident when students:

 

aa. Identify the steps that need to be followed when extracting natural resources;

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hands-on
online

bb. .Select and use materials based on their properties, and on how they interact with other materials;

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cc. Compare and evaluate products made of either natural or synthetic materials, or of a combination of the two;

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dd. Demonstrate the ways that some materials can be reused, while others will be disposed in landfills; and

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e. Identify how and why natural resource are unevenly distributed throughout the world, and how they are distributed through transportation; and

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Technological Systems

7.17: Students apply knowledge and understanding of technological systems to respond to a variety of issues. This is evident when students:

 

Evidence c. applies, plus -

 

aa. Apply the basic processes involved within each technological system (e.g., construction, power and transportation, communication, and manufacturing);

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bb. Use the basic inputs of all technological systems;

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dd. Evaluate technological outputs, and demonstrate the changes necessary to improve the system.

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Outputs and Impacts

7.18: Students understand that people control the outputs and impacts of our expanding technological activities in the areas of communication, construction, manufacturing, power and transportation, energy sources, health technology, and biotechnology. This is evident when students:

 

Evidence c. applies, plus -

 

aa. Demonstrate an understanding that people are able to share, compile, use, and misuse technology;

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bb. Demonstrate how people create and use tools to observe, measure, create, and control; and

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d. Identify the positive and negative consequences of technology (e.g., nuclear power for generating electricity).

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Designing Solutions

7.19: Students use technological/engineering processes to design solutions to problems. This is evident when students:

 

aa. Create a design solution:

 

Build on specifications, with an understanding of the constraints (e.g., cost, weight, environment), and tolerances that affect performance;

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hands-on
online

Include mathematical and/or mechanical models of their design;

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online

Include steps and sequences for efficiently building a prototype that conforms to the specifications;

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Test the prototype;

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Use the results to modify the design; and

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bb. Understand that the sequence in which these steps occur is critical to the efficiency and effectiveness of a solution.

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Grades 9 - 12

Inquiry, Experimentation, and Theory
Scientific Method

7.1: Students use scientific methods to describe, investigate, and explain phenomena Raise questions;

 

Generate alternative explanations hypotheses based on observations and prior knowledge;

 

Design inquiry that allows these explanations to be tested;

 

Deduce the expected results;

 

Gather and analyze data to compare the actual results to the expected outcomes; and

 

Make and communicate conclusions, generating new questions raised by observations and readings.

 

Evidence PreK - 8, plus -

 

aaa. Frame questions that can be investigated using scientific methods and knowledge, including manipulating variables, and predicting outcomes for untested hypotheses using scientific principles;

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bbb. Critically evaluate the validity and significance of sources and interpretations, including scientific knowledge, observation, and experimentation;

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ddd. Formulate and revise explanations and models based on evidence, logical argument, and scientific principles;

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ggg. Propose, recognize, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate alternative explanations; and

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online

hhh. Identify problems and opportunities, propose designs and choose among the alternatives, implement a solution and evaluate its consequences.

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hands-on
online


Investigation

7.2: Students design and conduct a variety of their own investigations and projects. These should include:

 

Questions that can be studied using the resources available;

 

Procedures that are safe, humane, and ethical;

 

Data that are collected and recorded in ways that others can verify;

 

Data and results that are represented in ways that address the question at hand;

 

Recommendations, decisions, and conclusions that are based on evidence, and that acknowledge references and contributions of others;

 

Results that are communicated appropriately to audiences; and

 

Reflections and defense of conclusions and recommendations from other sources, and peer review.

 

fff. Complete a mathematical model of physical phenomena, employing methods of structural analysis;

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h. Study decision options in business or public planning that involve issues of optimizations, tradeoff, cost-benefit projections, and risks; or

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i. Complete a historical study, tracing the development of a mathematical or scientific concept and the people connected with it.

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Theory

7.3: Students understand the nature of mathematical, scientific, and technological theory.

 

This is evident when students:

 

aaa. Use principles and observations to formulate theory and to explain or predict phenomena.

video
hands-on
online


History of Science, Mathematics, and Technology

7.4: Students understand the history of science, mathematics, and technology.

 

This is evident when students:

 

Evidence PreK - 8 applies.

 


Roles and Responsibilities

7.5: Students analyze the roles and responsibilities of scientists, mathematicians, and technologists in social, economic, cultural, and political systems. This is evident when students:

 

aaa. Analyze the impact of scientific, mathematical, and technological investigations into and findings about human society, including the ethical issues involved (e.g., the dangers and benefits of genetic engineering).

video
hands-on
online


Systems
Analysis

7.11: Students analyze and understand living and non-living systems (e.g., biological, chemical, electrical, mechanical, optical) as collections of interrelated parts and interconnected systems. This is evident when students:

 

Evidence PreK - 8 applies, plus -

 

aaa. Demonstrate understanding that analysis of systems is important to define and control inputs and outputs; and

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hands-on
online

bbb. Demonstrate understanding that systems are effectively designed when specifications and constraints are understood; systems are optimized when efficiencies are maximized; and a system is never 100 percent efficient (entropy).

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hands-on
online


The Living World
Organisms, Evolution, and Interdependence

7.13: Students understand the characteristics of organisms, see patterns of similarity and differences among living organisms, understand the role of evolution, and recognize the interdependence of all systems that support life. This is evident when students:

 

ddd. Explain and justify how natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific explanation for the fossil record of ancient life forms.

video
hands-on
online


The Universe, Earth and the Environment
Theories, Systems, and Forces

7.15: Students demonstrate understanding of the earth and its environment, the solar system, and the universe in terms of the systems that characterize them, the forces that affect and shape them over time, and the theories that currently explain their evolution. This is evident when students:

 

eee. Analyze and explain natural resource management and the ecological interactions and interdependencies between humans and their resource demands on environmental systems (e.g., production, consumption).

video
hands-on
online


Design and Technology
Natural Resources

7.16: Students understand how natural resources are extracted, distributed, processed, and disposed of. This is evident when students:

 

Evidence dd. and e. applies, plus -

 

aaa. Choose effective methods for extracting specific natural resources;

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bbb. Predict and evaluate how the characteristics of materials influence product desing; and

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hands-on
online

eee. Compare and evaluate products made of either natural or synthetic materials, or a combination of the two.

video
hands-on
online


Technological Systems

7.17: Students apply knowledge and understanding of technological systems to respond to a variety of issues. This is evident when students:

 

Evidence bb. and c. applies, plus -

 

aaa. Use and evaluate the processes involved within each technological system (e.g., construction, power and transportation, communication, and manufacturing);

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hands-on
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ddd. Evaluate complex technological outputs based on the original design specifications, and create modifications to improve that system.

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hands-on
online


Outputs and Impacts

7.18: Students understand that people control the outputs and impacts of our expanding technological activities in the areas of communication, construction, manufacturing, power and transportation, energy sources, health technology, and biotechnology. This is evident when students:

 

Evidence c. applies, plus -

 

aaa. Assess ways that people are able to share, compile, use, and misuse technology;

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hands-on
online

bbb. Invent and use tools that observe, measure, create, and control; and

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hands-on
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dd. Propose a technological solution in which both the positive and negative consequences of technology are considered.

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hands-on
online


Designing Solutions

7.19: Students use technological/engineering processes to design solutions to problems. This is evident when students:

 

aaa. Create a design solution:

 

Build on specifications, with an understanding of the constraints (e.g., cost, weight, environment), and tolerances that affect performance;

video
hands-on
online

Include mathematical and/or mechanical models of their design;

video
hands-on
online

Include steps and sequences for efficiently building a prototype or product that conforms to the specifications;

video
hands-on
online

Test the prototype;

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hands-on
online

Use the results to modify the design; and

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hands-on
online

bbb. Evaluate and adjust a design process, responding to the unique characteristics of a specific problem.

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hands-on
online