Tennessee Science Framework

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Tennessee Science Framework standards you can cover using PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA.

For additional Tennessee Science Framework standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE

Grades K-2,   Grades 3-5,   Grades 6-8,   Grades 9-12

Grades K-2

Process of Science
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate the processes of science by posing questions and investigating phenomena through language, methods and instruments of science.
THEME: 1.1 OBSERVING - The senses are used to develop an awareness of an event or object and the properties thereof.

Tennessee Standard 1.1a - Observing is a process used to develop an awareness of the surrounding environment.

 

Students can learn about things around them by careful observation.

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Tennessee Standard 1.1b - The human senses and technological instruments are used to gather information from the environment.

 

Students experience and learn about the world through their senses.

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THEME: 1.2 QUESTIONING - The development of an inquisitive mind and the effective use of questioning techniques furthers the acquisition of information.

Tennessee Standard 1.2a - Initial information and prior knowledge are used to ask questions.

 

Students have natural curiosity causing them to raise questions about the world around them.

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Tennessee Standard 1.2b - Questions may be structured so that they can be investigated scientifically.

 

Students will seek answers to questions by making careful observations.

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Tennessee Standard 1.2c - Not all questions can be answered.

 

Some events are predictable while others are uncertain.

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THEME: 1.3 COLLECTING DATA - The acquiring, recording, arranging and storing of information must be performed in a complete, accurate, concise and user-friendly manner.

Tennessee Standard 1.3a - Data are collected using the senses, instrumentation, and a variety of other technologies.

 

Students experience and learn about the world through their senses. Tools, such as thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, calculators, computers, scales and balances supply additional information for scientific investigation.

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Tennessee Standard 1.3b - Data should be appropriate, accurate, and free of bias.

 

Records of observations and experiments are to be accurate and free of bias to ensure scientific comparison of data.

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Tennessee Standard 1.3c - Safety features should be observed in all areas of data collection.

 

Proper safety methods are practiced at all times.

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THEME: 1.4 ANALYZING - Data should be examined to find patterns and relationships that may suggest cause and effect or support inferences and hypotheses.

Tennessee Standard 1.4a - Data should be examined to find patterns and relationships.

 

Patterns are evident in nature. Geometrical shapes are found in nature and may be created by people. Patterns may be developed by arrangements of different shapes.

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Tennessee Standard 1.4b - The accuracy and precision of data should be used to determine the selection or rejection of any given piece of data.

 

Accurate descriptions of observations enable students to compare results with others. Conflicting descriptions of an event require fresh observation rather than argumentation.

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Tennessee Standard 1.4c - Scientific investigation may not produce concrete solutions.

 

Predictions may not always occur.

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THEME: 1.5 EXPLAINING - Phenomena and related information are made understandable through discussion that culminates in a higher level of learning.

Tennessee Standard 1.5a - Tables and graphs may be used to interpret the meaning and significance of data.

 

Graphs and tables provide visual results of observations.

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Tennessee Standard 1.5b - Nonmathematical language may be used to interpret the relationships presented in mathematical form.

 

Pictures may illustrate relationships observed. Descriptions and comparisons may be presented in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color and motion. Prior knowledge helps one interpret new information.

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Tennessee Standard 1.5c - Information should be related to prior knowledge.

 

New learning is developed from existing knowledge.

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THEME: 1.6 COMMUNICATING - An essential aspect of science is the act of accurately and effectively conveying oral, written, graphic or electronic information from the preparer to the user.

Tennessee Standard 1.6a - The sharing and disseminating of results should be done in a clear and concise manner.

 

Results are presented in a clear and concise manner to ensure credibility.

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Unifying Concepts of Science
GOAL: To enable students to acquire scientific knowledge by applying concepts, theories, principles and laws from life/environmental, physical and earth/space sciences.
THEME: 2.1 SCALE AND MODEL - The development of models provides a conceptual bridge between the concrete and the abstract, while the use of scales allows for a comparison of differences in magnitude between the model and the desired form.

Tennessee Standard 2.1a - A model is a representation used to simplify complex phenomena.

 

A model is a representation of a real item or concept. Toys may serve as models assisting with the understanding of complex ideas.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1b - Different models can be used to represent the same thing. The kind of model used and its complexity depends on its purpose.

 

Various models may be constructed to represent a given item or concept.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1c - Models are often used to study processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small or too large a scale to observe directly.

 

Models can be used to demonstrate time progression or visual enhancements.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1d - The scale chosen for a model determines its effectiveness.

 

The model’s effectiveness is dependent on choice of materials, size, weight, age and speed.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1e - Different properties are not affected to the same degree by changes in scale; large changes in scale typically change the way things work.

 

Some properties remain constant even when other features are changed.

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THEME: 2.2 FORM AND FUNCTION - Form may determine the function of a material or a system, and function may alter form.

Tennessee Standard 2.2a - How an object functions is related to its form.

 

The kind of material used to build an object will influence the effectiveness of that object. Any alteration in design of an object will affect the efficiency of the object.

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Tennessee Standard 2.2b - Form tends to dictate function, thus an alteration of form may lead to a change in function.

 

Things generally consist of parts and may not function properly if a part is missing.

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THEME: 2.4 INTERACTIONS - At all levels of living and non-living systems, matter and energy act and react to determine the nature of our environment.

Tennessee Standard 2.4b - Interactions of matter and energy shape our world.

 

Changes that occur in an environment may affect both living or non-living things.

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THEME: 2.5 CHANGE - Interactions within and among systems may result in changes in the properties, position, movement, form, or function of systems.

Tennessee Standard 2.5a - Everything is constantly changing; rates of change vary over a wide scale with a great variety in patterns of change.

 

Some things may stay constant while others change. Some changes occur so rapidly or so slowly that they become difficult to detect.

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Tennessee Standard 2.5b - Cycles of change can be extended in scales of time, space, and material.

 

Changes occur in various ways and may be altered by controlling some variables.

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THEME: 2.6 CONSERVATION - In any natural process the form may change but nothing is lost.

Tennessee Standard 2.6a - Although there can be transformations of matter and energy in changes, the sum of matter and energy is conserved.

 

When taken in parts, the parts of the whole still equal the mass of the original object.

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Habits of Mind
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate ways of thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science; and to exhibit an awareness of the historical and cultural contributions to the enterprise of science.
THEME: 3.1 HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE - The knowledge and processes of science have evolved over time as an approximation of truth within cultural contexts.

Tennessee Standard 3.1a - Although some scientific knowledge is very old, it is still applicable today.

 

When established scientific investigations are repeated, predictable results are expected.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1b - Individual initiative and vision create changes in science.

 

Motivation, creativity, and talent of individuals contribute to the progression of science.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1c - The desire to understand the natural environment and to predict the course of natural events is universal.

 

It is natural and desirable to seek an understanding of natural events.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1d - The growth of scientific knowledge and most technological advances have resulted from the work accumulated over many centuries by men and women in every part of the world.

 

The scientific contributions made by men and women throughout the world have provided our scientific heritage.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1e - There are different traditions in science concerning the subject and method of investigation; however, they all have in common certain basic beliefs about the value of evidence, logic and argument.

 

The study of science includes a variety of techniques yet values the basic truism of evidence, logic, and argument.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1f - Progress in science depends heavily on societal events, and the course of history often depends on scientific and technological developments.

 

Scientific development throughout history has mirrored the events and needs of society.

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THEME: 3.2 ASSUMPTIONS - The recognition and criticism of the validity of an argument through presentation of data and differentiation between fact and assumption in the preparation of an explanation for a natural phenomenon are vital parts of the scientific process.

Tennessee Standard 3.2a - Science is based upon suppositions derived from observations of natural phenomena.

 

Careful observation can yield scientific knowledge.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2b - Predictions are based on previous knowledge.

 

Prior knowledge is the framework for making predictions.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2c - The critical assumptions behind any line of reasoning must be made explicit so that the validity of the position taken can be judged.

 

Claims of findings made during scientific investigation must be supported with evidence to ensure logical argument.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2d - The validity of an investigation cannot be accepted unless the complete investigation can be independently duplicated.

 

If variables remain constant, an investigation can be repeated with expectations of predictable results.

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THEME: 3.3 ESTIMATION AND COMPUTATION - Scientists judge the level of precision needed to approximate a reasonable response and perform calculations with or without the aid of mechanical devices.

Tennessee Standard 3.3a - Estimation provides a way to judge, if the result of a computation is reasonable.

 

Giving a rough estimate is a preliminary step which can lead to further study.

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Tennessee Standard 3.3b - Computation is the process of determining results by mathematical means.

 

Measurable explanations of scientific results are made credible by mathematical computation.

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Tennessee Standard 3.3c - All measurements are approximations.

 

Standard and non-standard measurement tools provide means for collecting data.

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THEME: 3.4 METHODS - A variety of techniques is used by scientists to classify and solve problems.

Tennessee Standard 3.4a - Differences may exist between mathematical models and computations based on the models.

 

Since a model is a representation of events and processes, differences of interpretation may exist.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4b - Problems and methodology influence each other.

 

The methods of investigation is often determined by the nature of problems under study.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4c - Different scientific domains may employ different methods of inquiry.

 

The level of understanding may increase with additional methods of study.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4d - Each scientific domain uses various methods of inquiry.

 

Different activities produce a hierarchy of understanding.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4e - Problems may be solved in more than one way and have more than one solution.

 

Results of a study may be obtained in various ways.

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THEME: 3.5 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - Science and technology are separate but interdependent entities.

Tennessee Standard 3.5a - Science and technology change the environment in beneficial and detrimental ways.

 

Developments in science and technology can improve our quality of life, yet may have a negative impact on the environment.

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Tennessee Standard 3.5b - Technology makes it possible for scientists to extend their research or to undertake entirely new lines of research.

 

Technology may be used to do things more easily or to accomplish things once perceived impossible.

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Tennessee Standard 3.5c - Innovations in science and technology are often stimulated by developments in mathematics, and vice-versa.

 

The partnership of science and math promotes continuous developments in both fields.

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THEME: 3.6 CREATIVE ENTERPRISE - Creativity contributes to the processes of science through ideas and inventions.

Tennessee Standard 3.6a - Imagination plays an integral role in science.

 

Toys, games and creative play can provide methods of understanding for the processes of science.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6b - Creativity is both a mental and a physical process.

 

Kinesthetic and cognitive skills can be developed through creative activities.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6c - Creativity enables development of new concepts, processes, and attitudes toward scientific inquiry.

 

Imagination may lead to new ideas, to ways of doing things and to influencing attitudes in science.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6d - The human ability to shape the future comes from a capacity for generating knowledge, developing new technologies and for communicating ideas.

 

The ability of humans to use knowledge for improvement of life is on-going.

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Science in Society
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate positive attitudes toward science in solving problems and making personal decisions about issues affecting the individual, society and the environment.
THEME: 4.1 ATTITUDES - The progress of science and the attitudes of society influence one another.

Tennessee Standard 4.1a - Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern.

 

By making careful observation, questions can be formulated concerning our world.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1b - Science and technology should be viewed thoughtfully, in neither a categorically antagonistic or an uncritically positive manner.

 

Scientific ideas are more believable when supported with good reasoning and factual information.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1c - The perceived value of any technology may vary for different groups of people and at different times.

 

Individual and collective needs and the influence of societal pressures have motivated technological advances throughout our history.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1d - Beliefs, superstitions and fears can limit the progress of science and technology.

 

Careful observation and proper use of scientific methods can promote positive attitudes concerning science.

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THEME: 4.2 PERSONAL NEEDS - The application of science may be used to change the quality of life for the individual.

Tennessee Standard 4.2a - Any individual can participate in and contribute to the process of science.

 

Everyone can be a scientist, inventing and contributing ideas and seeking to solve problems.

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Tennessee Standard 4.2b - Science concepts may be applied to personal decisions.

 

The influence of scientific knowledge can be used to enhance the quality of life.

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Tennessee Standard 4.2c - Science solves practical problems but may create new problems and needs for an individual.

 

Obtaining a need or want may result in conflicting consequences.

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THEME: 4.3 CAREER GOALS - The development of scientific skills may lead to a rewarding career and productive contributions to society.

Tennessee Standard 4.3a - Career exploration presents an opportunity to challenge stereotype of scientists and to develop greater understanding of scientists and their work.

 

The opportunity for a career in science exists for all students.

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Tennessee Standard 4.3b - Career opportunities in science and technology are available in all industries and will continue to increase.

 

The study of science and technology can lead to a rewarding career.

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Tennessee Standard 4.3c - Scientific skills and attitudes will facilitate adaptation to careers as science and technology change.

 

An enjoyment of science can be the stepping stone for developing future skills and attitudes necessary for a scientific career.

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THEME: 4.4 SOCIETAL NEEDS - Science establishes the basis for applying technology to needs within a society.

Tennessee Standard 4.4a - Scientific research and development have an ethical component.

 

Scientific descriptions must be done as accurately as possible to ensure the consideration of ethical consequences.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4b - The demand by society for more and better products and services drives scientific research and development.

 

The expectations of society for scientific and technological advancement direct the progression in research and development.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4c - Science and technology may produce changes that affect society and groups within societies.

 

Technological and scientific advances may result in societal changes that produce a means of survival, transportation and communication.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4d - Basic research contributes to the body of scientific knowledge and may have unexpected results.

 

The value of basic research, recording predicted and unexpected results, is essential to the scientific process.

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THEME: 4.5 ECONOMICS - Scientific knowledge should provide a premise for understanding the economic value of applied technology as it relates to society.

Tennessee Standard 4.5a - Science and technology impact economic growth and productivity.

 

Advances in science and technology have a direct influence on any society’s economic climate.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5b - Needs and interests of society influence financial support and problems that scientists and engineers pursue.

 

Throughout history people have provided support for development of ideas that relate to their needs and interests.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5c - Limited resources dictate a need for prioritization.

 

The numerous demands for limited resources necessitate the need for priorities in the utilization of resources.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5d - The total impact of developments in science and technology on the economy is seldom known at the time the development occurs.

 

Inventions provide improvements while establishing the foundation for future developments.

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THEME: 4.6 POLITICS - Basic scientific concepts should be available to all individuals enabling each to make logical decisions for themselves and others.

Tennessee Standard 4.6a - Scientific literacy influences the political process.

 

The scientific enlightenment, exposure and educational climate within a population govern the extent of political support.

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Tennessee Standard 4.6b - The risks and cost benefits must be carefully considered when developing new technology or curtailing existing technology.

 

Benefits and drawbacks must be included in the consideration of new technological advances.

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Tennessee Standard 4.6c - Governments use the development of science and technology in global competition for power and prestige.

 

(No Benchmark was considered appropriate for this level.)

 


Grades 3-5

PROCESS OF SCIENCE
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate the processes of science by posing questions and investigating phenomena through language, methods and instruments of science.
THEME: 1.1 OBSERVING - The senses are used to develop an awareness of an event or object and the properties thereof.

Tennessee Standard 1.1a - Observing is a process used to develop an awareness of the surrounding environment.

 

Awareness of our surroundings is a result of individual observations and prior knowledge.

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Tennessee Standard 1.1b - The human senses and technological instruments are used to gather information from the environment.

 

Information is gathered by using human senses and various instruments such as magnifying lenses, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, scales, and balances.

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THEME: 1.2 QUESTIONING - The development of an inquisitive mind and the effective use of questioning techniques furthers the acquisition of information.

Tennessee Standard 1.2a - Initial information and prior knowledge are used to ask questions.

 

Questions developed to study scientific concepts are based upon previous knowledge and experiences.

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Tennessee Standard 1.2b - Questions may be structured so that they can be investigated scientifically.

 

The formulation of questions which address a specific concern or problem more readily lend themselves to scientific investigation.

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Tennessee Standard 1.2c - Not all questions can be answered.

 

Within the questioning process, every investigation will not yield concrete results.

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THEME: 1.3 COLLECTING DATA - The acquiring, recording, arranging and storing of information must be performed in a complete, accurate, concise and user-friendly manner.

Tennessee Standard 1.3a - Data are collected using the senses, instrumentation, and a variety of other technologies.

 

Information gathered through the use of instrumentation and/or experimentation is to be managed so that data can be easily retrieved.

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Tennessee Standard 1.3b - Data should be appropriate, accurate, and free of bias.

 

A journal is kept to describe observations made and scientific data collected. Entries distinguish actual observations from speculations about what was observed.

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Tennessee Standard 1.3c - Safety features should be observed in all areas of data collection.

 

Proper safety procedures must be followed in the classroom, laboratory, and home environment.

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THEME: 1.4 ANALYZING - Data should be examined to find patterns and relationships that may suggest cause and effect or support inferences and hypotheses.

Tennessee Standard 1.4a - Data should be examined to find patterns and relationships.

 

Information is organized in ways that show possible relationships, similarities, or differences; examples: graphs, charts, tables, etc. Data extremes (highest/lowest values) may be more revealing than means or averages.

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Tennessee Standard 1.4b - The accuracy and precision of data should be used to determine the selection or rejection of any given piece of data.

 

Adherence to procedures and concise record keeping are essential to the process of scientific investigation.

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Tennessee Standard 1.4c - Scientific investigation may not produce concrete solutions.

 

Scientific inquiry does not always result in predicted or expected outcomes.

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THEME: 1.5 EXPLAINING - Phenomena and related information are made understandable through discussion that culminates in a higher level of learning.

Tennessee Standard 1.5a - Tables and graphs may be used to interpret the meaning and significance of data.

 

Things change in steady, repetitive, or irregular ways. Tables, charts, and graphs are effective ways to show quantitative values and relationships.

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Tennessee Standard 1.5b - Nonmathematical language may be used to interpret the relationships presented in mathematical form.

 

Written and verbal presentations are used to explain information presented in charts, graphs, and tables.

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Tennessee Standard 1.5c - Information should be related to prior knowledge.

 

The process of making predictions, drawing inferences, and developing conclusions is based upon an individual’s prior learning and understanding of scientific principles.

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THEME: 1.6 COMMUNICATING - An essential aspect of science is the act of accurately and effectively conveying oral, written, graphic or electronic information from the preparer to the user.

Tennessee Standard 1.6a - The sharing and disseminating of results should be done in a clear and concise manner.

 

Effective communication is essential to the sharing of information and to the exposure to criticism by the scientific community.

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Unifying Concepts of Science
GOAL: To enable students to acquire scientific knowledge by applying concepts, theories, principles and laws from life/environmental, physical and earth/space sciences.
THEME: 2.1 SCALE AND MODEL - The development of models provides a conceptual bridge between the concrete and the abstract, while the use of scales allows for a comparison of differences in magnitude between the model and the desired form.

Tennessee Standard 2.1a - A model is a representation used to simplify complex phenomena.

 

Models are developed to represent structures or concepts. These models may be manipulated for simplified analysis of complex ideas.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1b - Different models can be used to represent the same thing. The kind of model used and its complexity depends on its purpose.

 

Models allow us to make inferences about real world processes or events.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1c - Models are often used to study processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small or too large a scale to observe directly.

 

Scale models represent real objects, events and processes. These representations may not be exact in every detail.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1d - The scale chosen for a model determines its effectiveness.

 

The development of models is based on scale, representations of size, shape, volume, speed and other properties.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1e - Different properties are not affected to the same degree by changes in scale; large changes in scale typically change the way things work.

 

Changes made to scale models represent how real objects or processes are affected by change.

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THEME: 2.2 FORM AND FUNCTION - Form may determine the function of a material or a system, and function may alter form.

Tennessee Standard 2.2a - How an object functions is related to its form.

 

The form of a structure implies its function. The function of a structure tends to dictate its form.

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Tennessee Standard 2.2b - Form tends to dictate function, thus an alteration of form may lead to a change in function.

 

Physical and biological systems are interactive. Changes of component forms may alter the function(s) of those systems.

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THEME: 2.3 ORGANIZATION - Everything is organized as related systems within systems.

Tennessee Standard 2.3a - Natural phenomena display a wide variety of similarities and differences.

 

There are variations among individuals within all systems. Things can be sorted into groups according to their similarities and differences.

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Tennessee Standard 2.3b - Groupings are based on similarities related to structure and function.

 

Organisms are separated into groups according to identifying characteristics. Some individuals operate independently of the system, while others operate as a collective group.

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THEME: 2.4 INTERACTIONS - At all levels of living and non-living systems, matter and energy act and react to determine the nature of our environment.

Tennessee Standard 2.4b - Interactions of matter and energy shape our world.

 

Living things contribute energy to and take energy away from non-living surroundings causing changes in both. The interactions of matter and energy are subject to accepted physical laws.

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THEME: 2.5 CHANGE - Interactions within and among systems may result in changes in the properties, position, movement, form, or function of systems.

Tennessee Standard 2.5a - Everything is constantly changing; rates of change vary over a wide scale with a great variety in patterns of change.

 

Things change in consistent, inconsistent and repetitive ways. Some features may stay the same while others change.

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Tennessee Standard 2.5b - Cycles of change can be extended in scales of time, space, and material.

 

Changes can occur slowly or quickly within any system. Materials may combine to form new materials. The properties of the new materials may be unlike the original materials.

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THEME: 2.6 CONSERVATION - In any natural process the form may change but nothing is lost.

Tennessee Standard 2.6a - Although there can be transformations of matter and energy in changes, the sum of matter and energy is conserved.

 

Mass is a measure of how much matter an object contains. Breaking that object into parts does not change the total mass.

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Habits of Mind
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate ways of thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science; and to exhibit an awareness of the historical and cultural contributions to the enterprise of science.
THEME: 3.1 HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE - The knowledge and processes of science have evolved over time as an approximation of truth within cultural contexts.

Tennessee Standard 3.1a - Although some scientific knowledge is very old, it is still applicable today.

 

Current scientific knowledge and future progress are based upon past scientific truths.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1b - Individual initiative and vision create changes in science.

 

Scientific advances and discoveries are often the result of individual creativity and insight.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1c - The desire to understand the natural environment and to predict the course of natural events is universal.

 

Curiosity and interaction with the environment compel people to question and explain events that influence their lives.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1d - The growth of scientific knowledge and most technological advances have resulted from the work accumulated over many centuries by men and women in every part of the world.

 

Scientific contributions and advances continue as a result of work done by people from different cultures and backgrounds.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1e - There are different traditions in science concerning the subject and method of investigation; however, they all have in common certain basic beliefs about the value of evidence, logic and argument.

 

Scientific investigations have in common the need for reliable data, logical thinking, and the communication of results.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1f - Progress in science depends heavily on societal events, and the course of history often depends on scientific and technological developments.

 

Scientific advances are driven by societal needs and may directly influence the course of history.

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THEME: 3.2 ASSUMPTIONS - The recognition and criticism of the validity of an argument through presentation of data and differentiation between fact and assumption in the preparation of an explanation for a natural phenomenon are vital parts of the scientific process.

Tennessee Standard 3.2a - Science is based upon suppositions derived from observations of natural phenomena.

 

Unknown or unobserved variables may lead to unanticipated results. No design is likely to be free of all possibility of error or even failure.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2b - Predictions are based on previous knowledge.

 

Logical predictions are formulated from the evaluation of observations and prior learning.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2c - The critical assumptions behind any line of reasoning must be made explicit so that the validity of the position taken can be judged.

 

Prior learning must be accurate and free of incorrect assumptions.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2d - The validity of an investigation cannot be accepted unless the complete investigation can be independently duplicated.

 

Scientific truths must be supported by data in conjunction with logical evaluations.

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THEME: 3.3 ESTIMATION AND COMPUTATION - Scientists judge the level of precision needed to approximate a reasonable response and perform calculations with or without the aid of mechanical devices.

Tennessee Standard 3.3a - Estimation provides a way to judge, if the result of a computation is reasonable.

 

Estimation provides a basis for evaluating the accuracy of computations.

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Tennessee Standard 3.3b - Computation is the process of determining results by mathematical means.

 

Mathematics allows for comparative evaluations which may lead to the solution of problems or a better understanding of both abstract or concrete concepts.

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Tennessee Standard 3.3c - All measurements are approximations.

 

Measurements such as length, area, volume, mass, time or temperature may be judged in accordance with accepted values.

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THEME: 3.4 METHODS - A variety of techniques is used by scientists to classify and solve problems.

Tennessee Standard 3.4a - Differences may exist between mathematical models and computations based on the models.

 

Mathematical models or analyses may vary subject to the operations performed.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4b - Problems and methodology influence each other.

 

The choice of methodology is dependent upon the nature of the problem to be solved.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4c - Different scientific domains may employ different methods of inquiry.

 

Physical, biological and social questions are subject to various types of investigations.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4d - Each scientific domain uses various methods of inquiry.

 

Investigations can involve, but are not limited to, observation, specimen collections and experimentation.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4e - Problems may be solved in more than one way and have more than one solution.

 

Alternative ways to solve a problem may lead to more than one solution.

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THEME: 3.5 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - Science and technology are separate but interdependent entities.

Tennessee Standard 3.5a - Science and technology change the environment in beneficial and detrimental ways.

 

The decision to apply a given technology must be based on the perceived benefits weighed against the possible disadvantages.

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Tennessee Standard 3.5b - Technology makes it possible for scientists to extend their research or to undertake entirely new lines of research.

 

Technological advances tend to extend the reach of our senses and to expand our ability to manipulate and to understand our environment.

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Tennessee Standard 3.5c - Innovations in science and technology are often stimulated by developments in mathematics, and vice-versa.

 

The process of invention yields both predictable and unanticipated results. Technological advancements in one field are often applied to the solution of problems in unrelated areas.

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THEME: 3.6 CREATIVE ENTERPRISE - Creativity contributes to the processes of science through ideas and inventions.

Tennessee Standard 3.6a - Imagination plays an integral role in science.

 

Science engages the creative nature of all people. The process of invention is driven by need and individual insight.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6b - Creativity is both a mental and a physical process.

 

Higher order thinking skills, when directed toward the process of science, may produce unique solutions or results.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6c - Creativity enables development of new concepts, processes, and attitudes toward scientific inquiry.

 

People use past experiences as a guide when approaching new and unique situations.

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The integration of prior knowledge with new information may produce innovative results.

 

Tennessee Standard 3.6d - The human ability to shape the future comes from a capacity for generating knowledge, developing new technologies and for communicating ideas.

 

Humans throughout history have been toolmakers. Although modern tools tend to be more complex than those of the past, many are actually modifications of ancient tools.

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Science in Society
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate positive attitudes toward science in solving problems and making personal decisions about issues affecting the individual, society and the environment.
THEME: 4.1 ATTITUDES - The progress of science and the attitudes of society influence one another.

Tennessee Standard 4.1a - Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern.

 

Science provides a basis for addressing issues that affect our lives.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1b - Science and technology should be viewed thoughtfully, in neither a categorically antagonistic or an uncritically positive manner.

 

Science does not create nor can it solve all of our problems.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1c - The perceived value of any technology may vary for different groups of people and at different times.

 

The extent to which a technology is applied determines the value placed upon that technology.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1d - Beliefs, superstitions and fears can limit the progress of science and technology.

 

The extent and direction of scientific research may be limited by real and perceived concerns.

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THEME: 4.2 PERSONAL NEEDS - The application of science may be used to change the quality of life for the individual.

Tennessee Standard 4.2a - Any individual can participate in and contribute to the process of science.

 

People use and contribute to science to improve their lives.

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Tennessee Standard 4.2b - Science concepts may be applied to personal decisions.

 

Individual behavior may be influenced by an understanding of science concepts.

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Tennessee Standard 4.2c - Science solves practical problems but may create new problems and needs for an individual.

 

All factors must be considered when determining solutions to problems. A solution to one problem may create other problems.

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THEME: 4.3 CAREER GOALS - The development of scientific skills may lead to a rewarding career and productive contributions to society.

Tennessee Standard 4.3a - Career exploration presents an opportunity to challenge stereotype of scientists and to develop greater understanding of scientists and their work.

 

The increasing complexity of requirements in the workplace demands greater scientific and technological literacy.

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Tennessee Standard 4.3b - Career opportunities in science and technology are available in all industries and will continue to increase.

 

Active science involves people from all segments of society in many kinds of work.

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Tennessee Standard 4.3c - Scientific skills and attitudes will facilitate adaptation to careers as science and technology change.

 

Advances in science and technology necessitate career changes and retraining of many vocations, some yet unknown.

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THEME: 4.4 SOCIETAL NEEDS - Science establishes the basis for applying technology to needs within a society.

Tennessee Standard 4.4a - Scientific research and development have an ethical component.

 

Scientific developments may impact personal decisions.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4b - The demand by society for more and better products and services drives scientific research and development.

 

The desire for more efficient technology assures the need for more research and design.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4c - Science and technology may produce changes that affect society and groups within societies.

 

Technology throughout history has been a product of human culture. Access to any given technology may greatly impact socio-economic lifestyle.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4d - Basic research contributes to the body of scientific knowledge and may have unexpected results.

 

Social decisions based on scientific knowledge, regardless of the care taken in developing those decisions, may yield unexpected consequences.

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THEME: 4.5 ECONOMICS - Scientific knowledge should provide a premise for understanding the economic value of applied technology as it relates to society.

Tennessee Standard 4.5a - Science and technology impact economic growth and productivity.

 

Technology provides the benefit of a higher standard of living to a much larger segment of society than was available in the past. These benefits tend to be driven by the level of a society’s economic development.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5b - Needs and interests of society influence financial support and problems that scientists and engineers pursue.

 

The direction of and support for specific areas of research are guided by societal needs and ethical influences.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5c - Limited resources dictate a need for prioritization.

 

Resources are generally allocated according to the perceived needs of society.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5d - The total impact of developments in science and technology on the economy is seldom known at the time the development occurs.

 

Scientific and technological developments may be applied in unforeseen ways. Therefore economic implications cannot always be predicted.

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THEME: 4.6 POLITICS - Basic scientific concepts should be available to all individuals enabling each to make logical decisions for themselves and others.

Tennessee Standard 4.6a - Scientific literacy influences the political process.

 

When compromise cannot settle a conflict, a vote may resolve the issue.

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Tennessee Standard 4.6b - The risks and cost benefits must be carefully considered when developing new technology or curtailing existing technology.

 

Decision-making processes consider the benefits and drawbacks of alternatives and the input of those affected by the decisions.

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Tennessee Standard 4.6c - Governments use the development of science and technology in global competition for power and prestige.

 

National security and national interests dictate the direction of some areas of scientific research.

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Grades 6-8

Process of Science
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate the processes of science by posing questions and investigating phenomena through language, methods and instruments of science.
THEME: 1.1 OBSERVING - The senses are used to develop an awareness of an event or object and the properties thereof.

Tennessee Standard 1.1a - Observing is a process used to develop an awareness of the surrounding environment.

 

By incorporating prior knowledge with the process of observation, a better understanding of one’s environment may develop.

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Tennessee Standard 1.1b - The human senses and technological instruments are used to gather information from the environment.

 

Scientific investigation is enhanced through the use of technology.

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THEME: 1.2 QUESTIONING - The development of an inquisitive mind and the effective use of questioning techniques furthers the acquisition of information.

Tennessee Standard 1.2a - Initial information and prior knowledge are used to ask questions.

 

Shared experiences may help to develop an inquisitive mind.

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Tennessee Standard 1.2b - Questions may be structured so that they can be investigated scientifically.

 

Scientists differ greatly in what field they study and how they go about their work, using various scientific methods of investigation.

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Tennessee Standard 1.2c - Not all questions can be answered.

 

If more than one variable changes in an experiment, the end result of the experiment may not be clearly attributable to any one of the variables.

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THEME: 1.3 COLLECTING DATA - The acquiring, recording, arranging and storing of information must be performed in a complete, accurate, concise and user-friendly manner.

Tennessee Standard 1.3a - Data are collected using the senses, instrumentation, and a variety of other technologies.

 

The reading and interpretation of measuring instruments are necessary in determining length, volume, weight, elapsed time, rates, and temperature.

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Tennessee Standard 1.3b - Data should be appropriate, accurate, and free of bias.

 

The larger a scientific sampling is, the more likely it is to represent the whole. Information may be acquired from a variety of sources such as reference books, computer disks and databases, and back issues of periodicals.

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Tennessee Standard 1.3c - Safety features should be observed in all areas of data collection.

 

Safety procedures are introduced prior to and practiced during all data collection.

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THEME: 1.4 ANALYZING - Data should be examined to find patterns and relationships that may suggest cause and effect or support inferences and hypotheses.

Tennessee Standard 1.4a - Data should be examined to find patterns and relationships.

 

An equation containing a variable may be true for just one value of the variable. Information is organized into simple tables and graphs to identify relationships. Rectangular and polar coordinates are used to find and describe locations on maps or other flat surfaces. The mean, median, and mode tell different aspects of data set. One example can never be used to prove that something is true, but sometimes a single example can prove that something is not true.

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Tennessee Standard 1.4b - The accuracy and precision of data should be used to determine the selection or rejection of any given piece of data.

 

Some means of checking for accuracy is needed because errors can occur in recording or communicating information. The collection of data requires the most accurate degree of precision.

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Tennessee Standard 1.4c - Scientific investigation may not produce concrete solutions.

 

There may be more than one good way to interpret a given set of findings.

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THEME: 1.5 EXPLAINING - Phenomena and related information are made understandable through discussion that culminates in a higher level of learning.

Tennessee Standard 1.5a - Tables and graphs may be used to interpret the meaning and significance of data.

 

Mathematical statements can be used to describe the magnitudes of change one quantity has on another. The graphic display of numbers may help to show patterns such as trends, varying rates of change, gaps, or clusters.

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Tennessee Standard 1.5b - Nonmathematical language may be used to interpret the relationships presented in mathematical form.

 

Written, verbal and visual presentations can be used to interpret and expand more abstract mathematical concepts.

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Tennessee Standard 1.5c - Information should be related to prior knowledge.

 

Prior knowledge provides a foundation for new learning experiences.

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THEME: 1.6 COMMUNICATING - An essential aspect of science is the act of accurately and effectively conveying oral, written, graphic or electronic information from the preparer to the user.

Tennessee Standard 1.6a - The sharing and disseminating of results should be done in a clear and concise manner.

 

Human beings learn complicated concepts from others through various methods of communication. Scientists are linked worldwide both personally and professionally through international scientific organizations.

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Unifying Concepts of Science
GOAL: To enable students to acquire scientific knowledge by applying concepts, theories, principles and laws from life/environmental, physical and earth/space sciences.
THEME: 2.1 SCALE AND MODEL - The development of models provides a conceptual bridge between the concrete and the abstract, while the use of scales allows for a comparison of differences in magnitude between the model and the desired form.

Tennessee Standard 2.1a - A model is a representation used to simplify complex phenomena.

 

Models are often used to represent concepts of various magnitudes.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1b - Different models can be used to represent the same thing. The kind of model used and its complexity depends on its purpose.

 

Models can be simulated on a computer and then altered to see what happens. The usefulness of a model may be limited by its simplicity or complexity.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1c - Models are often used to study processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small or too large a scale to observe directly.

 

Models are often used to represent processes that cannot be directly observed.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1d - The scale chosen for a model determines its effectiveness.

 

The usefulness of a graph or drawing is determined by the scale utilized.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1e - Different properties are not affected to the same degree by changes in scale; large changes in scale typically change the way things work.

 

The way a model works may change with scale.

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THEME: 2.2 FORM AND FUNCTION - Form may determine the function of a material or a system, and function may alter form.

Tennessee Standard 2.2a - How an object functions is related to its form.

 

Specialized structures perform specific functions. Symmetry (or the lack of it) may determine properties of many objects, from molecules and crystals to organisms and designed structures. All objects in the universe are affected by the gravitational forces. Equal volumes of different substances usually have different weights. There are different forms of energy such as heat, mechanical, chemical, electrical, nuclear, and light. The flow of energy has an impact of geological, biological and environmental conditions.

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Tennessee Standard 2.2b - Form tends to dictate function, thus an alteration of form may lead to a change in function.

 

Any change or error in design may affect function. The survival of individual organisms and entire species is dependent upon environmental conditions.

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THEME: 2.3 ORGANIZATION - Everything is organized as related systems within systems.

Tennessee Standard 2.3a - Natural phenomena display a wide variety of similarities and differences.

 

Similarities and differences can be observed from the most minute phenomena to the vastness of the universe.

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Tennessee Standard 2.3b - Groupings are based on similarities related to structure and function.

 

Thinking about things as systems means looking for how every part relates to others. Many systems contain feedback mechanisms that serve to keep changes within specified limits. Different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances. A system can include processes as well as objects.

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THEME: 2.4 INTERACTIONS - At all levels of living and non-living systems, matter and energy act and react to determine the nature of our environment.

Tennessee Standard 2.4b - Interactions of matter and energy shape our world.

 

The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns. Heat can be transferred either through materials by the collisions of atoms or across space by radiation. Electric currents and magnets can exert force on each other. In any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions. The relationships between two organisms may be competitive or mutually beneficial.

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THEME: 2.5 CHANGE - Interactions within and among systems may result in changes in the properties, position, movement, form, or function of systems.

Tennessee Standard 2.5a - Everything is constantly changing; rates of change vary over a wide scale with a great variety in patterns of change.

 

New information can modify existing scientific knowledge. Human activities have decreased the capacity of the environment to support some life forms. Selective breeding has resulted in new varieties of plants and domestic animals. Various changes occur as an organism progresses through its life cycle.

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Habits of Mind
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate ways of thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science; and to exhibit an awareness of the historical and cultural contributions to the enterprise of science.
THEME: 3.1 HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE - The knowledge and processes of science have evolved over time as an approximation of truth within cultural contexts.

Tennessee Standard 3.1a - Although some scientific knowledge is very old, it is still applicable today.

 

Mathematics has been important to science and technology for thousands of years and is still vital today.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1b - Individual initiative and vision create changes in science.

 

Scientists around the world have made significant contributions to the body of scientific knowledge.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1c - The desire to understand the natural environment and to predict the course of natural events is universal.

 

People have developed theories to explain events.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1d - The growth of scientific knowledge and most technological advances have resulted from the work accumulated over many centuries by men and women in every part of the world.

 

The history of individual and cultural contributions to science go hand in hand with their influence on the course of history.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1e - There are different traditions in science concerning the subject and method of investigation; however, they all have in common certain basic beliefs about the value of evidence, logic and argument.

 

Even if theories are inaccurate by today’s standards, they seem to explain many observations about the world.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1f - Progress in science depends heavily on societal events, and the course of history often depends on scientific and technological developments.

 

Many inventions occurred by accident or because they fulfilled a basic need. Inventions have enhanced our abilities to study science.

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THEME: 3.2 ASSUMPTIONS - The recognition and criticism of the validity of an argument through presentation of data and differentiation between fact and assumption in the preparation of an explanation for a natural phenomenon are vital parts of the scientific process.

Tennessee Standard 3.2a - Science is based upon suppositions derived from observations of natural phenomena.

 

New ideas in science sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and they usually lead to new investigations. Practice at making observations allows for discoveries from otherwise unnoteworthy events.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2b - Predictions are based on previous knowledge.

 

Knowledge and creative insight are usually required to recognize the meaning of the unexpected.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2c - The critical assumptions behind any line of reasoning must be made explicit so that the validity of the position taken can be judged.

 

Analyzing different possibilities may eliminate incorrect assumptions.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2d - The validity of an investigation cannot be accepted unless the complete investigation can be independently duplicated.

 

Design usually requires taking constraints into account. Accurate record keeping and replication allow students to test the validity of experiments.

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THEME: 3.3 ESTIMATION AND COMPUTATION - Scientists judge the level of precision needed to approximate a reasonable response and perform calculations with or without the aid of mechanical devices.

Tennessee Standard 3.3a - Estimation provides a way to judge, if the result of a computation is reasonable.

 

Estimation of probability can be based on data from similar conditions in the past or what is known about current situations.

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Tennessee Standard 3.3b - Computation is the process of determining results by mathematical means.

 

An investigator’s credibility depends upon accurate record keeping, openness, and replication. Logical connections can be found among different parts of mathematics. The answer to every mathematical computation has a number and a unit.

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Tennessee Standard 3.3c - All measurements are approximations.

 

Accuracy is only as good as the least accurate component. Numbers can be written in different forms, depending on how they are being used. Rounding of numbers can affect the accuracy of measurement.

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THEME: 3.4 METHODS - A variety of techniques is used by scientists to classify and solve problems.

Tennessee Standard 3.4a - Differences may exist between mathematical models and computations based on the models.

 

When similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to judge whether the differences are trivial or significant.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4b - Problems and methodology influence each other.

 

Different ways of obtaining, transforming, and distributing energy have different environmental consequences.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4c - Different scientific domains may employ different methods of inquiry.

 

The method of inquiry is determined by the topic.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4d - Each scientific domain uses various methods of inquiry.

 

Each topic under study may incorporate different methods of inquiry.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4e - Problems may be solved in more than one way and have more than one solution.

 

Usually there is no one right way to solve a problem; different methods have different advantages and disadvantages.

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THEME: 3.5 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - Science and technology are separate but interdependent entities.

Tennessee Standard 3.5a - Science and technology change the environment in beneficial and detrimental ways.

 

New technology can change cultural values and social behavior.

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Tennessee Standard 3.5b - Technology makes it possible for scientists to extend their research or to undertake entirely new lines of research.

 

New technologies in space, computers, medicine and instruments promote research.

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Tennessee Standard 3.5c - Innovations in science and technology are often stimulated by developments in mathematics, and vice-versa.

 

Computers have enhanced scientific investigations.

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THEME: 3.6 CREATIVE ENTERPRISE - Creativity contributes to the processes of science through ideas and inventions.

Tennessee Standard 3.6a - Imagination plays an integral role in science.

 

Scientists are open to new possibilities.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6b - Creativity is both a mental and a physical process.

 

Alternative methods of investigating and reporting are offered.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6c - Creativity enables development of new concepts, processes, and attitudes toward scientific inquiry.

 

People who engage in design and technology use scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6d - The human ability to shape the future comes from a capacity for generating knowledge, developing new technologies and for communicating ideas.

 

Economic health is promoted with technological development.

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Science in Society
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate positive attitudes toward science in solving problems and making personal decisions about issues affecting the individual, society and the environment.
THEME: 4.1 ATTITUDES - The progress of science and the attitudes of society influence one another.

Tennessee Standard 4.1a - Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern.

 

Scientists can use their particular expertise to address public concern.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1b - Science and technology should be viewed thoughtfully, in neither a categorically antagonistic or an uncritically positive manner.

 

Science and technology are viewed without bias.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1c - The perceived value of any technology may vary for different groups of people and at different times.

 

Individual views of technology are affected by culture and need.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1d - Beliefs, superstitions and fears can limit the progress of science and technology.

 

Progress in science and technology can be affected by culture.

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THEME: 4.2 PERSONAL NEEDS - The application of science may be used to change the quality of life for the individual.

Tennessee Standard 4.2a - Any individual can participate in and contribute to the process of science.

 

People control science and technology and are responsible for its effects.

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Tennessee Standard 4.2b - Science concepts may be applied to personal decisions.

 

The consideration of science concepts can aid decision making.

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Tennessee Standard 4.2c - Science solves practical problems but may create new problems and needs for an individual.

 

Solutions in one area may have a negative impact in another.

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THEME: 4.3 CAREER GOALS - The development of scientific skills may lead to a rewarding career and productive contributions to society.

Tennessee Standard 4.3a - Career exploration presents an opportunity to challenge stereotype of scientists and to develop greater understanding of scientists and their work.

 

The study of scientists can promote a better understanding of professions in science.

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Tennessee Standard 4.3b - Career opportunities in science and technology are available in all industries and will continue to increase.

 

Scientists can be employed in a variety of occupations such as education, government, industry, and medicine.

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Tennessee Standard 4.3c - Scientific skills and attitudes will facilitate adaptation to careers as science and technology change.

 

People need better learning skills and flexibility to take on new and rapidly changing jobs.

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THEME: 4.4 SOCIETAL NEEDS - Science establishes the basis for applying technology to needs within a society.

Tennessee Standard 4.4a - Scientific research and development have an ethical component.

 

Scientists must realize that they have an ethical responsibility to society. Society determines which behaviors are acceptable or unacceptable.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4b - The demand by society for more and better products and services drives scientific research and development.

 

Needs and wants fuel scientific development.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4c - Science and technology may produce changes that affect society and groups within societies.

 

The global environment is affected by national policies relating to science and technology.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4d - Basic research contributes to the body of scientific knowledge and may have unexpected results.

 

Technology cannot always provide successful solutions for problems or fulfill every human need.

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THEME: 4.5 ECONOMICS - Scientific knowledge should provide a premise for understanding the economic value of applied technology as it relates to society.

Tennessee Standard 4.5a - Science and technology impact economic growth and productivity.

 

Economic growth and productivity are fueled by science and technology.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5b - Needs and interests of society influence financial support and problems that scientists and engineers pursue.

 

Society dictates research and development.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5c - Limited resources dictate a need for prioritization.

 

In all technologies, there are always tradeoffs to be made. Different parts of the world have different types and quantities of resources which govern their use.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5d - The total impact of developments in science and technology on the economy is seldom known at the time the development occurs.

 

The economic importance of a discovery may not be realized immediately.

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THEME: 4.6 POLITICS - Basic scientific concepts should be available to all individuals enabling each to make logical decisions for themselves and others.

Tennessee Standard 4.6a - Scientific literacy influences the political process.

 

A scientifically literate society may lend support to research and development through the political process.

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Tennessee Standard 4.6b - The risks and cost benefits must be carefully considered when developing new technology or curtailing existing technology.

 

All technologies have effects other than those intended by the design.

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Tennessee Standard 4.6c - Governments use the development of science and technology in global competition for power and prestige.

 

Government usually has most of the power in making decisions and in enforcing rules for the uses of science and technology.

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Grades 9-12

Process of Science
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate the processes of science by posing questions and investigating phenomena through language, methods and instruments of science.
THEME: 1.1 OBSERVING - The senses are used to develop an awareness of an event or object and the properties thereof.

Tennessee Standard 1.1a - Observing is a process used to develop an awareness of the surrounding environment.

 

Written narratives are used to describe an observed scientific phenomenon. Questions based on observations may be answered through experimentation. Safe conditions and methods for making observations are necessary. Multiple explanations may be used for the same set of observations.

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Tennessee Standard 1.1b - The human senses and technological instruments are used to gather information from the environment.

 

Data collected from the scales of scientific instruments are accurately read and recorded using significant digits. Recognition of the limitations of human senses and of technology in data gathering is critical to interpreting data. Resolution of details of natural phenomena is constantly being enhanced. The utility of instruments for extending the human senses for observations is limited by their accuracy and precision.

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THEME: 1.2 QUESTIONING - The development of an inquisitive mind and the effective use of questioning techniques furthers the acquisition of information.

Tennessee Standard 1.2a - Initial information and prior knowledge are used to ask questions.

 

Prior experience and knowledge are used to formulate working hypotheses to explain natural phenomena.

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Tennessee Standard 1.2b - Questions may be structured so that they can be investigated scientifically.

 

To test hypotheses, appropriate procedures are designed for laboratory and field work. Controls are used for comparison when testing variables. In order for a question to be scientifically feasible it must be experimentally testable and answerable. Working hypotheses are formulated to guide the process of research. When events of the past are presented to explain present phenomena, validity is contingent upon similarity of conditions.

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Tennessee Standard 1.2c - Not all questions can be answered.

 

There are limits to scientific investigations. Hypotheses are valuable; even if false, they may lead to fruitful investigations. Different explanations often can be given for the same evidence, and it is not always possible to tell which, if either, is correct.

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THEME: 1.3 COLLECTING DATA - The acquiring, recording, arranging and storing of information must be performed in a complete, accurate, concise and user-friendly manner.

Tennessee Standard 1.3a - Data are collected using the senses, instrumentation, and a variety of other technologies.

 

Multiple information sources are used to investigate phenomena. Scientific notation is used to express and compare very small and very large numbers.

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Tennessee Standard 1.3b - Data should be appropriate, accurate, and free of bias.

 

Data collected during different experiments of common phenomena may be related.

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Tennessee Standard 1.3c - Safety features should be observed in all areas of data collection.

 

Proper safety procedures and safe use of equipment and materials are the responsibility of each person engaged in scientific investigations.

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THEME: 1.4 ANALYZING - Data should be examined to find patterns and relationships that may suggest cause and effect or support inferences and hypotheses.

Tennessee Standard 1.4a - Data should be examined to find patterns and relationships.

 

Statistical analysis may be used to analyze data. Computer spreadsheets, graphing, and database programs may be used to examine trends in data. Comparisons made between experiments conducted under dissimilar conditions are not valid comparisons.

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Tennessee Standard 1.4b - The accuracy and precision of data should be used to determine the selection or rejection of any given piece of data.

 

Data are critically examined to determine which are to be used. Repetition of trials and investigations enhances the reliability of the data collected and, therefore, the conclusions drawn.

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Tennessee Standard 1.4c - Scientific investigation may not produce concrete solutions.

 

Until investigations are conducted to limit interpretation, all reasonable conclusions should be considered.

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THEME: 1.5 EXPLAINING - Phenomena and related information are made understandable through discussion that culminates in a higher level of learning.

Tennessee Standard 1.5a - Tables and graphs may be used to interpret the meaning and significance of data.

 

Data in maps, charts and graphs may be used to answer questions. Extrapolation and interpolation from graphs may provide the basis for new hypotheses. Graphical analysis of data may reveal functional relationships.

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Tennessee Standard 1.5b - Nonmathematical language may be used to interpret the relationships presented in mathematical form.

 

Narrative should be used to explain mathematical relationships. Formulation of appropriate generalizations is warranted by the relationships found among data.

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Tennessee Standard 1.5c - Information should be related to prior knowledge.

 

When interpreting results of new experiments the results are generalized to a scientific theory.

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THEME: 1.6 COMMUNICATING - An essential aspect of science is the act of accurately and effectively conveying oral, written, graphic or electronic information from the preparer to the user.

Tennessee Standard 1.6a - The sharing and disseminating of results should be done in a clear and concise manner.

 

A variety of media may be used to prepare reports and to disseminate results. Style of writing used is partly dependent upon the audience and the nature of the research. Reporting is clear, concise, and free of error.

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Unifying Concepts of Science
GOAL: To enable students to acquire scientific knowledge by applying concepts, theories, principles and laws from life/environmental, physical and earth/space sciences.
THEME: 2.1 SCALE AND MODEL - The development of models provides a conceptual bridge between the concrete and the abstract, while the use of scales allows for a comparison of differences in magnitude between the model and the desired form.

Tennessee Standard 2.1a - A model is a representation used to simplify complex phenomena.

 

Biological Sciences

 

The cellular organelles, internal biochemical processes, and involved interactions can be described using appropriate models. The structure of DNA and all cellular processes can be studied using models.

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Environmental Sciences

 

A variety of models can be used to describe atoms, molecules, cells, tissue, organs, organisms, ecosystems, and the biosphere.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1b - Different models can be used to represent the same thing. The kind of model used and its complexity depends on its purpose.

 

Biological Sciences

 

In addition to the concepts inherent within processes, models of processes such as the nitrogen cycle, water cycle, and food chains, can be used to represent conservation of matter.

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Environmental Sciences

 

Models can be static or dynamic, animate or inanimate, two-dimensional or three-dimensional. Models can represent individual phenomenon, a series of events, and complex systems.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1c - Models are often used to study processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small or too large a scale to observe directly.

 

Biological Sciences

 

Mathematical symbols and anthropological concepts can represent the principles of Mendelian inheritance and population genetics.

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Environmental Sciences

 

Time lines, enlargements, and miniatures provide tangible examples of phenomena beyond usual frames of reference.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1d - The scale chosen for a model determines its effectiveness.

 

Biological Sciences

 

The proportionate scale of a model is well-defined according to its purpose. For example, a cellular model necessitates a grossly disproportionate scale for viewing whereas the body organs can be viewed in real scale.

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Environmental Sciences

 

Models are evaluated to determine how accurately they depict reality.

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Tennessee Standard 2.1e - Different properties are not affected to the same degree by changes in scale; large changes in scale typically change the way things work.

 

Biological Sciences

 

Models are represented in a factual manner; all components should be understood in actual dimension as well as in scale.

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Environmental Sciences

 

Simple and complex models may respond differently to changes in scale.

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THEME: 2.2 FORM AND FUNCTION - Form may determine the function of a material or a system, and function may alter form.

Tennessee Standard 2.2a - How an object functions is related to its form.

 

Biological Sciences

 

Many organisms survive only under site specific conditions. Organisms are composed of systems which contribute to the overall operations of an organism. Physiology of an organism provides a groundwork of responses and adaptations to the climate, topology, available resources, and predator/prey relationships of a given region.

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Environmental Sciences

 

The form of producers, consumers and decomposers determines how they effect the environment. The function of all biological systems, molecules to ecosystems, is dependent on their form. The unique form of water causes it to function as solid, liquid and gas in the biosphere.

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Tennessee Standard 2.2b - Form tends to dictate function, thus an alteration of form may lead to a change in function.

 

Biological Sciences

 

Environmental, sociological, psychological, electrochemical, and biochemical alterations may induce changes in the form, and may alter the function of an organism.

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Environmental Sciences

 

New varieties of organisms result from genetic engineering. The form and function of DNA provide a basis for generational continuity and mutations. The formation, weathering, sedimentation, and reformation of the lithosphere create a variety of environmental conditions. As elements combine in different molecules they function differently. Resource usage increases with population growth.

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THEME: 2.3 ORGANIZATION - Everything is organized as related systems within systems.

Tennessee Standard 2.3a - Natural phenomena display a wide variety of similarities and differences.

 

Biological Sciences

 

Both the uniqueness and commonality of organisms affects the relationship within and among ecosystems. An interrelationship of predator and prey dictates great variation from ecosystem to ecosystem. Physiological and biochemical diversity is often the result of environmental influences.

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Environmental Sciences

 

All ecosystems are similar in structure but vary in size and complexity. All organisms are dependent on nutrient cycles and energy flow. Variations among organisms exist within any species. The genetic code is the basis for all forms of life. A variety of ecosystems results from the effects of the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere.

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Tennessee Standard 2.3b - Groupings are based on similarities related to structure and function.

 

Biological Sciences

 

Similarities and differences of organisms usually lead to a system of classification terminating in the process of binomial nomenclature.

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Environmental Sciences

 

Producers are capable of chemosynthesis or photosynthesis. Consumers must feed on other organisms for nutrient and energy. Decomposers render complex molecules into simple molecules. Terrestrial biomes are designated by large climate patterns. Single cell and multi-cell organisms inhabit the biosphere. There are industrial and primitive societies in the human population.

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THEME: 2.4 INTERACTIONS - At all levels of living and non-living systems, matter and energy act and react to determine the nature of our environment.

Tennessee Standard 2.4a - Interactions occur on scales ranging from elementary particles to galaxies.

 

Biological Sciences

 

All matter at every level must in some way exchange energy.

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Environmental Sciences

 

The biosphere is composed of elements, molecules, and complex organic systems. Ecosystems develop and change depending on interactions of abiotic and biotic factors. Earth possesses the only known biosphere in the universe. Human interaction with the biosphere is unique in environmental impact and control. Geologic and meteorologic interaction precede biotic succession.

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Tennessee Standard 2.4b - Interactions of matter and energy shape our world.

 

Earth/Space Sciences

 

Earth’s internal heat flow has resulted in the formation of moving plates that separate where heat is rising and new crust is forming and collide along their other margins. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain chains are closely associated with collisions between crustal plates and rifting of the earth’s surface occurs where heat rises and new crust is forming. There have been major impacts from extra-terrestrial matter that have impacted plate behavior and the biosphere. Tidal forces on the Earth result from gravitational effects of the Earth, moon, and sun. The earth’s magnetic field has changed over time.

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Biological Sciences

 

Natural resources and ecosystem dynamics are controlled by the interchanges of matter and energy.

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Environmental Sciences

 

Most organisms in the biosphere are dependent on solar energy. All organisms and ecosystems depend on abiotic and biotic conditions within a range of tolerance. The human ecosystem adds complexity to the interaction of matter and energy in nature. Nutrient cycles result from a flow of energy through an ecosystem.

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THEME: 2.5 CHANGE - Interactions within and among systems may result in changes in the properties, position, movement, form, or function of systems.

Tennessee Standard 2.5a - Everything is constantly changing; rates of change vary over a wide scale with a great variety in patterns of change.

 

Biological Sciences

 

The degrees of change possible in a system relate to its function, form, properties, position, and movement.

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Environmental Sciences

 

Human interaction accelerates rates of change in the biosphere. Rates of change in the biosphere vary from rapid cellular metabolism to slow continental drift. Change is dependent on biotic and abiotic factors.

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Tennessee Standard 2.5b - Cycles of change can be extended in scales of time, space, and material.

 

Earth/Space Sciences

 

Cycles of change throughout time are recorded in the earth’s rock and fossil records. Recent changes in Earth’s systems are often recorded in glacial ice. Reversals in the earth’s magnetic field are recorded as new crust is formed at spreading centers. Processes of change may cause the order of the earth’s chronological record to be reversed.

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Biological Sciences

 

Small changes in an ecosystem can potentially effect the entire biosphere. develop a natural, uninhibited, rate of change. Some changes in organisms may be predicted using genetic inheritance and other theories of system change.

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Environmental Sciences

 

Predictions can be made regarding the extent of change resulting from human interaction with the biosphere. Predictions can be made regarding the extent of change in any ecosystem with sufficient data on biotic and abiotic factors.

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THEME: 2.6 CONSERVATION - In any natural process the form may change but nothing is lost.

Tennessee Standard 2.6a - Although there can be transformations of matter and energy in changes, the sum of matter and energy is conserved.

 

Physical Science

 

Physical laws operate on the assumption that matter and energy are interchangeable and the total amount of matter and energy within a system remains constant. In ordinary chemical reactions, there is no gain or loss of matter.

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Physics

 

Physical laws operate on the assumption that matter and energy are interchangeable, and the total amount of matter and energy within a system remains constant.

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Earth/Space Sciences

 

On Earth, all matter is cycled via the geochemical and rock cycles.

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Biological Sciences

 

The chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through the food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways. Systems often cannot individually recover all energies consumed. Unrecovered energies may transfer to other organisms (pregnancy), the environment (heat), or waste materials (reaction by products).

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Environmental Sciences

 

The presence of various compounds and elements in the biosphere is finite. Energy and matter transformations affect ecosystem structure. Regardless of the source, ultimately, all energy in an ecosystem becomes heat energy.

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Habits of Mind
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate ways of thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science; and to exhibit an awareness of the historical and cultural contributions to the enterprise of science.
THEME: 3.1 HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE - The knowledge and processes of science have evolved over time as an approximation of truth within cultural contexts.

Tennessee Standard 3.1a - Although some scientific knowledge is very old, it is still applicable today.

 

Historic knowledge has been the foundation for some current scientific applications.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1b - Individual initiative and vision create changes in science.

 

New ideas are not always accepted by the scientific community.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1c - The desire to understand the natural environment and to predict the course of natural events is universal.

 

Most cultures developed theories to explain and predict natural events.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1d - The growth of scientific knowledge and most technological advances have resulted from the work accumulated over many centuries by men and women in every part of the world.

 

Scientific knowledge is neither ethnic nor gender specific. The scientific enterprise is an outgrowth of many cultures.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1e - There are different traditions in science concerning the subject and method of investigation; however, they all have in common certain basic beliefs about the value of evidence, logic and argument.

 

Regardless of the conclusion, findings should be substantiated by evidence acquired in a logical manner.

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Tennessee Standard 3.1f - Progress in science depends heavily on societal events, and the course of history often depends on scientific and technological developments.

 

Advancement of a new idea often relates to the technology needed to develop and implement the idea.

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THEME: 3.2 ASSUMPTIONS - The recognition and criticism of the validity of an argument through presentation of data and differentiation between fact and assumption in the preparation of an explanation for a natural phenomenon are vital parts of the scientific process.

Tennessee Standard 3.2a - Science is based upon suppositions derived from observations of natural phenomena.

 

Scientific investigation begins with the observation and questioning of natural phenomena.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2b - Predictions are based on previous knowledge.

 

Prior knowledge of the behavior of matter is used to make predictions when similar patterns are observed.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2c - The critical assumptions behind any line of reasoning must be made explicit so that the validity of the position taken can be judged.

 

Inductive and deductive reasoning are used to evaluate data. The critical assumptions behind any line of reasoning must be made explicit so that the validity of the position taken can be judged.

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Tennessee Standard 3.2d - The validity of an investigation cannot be accepted unless the complete investigation can be independently duplicated.

 

Results of an investigation are valid if they are reproducible.

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THEME: 3.3 ESTIMATION AND COMPUTATION - Scientists judge the level of precision needed to approximate a reasonable response and perform calculations with or without the aid of mechanical devices.

Tennessee Standard 3.3a - Estimation provides a way to judge, if the result of a computation is reasonable.

 

Estimation is a vital part of problem solving and should be made prior to computation.

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Tennessee Standard 3.3b - Computation is the process of determining results by mathematical means.

 

Mathematical processes are applied to scientific data to determine results and conclusions.

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Tennessee Standard 3.3c - All measurements are approximations.

 

Measurements are human interpretations, not absolutes.

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THEME: 3.4 METHODS - A variety of techniques is used by scientists to classify and solve problems.

Tennessee Standard 3.4a - Differences may exist between mathematical models and computations based on the models.

 

Mathematical models have many applications which determine their usefulness in scientific investigations.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4b - Problems and methodology influence each other.

 

The nature of the inquiry often dictates the method of inquiry.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4c - Different scientific domains may employ different methods of inquiry.

 

The method of scientific inquiry varies with the subject taught.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4d - Each scientific domain uses various methods of inquiry.

 

A methodology is not specific to a scientific domain.

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Tennessee Standard 3.4e - Problems may be solved in more than one way and have more than one solution.

 

Higher order thinking may produce multiple solutions to a problem, each with costs and benefits.

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THEME: 3.5 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY - Science and technology are separate but interdependent entities.

Tennessee Standard 3.5a - Science and technology change the environment in beneficial and detrimental ways.

 

The economical, social and environmental cost-benefit ratio of implementing a new technology should be part of the decision-making process.

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Tennessee Standard 3.5b - Technology makes it possible for scientists to extend their research or to undertake entirely new lines of research.

 

Ideas and principles discovered in the past are implemented as new methods and materials are discovered.

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Tennessee Standard 3.5c - Innovations in science and technology are often stimulated by developments in mathematics, and vice-versa.

 

A cultural climate that is open to creativity often stimulates new ideas.

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THEME: 3.6 CREATIVE ENTERPRISE - Creativity contributes to the processes of science through ideas and inventions.

Tennessee Standard 3.6a - Imagination plays an integral role in science.

 

Conceptual models lead to new ideas.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6b - Creativity is both a mental and a physical process.

 

Physical applications of mental models generate new technologies.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6c - Creativity enables development of new concepts, processes, and attitudes toward scientific inquiry.

 

Creativity develops an attitude that science is a process, is continually changing and may be improved.

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Tennessee Standard 3.6d - The human ability to shape the future comes from a capacity for generating knowledge, developing new technologies and for communicating ideas.

 

The ability to conceive, develop and communicate ideas advances the causes of science.

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Science in Society
GOAL: To enable students to demonstrate positive attitudes toward science in solving problems and making personal decisions about issues affecting the individual, society and the environment.
THEME: 4.1 ATTITUDES - The progress of science and the attitudes of society influence one another.

Tennessee Standard 4.1a - Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern.

 

Public concerns are often related to scientific knowledge and technology.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1b - Science and technology should be viewed thoughtfully, in neither a categorically antagonistic or an uncritically positive manner.

 

The pros and cons of science and technology must receive an unbiased assessment.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1c - The perceived value of any technology may vary for different groups of people and at different times.

 

The relative importance of a new technology may depend upon cultural norms and its usefulness at a particular time and setting.

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Tennessee Standard 4.1d - Beliefs, superstitions and fears can limit the progress of science and technology.

 

A cost-benefit analysis of a new technology must be assessed against the value and belief system of a culture.

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THEME: 4.2 PERSONAL NEEDS - The application of science may be used to change the quality of life for the individual.

Tennessee Standard 4.2a - Any individual can participate in and contribute to the process of science.

 

The scientific endeavor is a team effort requiring the multiple talents of all citizens in research, technology, and communication of results.

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Tennessee Standard 4.2b - Science concepts may be applied to personal decisions.

 

Scientific concepts are real and relevant when applied to daily life.

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Tennessee Standard 4.2c - Science solves practical problems but may create new problems and needs for an individual.

 

Science is continuous; one solution often leads to new problems.

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THEME: 4.3 CAREER GOALS - The development of scientific skills may lead to a rewarding career and productive contributions to society.

Tennessee Standard 4.3a - Career exploration presents an opportunity to challenge stereotype of scientists and to develop greater understanding of scientists and their work.

 

Career explorations allow a study of the achievement and personal attributes of scientists.

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Tennessee Standard 4.3b - Career opportunities in science and technology are available in all industries and will continue to increase.

 

Science and technology are not industry specific.

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Tennessee Standard 4.3c - Scientific skills and attitudes will facilitate adaptation to careers as science and technology change.

 

Most career retraining opportunities require a basic knowledge of science and technology.

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THEME: 4.4 SOCIETAL NEEDS - Science establishes the basis for applying technology to needs within a society.

Tennessee Standard 4.4a - Scientific research and development have an ethical component.

 

Scientists consider the effect of research and development.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4b - The demand by society for more and better products and services drives scientific research and development.

 

Societal demands influence the allocation of resources for research and development.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4c - Science and technology may produce changes that affect society and groups within societies.

 

When participation of individuals in society depends on new technologies, all groups should have access to that technology.

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Tennessee Standard 4.4d - Basic research contributes to the body of scientific knowledge and may have unexpected results.

 

Knowledge and new questions arise from basic research; however, the results are not always immediately obvious.

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THEME: 4.5 ECONOMICS - Scientific knowledge should provide a premise for understanding the economic value of applied technology as it relates to society.

Tennessee Standard 4.5a - Science and technology impact economic growth and productivity.

 

The efficiency of technology increases productivity and may affect economic growth.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5b - Needs and interests of society influence financial support and problems that scientists and engineers pursue.

 

The availability of both government and private funds often determines research efforts.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5c - Limited resources dictate a need for prioritization.

 

Resources are not always available for research. Special interest groups often influence research priorities.

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Tennessee Standard 4.5d - The total impact of developments in science and technology on the economy is seldom known at the time the development occurs.

 

Historically, the impact of science and technology is determined by its implementation.

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THEME: 4.6 POLITICS - Basic scientific concepts should be available to all individuals enabling each to make logical decisions for themselves and others.

Tennessee Standard 4.6a - Scientific literacy influences the political process.

 

Everyone should evaluate information and be able to determine its accuracy and validity.

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Tennessee Standard 4.6b - The risks and cost benefits must be carefully considered when developing new technology or curtailing existing technology.

 

The long range risks and benefits must be considered in the development and use of technology.

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Tennessee Standard 4.6c - Governments use the development of science and technology in global competition for power and prestige.

 

The import and export of science and technology provides a power base for governments.

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