Florida State Standards

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Florida State Standards for science you can cover using PASSPORT TO ANTARCTIVA in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA.

For additional Florida State Standards for science you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE

Grade Level Expectations:

Kindergarten,   First Grade,   Second Grade,   Third Grade,   Fourth Grade,   Fifth Grade,   Sixth Grade,   Seventh Grade,   Eighth Grade

State Standards:

Grades PreK-2,   Grades 3-5,   Grades 6-8,   Grades 9-12

Grade Level Expectations

Kindergarten


The kindergarten student:

The Nature of Matter

 

Processes of Life

 

· knows some of the basic needs of living things (for example, food, water, space).

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· knows ways living things change and grow over time (for example, seed to flowering plant, tadpole to frog).

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· knows that plants and animals are found in different kinds of environments and are often hidden.

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· knows selected characteristics of plants and animals (for example, shape, size, color).

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· knows that plants and animals may live in different habitats.

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How Living Things Interact with Their Environments.

 

· understands ways that animals obtain food from plants and other animals.

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· knows that if living things do not get food, water, shelter, and space, they will die.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows that learning can come from careful observation.

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· repeats events several times and compares the findings.

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· works with a partner or small group to collect information.

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· shares findings about scientific investigations with others.

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· poses questions, seeks answers, draws pictures of observations, and makes decisions using information.

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· knows that the five senses (taste, touch, smell, hearing, sight) allow us to take in and respond to information in order to learn about our surroundings.

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· understands that continuous patterns occur in nature (for example, seasons, phases of the Moon, blooming flowers).

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· knows some appropriate tools for collecting information and extending the senses.

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First Grade


The first grade student:

Processes that Shape the Earth

 

· knows some kinds of organisms that live on or near the surface of the Earth in land, water, and air.

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Processes of Life

 

· understands that living things need food, water, space, and shelter to survive.

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· knows how to classify things as living and nonliving.

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· knows ways organisms change as they grow and mature (for example, as people grow up their size changes).

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· knows that living things grow and change in different ways and in different lengths of time (for example, butterfly, frog, daisy, pine tree).

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· knows that plants and animals have adaptations that help them survive in their environment (camouflage, teeth, spines).

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· understands different ways in which living things can be grouped (for example, plants/animals, edible plants/non-edible plants).

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· knows that plants and animals are similar but not identical to their parents.

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· knows plants and animals that live in a particular habitat (for example, black bears in the forest, whales in the ocean, camels in the desert, ducks in the wetlands).

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· knows the characteristics of the climate in different habitats (for example, sunlight, moisture, temperature).

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· knows some ways in which animals and plants are adapted to living in different environments.

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How Living Things Interact with Their Environments.

 

· knows that environments have living and nonliving parts.

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· knows that plants produce oxygen and food for animals.

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· understands that animals can be grouped according to what they eat.

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· understands that living things are part of a food chain.

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· knows some characteristics of different environments and some plants and animals found there.

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· understands why living things must have food, water, shelter, and space to survive.

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· understands that there are limited resources available for all living things to use.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows that scientific investigations generally work the same way in different places.

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· understands the importance of accuracy and repetition in conducting scientific inquiries.

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· works with others to complete an experiment or to solve a problem.

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· listens, records, and compares the ideas and observations of others.

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· uses simple graphs, pictures, written statements, and numbers to observe, describe, record, and compare data.

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· uses a variety of tools (for example, thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, scales, computers) to identify characteristics of objects.

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· uses standard (for example, centimeters) and nonstandard units (for example, paper clips, hands, pencils) to measure organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects.

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· uses information gathered to identify patterns in nature to make predictions (for example, shapes of leaves, petals on flowers, rings on seashells).

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· knows that scientists and technologists use a variety of tools (e.g., thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, and scales) to obtain information in more detail and to make work easier.

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Second Grade

The second grade student:

Processes that Shape the Earth

 

· knows that some organisms have adaptations that enable them to move from one medium to another (for example, dragonflies begin life in water, move to land, and then fly in the air).

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Processes of Life

 

· understands that the amount of food, water, space, and shelter needed is dependent on the size and kind of living things.

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· understands that living things can reproduce, and nonliving things cannot reproduce.

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· knows some factors that influence the growth of living things (for example, amount of water, amount of light, amount and type of food, type of soil).

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· understands that structures of living things are adapted to their function in specific environments.

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· understands that plants and animals produce offspring with similar characteristics, but individual differences (for example, kittens in a litter may be colored differently).

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· knows that plants and animals are adapted to different ranges of temperature and moisture.

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How Living Things Interact with Their Environments.

 

· understands that there is an interdependency of plants and animals that can be shown in a food web.

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· understands that living organisms need to be adapted to their environment to survive.

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· knows that animals and plants can be associated with their environment by an examination of their structural characteristics (for example, physical structures are adaptations that allow plants and animals to survive, such as gills in fish, lungs in mammals).

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· knows selected resources used by people for water, food, and shelter are limited and necessary for their survival.

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· knows that human beings cause changes in their environment, and these changes can be positive (for example, creating refuges, replanting deforested regions, creating laws to restrict burning) or negative (for example, introducing exotic organisms, deforestation, littering, contaminating water and air).

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows the difference between verified observation and personal interpretation.

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· knows that when tests are repeated under the same condition, similar results are usually obtained.

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· participates in groups to conduct experiments and solve problems.

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· understands that one can gain confidence in scientific methods by comparing and verifying scientific results with others.

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· understands that, through the use of science processes, people can solve problems and make decisions.

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· analyzes information to make predictions, makes sketches and diagrams to explain ideas, draws conclusions using information and prior knowledge.

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· keeps science records.

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· uses a variety of tools to observe, measure, analyze and predict changes in size, mass, temperature, color, position, quantity, sound, and movement.

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· uses metric and standard English units to measure distance, volume, mass, and temperature.

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· knows how to sort organisms, objects, and events based on patterns.

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· knows ways in which tools are used by scientists (for example, to gather information, to analyze, to calculate).

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Third Grade

The third grade student:

Processes of Life

 

· understands the various ways that animals depend on plants for survival (for example, food, shelter, oxygen).

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· knows the common and distinguishing characteristics of groups of vertebrate animals (mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians).

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· understands similarities and differences among plants.

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· understands that although plants and animals are different, they also share common characteristics (for example, they both have structures for reproduction, respiration, and growth).

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How Living Things Interact with Their Environment

 

· knows how organisms with similar needs in a climatic region compete with one another for resources such as food, water, oxygen, or space.

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· knows behavioral and structural adaptations that allow plants and animals to survive in an environment.

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· understands that energy is transferred to living organisms through the food they eat.

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· knows examples of living things that are classified as producers, consumers, carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores.

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· understands that plants and animals share and compete for limited resources such as oxygen, water, food, and space.

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· knows that the size of a population is dependent upon the available resources within its community.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows that it is important to keep accurate records and descriptions to provide information and clues on causes of discrepancies in repeated experiments.

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· plans and investigates an experiment that defines a problem, proposes a solution, identifies variables, collects and organizes data, interprets data in tables, charts and graphs, analyzes information, makes predictions, and presents and supports findings.

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· uses various kinds of instruments to collect and analyze information (for example, meter sticks, timing devices, graduated cylinders, force meters, pan balances, calipers, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, hot plates, magnets, collecting nets).

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· knows that to work collaboratively, all team members should be free to reach, explain, and justify their own individual conclusions.

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· knows that to compare and contrast observations and results is an essential skill in science.

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· uses sketches, diagrams and models to understand scientific ideas.

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· makes predictions and inferences based on observations.

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· uses charts and graphs to understand patterns of change.

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· understands the relationships between science concepts and the history of science and the contributions of scientists.

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· uses reference materials to obtain information related to science concepts.

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· knows that data are collected and interpreted in order to explain an event or concept.

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· understands that scientific information can be presented in several ways (for example, using numbers and mathematics, drawings, words, graphs, tables).

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· understands how scientific discoveries have helped or hindered progress regarding human health and lifestyles.

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· knows that, through the use of science processes and knowledge, people can solve problems, make decisions, and form new ideas.

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Fourth Grade

The fourth grade student:

How Living Things Interact with Their Environment

 

· knows how plants and animals interact with one another in an ecosystem (for example, organization of communities, flow of energy through food webs).

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· understands the relationship among organisms in aquatic and terrestrial food chains (for example, the role of producers, consumers, and decomposers).

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· knows organisms that act as decomposers.

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· understands the need for nutrients and minerals for living organisms.

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· understands the process of decay (for example, the stages of decay, the organisms that help the decay process, the nonliving factors that influence the rate of decay, the products of decay).

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· knows that organisms are growing, dying, and decaying and that new organisms are being produced.

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· knows that variations in light, water, temperature, and soil content are largely responsible for the existence of different kinds of organisms and population densities in an ecosystem.

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· knows the kinds of organisms that lived in the past and compares them to existing species.

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· knows characteristics that allow members within a species to survive and reproduce.

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· understands patterns of interdependency in ecological systems.

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· understands that what benefits one organism may be harmful to other organisms.

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· understands that changes in an ecological system usually affect the whole system.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows that scientists make the results of their investigations public, and they describe the investigations in ways that enable others to repeat the investigation.

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· plans and investigates experiments in which hypotheses are formulated based on cause and effect relationships; distinctions are made among observations, conclusions/inferences and predictions; a limited number of variables are controlled; and numerical data that are contradictory or unusual in experimental results are recognized.

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· uses metric tools to measure, record, and interpret data.

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· works collaboratively to collect, share, and record information for a scientific investigation.

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· knows that comparisons between experiments can be made when conditions are the same.

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· knows that a model of something is different from the real thing, but can be used to learn something about the real thing.

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· makes predictions based on data from picture graphs, bar graphs, and line graphs.

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· knows basic patterns, sequences, and cycles occurring in nature.

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· knows that technologies often have costs, as well as benefits, and can have an enormous effect on people and other living things.

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· researches and reports on a science topic.

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· constructs and analyzes graphs, tables, maps, and charts to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

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· uses criteria to understand and analyze the impact of scientific discoveries (for example, determines whether or not scientific claims are backed by sufficient evidence and logical arguments).

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· knows ways that, through the use of science processes and knowledge, people can solve problems, make decisions, and form new ideas.

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Fifth Grade

The fifth grade student:

How Living Things Interact with Their Environment

 

· understands the various roles of single-celled organisms in the environment.

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· knows ways in which protists interact with plants and animals in the environment.

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· understands how changes in the environment affect organisms (for example, some organisms move in, others move out; some organisms survive and reproduce, others die).

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· knows that green plants use carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight energy to turn minerals and nutrients into food for growth, maintenance, and reproduction.

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· knows that adaptations to their environment may increase the survival of a species.

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The Nature of Science

 

· understands that although the same scientific investigation may give slightly different results when it is carried out by different persons or at different times or places, the general evidence collected from the investigation should be replicable by others.

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· understands that scientists use different kinds of investigations (for example, observations of events in nature, controlled experiments) depending on the questions they are trying to answer.

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· understands the importance of accuracy in conducting measurements, and uses estimation when exact measurements are not possible.

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· understands the importance of communication among scientists (for example, informing and becoming informed about scientific investigations in progress and the work of others; exposing ideas to the criticism of others).

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· uses strategies to review, compare and contrast, and critique scientific investigations.

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· knows that an experiment must be repeated many times and yield consistent results before the results are accepted.

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· uses sketches and diagrams to propose scientific solutions to problems.

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· constructs models to compare objects in science.

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· makes a prediction for a new investigation using the data from a previous investigation.

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· understands that change is constantly occurring and uses strategies to analyze different patterns of change.

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· knows areas in which technology has improved human lives (for example, transportation, communication, nutrition, sanitation, health care, entertainment).

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· knows that new inventions often lead to other new inventions and ways of doing things.

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· selects appropriate graphical representations (for example, graphs, charts, diagrams) to collect, record, and report data.

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· understands how a solution to one scientific problem can create another problem.

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· extends and refines knowledge of ways that, through the use of science processes and knowledge, people can solve problems, make decisions, and form new ideas.

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Sixth Grade

The sixth grade student:

Energy

 

· knows types of radiant energy that come to Earth from the Sun (for example, visible, infrared, ultraviolet).

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· knows the effect of sunlight on photosynthetic pigments.

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· understands that energy moves through systems.

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Processes of Life

 

· knows that behavior is a response to the environment.

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· knows adaptations that aid in species survival (for example, protective coloration, hibernation, delayed implantation).

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How Living Things Interact with Their Environment

 

· understands that living things are sorted for convenience and identification.

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· understands that the structural characteristics among animals and plants are more alike as organisms are closer to the same kind or species within a classification level.

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· knows the nonliving (abiotic) and living (biotic) aspects of an ecosystem.

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· understands how the components of an ecosystem interact.

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· understands that food chains show specific trophic relationships and food webs are used to illustrate interrelationships of trophic levels.

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· distinguishes between biotic and abiotic factors in the environment.

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· understands that changes in the environment may influence the size, number, or diversity of organisms in an area.

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· understands that humans are a part of an ecosystem and their activities may deliberately or inadvertently alter the equilibrium in the ecosystem.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows ways scientific theories may change with new discoveries.

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· understands that new technology may lead to new discoveries.

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· uses systematic, scientific processes to develop and test hypotheses.

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· knows that the scientific method is a process that involves a logical and empirical but flexible approach to problem solving.

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· knows that the disciplines of science provide in depth study and information that becomes available for all to share and use.

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· knows that accurate record keeping, openness, and replication are essential to maintaining an investigator’s credibility with other scientists and society.

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· uses accurate records, openness, and replication of experiments to ensure credibility.

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· understands the importance of the control in an experiment.

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· knows how to identify the independent and dependent variables in an experiment.

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· uses appropriate experimental design, with consideration for rules, time, and materials required to solve a problem.

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· knows selected scientists and their accomplishments.

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· knows that scientists who make contributions to knowledge come from all kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interests, and goals.

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· uses criteria necessary to determine the veracity of the data.

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· knows that most natural events occur in patterns.

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· knows that science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, the neighborhood, or the community to health or property risks.

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· uses appropriate procedures for safety in the classroom, home, and community.

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· knows that appropriate care, safe practices, and ethical treatment are necessary when animals are involved in scientific research.

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· knows that in research involving human subjects, the ethics of science require that potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and of their right to refuse to participate.

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· knows some ways that scientific discoveries create new technologies that affect society (for example, geographic information systems, gene mapping, electronic communication).

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· knows that the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology is ongoing and influenced by a diverse population of scientists.

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· knows that scientific contributions may result in diverse technological products.

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· uses a computer to collect, analyze, and report scientific findings.

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Seventh Grade

The seventh grade student:

Processes of Life

 

· understands that the systems within living things respond to changes in the environment (for example, allergens and carcinogens).

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· understands the concept of multicellular organisms.

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· understands that there are many similarities among the great diversity of living things.

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· determines the behavioral responses of different organisms to common stimuli (for example, temperature, light, pressure, moisture).

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How Living Things Interact with Their Environment

 

· knows that biological adaptations include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance reproductive success in a particular environment.

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· knows the interrelationships in a local ecosystem.

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· understands ways matter is recycled (for example, water cycle, carbon cycle).

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· knows that life on earth is dependent upon a continuous supply of energy from the sun.

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· understands that individual food chains occur within a food web and that both show the flow of energy.

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· understands the importance of informed use of natural resources.

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· knows biotic and abiotic components in a small, local area and ways they interact (for example, field, pond).

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· understands the consequences that might result when changes occur in populations.

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· understands that changes in one part of the ecosystem will affect other parts of the ecosystem.

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· knows possible causes for a species to become threatened, endangered, or extinct.

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· knows ways that human activities may deliberately or inadvertently alter the equilibrium in the ecosystem.

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The Nature of Science

 

· understands that new scientific knowledge is often used to reevaluate existing theories.

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· uses systematic, scientific processes to solve problems and reach conclusions.

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· knows that science disciplines differ from one another in topic, techniques, and outcomes but that they share a common purpose, philosophy, and enterprise.

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· extends and refines use of accurate records, openness, and replication of experiments to ensure credibility.

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· extends and refines knowledge of how to identify the independent and dependent variables in an experiment.

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· extends and refines use of appropriate experimental design, with consideration for rules, time, and materials required to solve a problem.

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· uses rules, time, and materials in ways that ensure the identification and separation of variables in an experiment to solve a problem.

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· extends and refines knowledge of selected scientists and their accomplishments and recognizes their varied backgrounds, talents, interests, and goals.

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· uses criteria necessary to determine the validity of a scientific experiment.

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· knows that natural events (for example, seasons, hurricanes) occur in patterns.

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· knows that science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, the neighborhood, or the community to health or property risks.

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· uses appropriate procedures for safety in the classroom, home, and community.

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· knows the care, safe practices, and ethical treatment that are appropriate when using animals in field and laboratory research.

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· knows that in research involving human subjects, the ethics of science require that potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and of their right to refuse to participate.

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· knows that the designs used for technological improvements should consider the values of society (economic, political, social, ethical, aesthetic).

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· uses knowledge of political, social, and economic ramifications of certain scientific research to evaluate its role in society.

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· knows that scientific and technological contributions are made by individuals of different ethnic, economic, and cultural backgrounds.

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· knows that scientific contributions may result in diverse technological products.

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· extends and refines use of a computer to collect, analyze, and report scientific findings.

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Eighth Grade

The eighth grade student:

How Living Things Interact with Their Environment

 

· understands that changes in the environment cause changes in populations.

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· extends and refines knowledge of ways that human activities may deliberately or inadvertently alter the equilibrium in the ecosystem.

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The Nature of Science

 

· knows that scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way.

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· extends and refines use of systematic, scientific processes to develop and test hypotheses.

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· knows that the study of the events that led scientists to discoveries can provide information about the inquiry process and its effects.

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· extends and refines knowledge that science disciplines differ from one another in topic, techniques, and outcomes but that they share a common purpose, philosophy, and enterprise.

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· extends and refines use of accurate records, openness, and replication of experiments to ensure credibility.

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· extends and refines knowledge of how to identify the independent and dependent variables in an experiment.

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· extends and refines use of appropriate experimental design, with consideration for rules, time, and materials required to solve a problem.

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· extends and refines use of rules, time, and materials in ways that ensure the identification and separation of variables in an experiment to solve a problem.

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· extends and refines knowledge of selected scientists and their accomplishments and recognizes their varied backgrounds, talents, interests, and goals.

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· extends and refines use of criteria necessary to determine the validity of a scientific experiment.

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· knows that statistical tests are used to confirm the significance of data.

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· understands the importance for looking for patterns in natural events.

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· knows that science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, the neighborhood, or the community to health or property risks.

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· uses appropriate procedures for safety in the classroom, home, and community.

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· extends and refines knowledge of the care, safe practices, and ethical treatment that are appropriate when using animals in field and laboratory research.

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· knows that in research involving human subjects, the ethics of science require that potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and of their right to refuse to participate.

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· knows that technological design should require taking into account constraints such as natural laws, the properties of the materials used, and economic, political, social, ethical, and aesthetic values.

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· understands that contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology have been made by different kinds of people, in different cultures, at different times and are an intrinsic part of the development of human culture.

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· knows that no matter who does science and mathematics or invents things, or when or where they do it, the knowledge and technology that result can eventually become available to everyone.

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· knows ways the scientific enterprise is global and available to all.

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· uses a variety of technologies to collect, analyze, and report scientific findings.

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· knows that the quantity of scientific information available is increasing at an exponential rate due to the advances in technology.

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State Standards

Grades PreK-2

The Nature of Matter

Energy

 

Energy

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that energy may be changed in form with varying efficiency.

 

1. knows that the Sun supplies heat and light energy to Earth.

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2. knows that light can pass through some objects and not others.

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3. describes a model energy system (e.g., an aquarium or terrarium).

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4. knows that heat can be produced in many ways (e.g., by burning and rubbing).

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Standard 2: The student understands the interaction of matter and energy.

 

1. recognizes systems of matter and energy.

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Processes that Shape the Earth

 

Standard 2: The student understands the need for protection of the natural systems on Earth.

 

1. understands that people influence the quality of life of those around them.

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Processes of Life

 

Standard 1: The student describes patterns of structure and function in living things.

 

1. knows the basic needs of all living things.

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2. knows how to apply knowledge about life processes to distinguish between living and non-living things.

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3. describes how organisms change as they grow and mature.

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4. understands that structures of living things are adapted to their function in specific environments.

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5. compares and describes the structural characteristics of plants and animals.

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Standard 2: The student understands the process and importance of genetic diversity.

 

1. knows that living things have offspring that resemble their parents.

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2. knows that there are many different kinds of living things that live in a variety of environments.

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How Living Things Interact with Their Environment

 

Standard 1: The student understands the competitive, interdependent, cyclic nature of living things in the environment.

 

1. knows that environments have living and non-living parts.

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2. knows that plants and animals are dependent upon each other for survival.

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3. knows that there are many different plants and animals living in many different kinds of environments (e.g., hot, cold, wet, dry, sunny, and dark).

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4. knows that animals and plants can be associated with their environment by an examination of their structural characteristics.

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Standard 2: The student understands the consequences of using limited natural resources.

 

1. knows that if living things do not get food, water, shelter, and space, they will die.

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2. knows that the activities of humans affect plants and animals in many ways.

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The Nature of Science

 

Standard 1: The student uses the scientific processes and habits of mind to solve problems.

 

1. knows that in order to learn, it is important to observe the same things often and compare them.

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2. knows that when tests are repeated under the same conditions, similar results are usually obtained.

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3. knows that in doing science, it is often helpful to work with a team and to share findings with others.

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4. knows that people use scientific processes including hypotheses, making inferences, and recording and communicating data when exploring the natural world.

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5. uses the senses, tools, and instruments to obtain information from his or her surroundings.

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Standard 2: The student understands that most natural events occur in comprehensible, consistent patterns.

 

1. knows that most natural events occur in patterns.

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Standard 3: The student understands that science, technology, and society are interwoven and interdependent.

 

1. knows that scientists and technologists use a variety of tools (e.g., thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, and scales) to obtain information in more detail and to make work easier.

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Grades 3-5

The Nature of Matter

Standard 2: The student understands the basic principles of atomic theory.

 

1. knows that materials may be made of parts too small to be seen without magnification.

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Energy

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that energy may be changed in form with varying efficiency.

 

1. knows how to trace the flow of energy in a system (e.g., as in an ecosystem).

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2. recognizes various forms of energy (e.g., heat, light, and electricity).

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3. knows that most things that emit light also emit heat.

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4. knows the many ways in which energy can be transformed from one type to another.

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5. knows that various forms of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, nuclear, and radiant) can be measured in ways that make it possible to determine the amount of energy that is transformed.

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6. knows ways that heat can move from one object to another.

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Standard 2: The student understands the interaction of matter and energy.

 

1. knows that some source of energy is needed for organisms to stay alive and grow.

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Processes of Life

 

Standard 1: The student describes patterns of structure and function in living things.

 

1. knows that the human body is made of systems with structures and functions that are related.

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2. knows how all animals depend on plants.

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3. knows that living things are different but share similar structures.

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Standard 2: The student understands the process and importance of genetic diversity.

 

1. knows that many characteristics of an organism are inherited from the parents of the organism, but that other characteristics are learned from an individual's interactions with the environment.

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How Living Things Interact with Their Environment

 

Standard 1: The student understands the competitive, interdependent, cyclic nature of living things in the environment.

 

2. knows that living things compete in a climatic region with other living things and that structural adaptations make them fit for an environment.

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3. knows that green plants use carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight energy to turn minerals and nutrients into food for growth, maintenance, and reproduction.

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4. knows that some organisms decompose dead plants and animals into simple minerals and nutrients for use by living things and thereby recycle matter.

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5. knows that animals eat plants or other animals to acquire the energy they need for survival.

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6. knows that organisms are growing, dying, and decaying and that new organisms are being produced from the materials of dead organisms.

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7. knows that variations in light, water, temperature, and soil content are largely responsible for the existence of different kinds of organisms and population densities in an ecosystem.

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Standard 2: The student understands the consequences of using limited natural resources.

 

1. knows that all living things must compete for Earth's limited resources; organisms best adapted to compete for the available resources will be successful and pass their adaptations (traits) to their offspring.

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2. knows that the size of a population is dependent upon the available resources within its community.

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3. understands that changes in the habitat of an organism may be beneficial or harmful.

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The Nature of Science

 

Standard 1: The student uses the scientific processes and habits of mind to solve problems.

 

1. knows that it is important to keep accurate records and descriptions to provide information and clues on causes of discrepancies in repeated experiments.

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2. knows that a successful method to explore the natural world is to observe and record, and then analyze and communicate the results.

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3. knows that to work collaboratively, all team members should be free to reach , explain, and justify their own individual conclusions.

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4. knows that to compare and contrast observations and results is an essential skill in science.

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5. knows that a model of something is different from the real thing, but can be used to learn something about the real thing.

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Standard 2: The student understands that most natural events occur in comprehensible, consistent patterns.

 

1. knows that natural events are often predictable and logical.

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Standard 3: The student understands that science, technology, and society are interwoven and interdependent.

 

1. understands that people, alone or in groups, invent new tools to solve problems and do work that affects aspects of life outside of science.

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2. knows that data are collected and interpreted in order to explain an event or concept.

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3. knows that before a group of people build something or try something new, they should determine how it may affect other people.

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4. knows that through the use of science processes and knowledge, people can solve problems, make decisions, and form new ideas.

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Grades 6-8

The Nature of Matter

Processes that Shape the Earth

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that processes in the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere interact to shape the Earth.

 

2. knows that over the whole Earth, organisms are growing, dying, and decaying as new organisms are produced by the old ones.

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3. knows how conditions that exist in one system influence the conditions that exist in other systems.

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4. knows the ways in which plants and animals reshape the landscape (e.g., bacteria, fungi, worms, rodents, and other organisms add organic matter to the soil, increasing soil fertility, encouraging plant growth, and strengthening resistance to erosion).

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5. understands concepts of time and size relating to the interaction of Earth's processes (e.g., lightning striking in a split second as opposed to the shifting of the Earth's plates altering the landscape, distance between atoms measured in Angstrom units as opposed to distance between stars measured in light-years).

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Standard 2: The student understands the need for protection of the natural systems on Earth.

 

1. understands that quality of life is relevant to personal experience.

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2. knows the positive and negative consequences of human action on the Earth's systems.

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Processes of Life

 

Standard 1: The student describes patterns of structure and function in living things.

 

1. understands that living things are composed of major systems that function in reproduction, growth, maintenance, and regulation.

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Standard 2: The student understands the process and importance of genetic diversity.

 

1. knows the patterns and advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction in plants and animals.

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2. knows that the variation in each species is due to the exchange and interaction of genetic information as it is passed from parent to offspring.

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3. knows that generally organisms in a population live long enough to reproduce because they have survival characteristics.

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4. knows that the fossil record provides evidence that changes in the kinds of plants and animals in the environment have been occurring over time.

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How Living Things Interact with Their Environment

 

Standard 1: The student understands the competitive, interdependent, cyclic nature of living things in the environment.

 

2. knows that biological adaptations include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance reproductive success in a particular environment.

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4. knows that the interactions of organisms with each other and with the non-living parts of their environments result in the flow of energy and the cycling of matter throughout the system.

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5. knows that life is maintained by a continuous input of energy from the sun and by the recycling of the atoms that make up the molecules of living organisms.

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Standard 2: The student understands the consequences of using limited natural resources.

 

1. knows that some resources are renewable and others are nonrenewable.

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2. knows that all biotic and abiotic factors are interrelated and that if one factor is changed or removed, it impacts the availability of other resources within the system.

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3. knows that a brief change in the limited resources of an ecosystem may alter the size of a population or the average size of individual organisms and that long-term change may result in the elimination of animal and plant populations inhabiting the Earth.

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4. understands that humans are a part of an ecosystem and their activities may deliberately or inadvertently alter the equilibrium in ecosystems.

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The Nature of Science

 

Standard 1: The student uses the scientific processes and habits of mind to solve problems.

 

1. knows that scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way.

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2. knows that the study of the events that led scientists to discoveries can provide information about the inquiry process and its effects.

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3. knows that science disciplines differ from one another in topic, techniques, and outcomes but that they share a common purpose, philosophy, and enterprise.

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4. knows that accurate record keeping, openness, and replication are essential to maintaining an investigator's credibility with other scientists and society.

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5. knows that a change in one or more variables may alter the outcome of an investigation.

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6. recognizes the scientific contributions that are made by individuals of diverse backgrounds, interests, talents, and motivations.

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7. knows that when similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to verify whether the differences are significant by further study.

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Standard 2: The student understands that most natural events occur in comprehensible, consistent patterns.

 

1. recognizes that patterns exist within and across systems.

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Standard 3: The student understands that science, technology, and society are interwoven and interdependent.

 

1. knows that science ethics demand that scientists must not knowingly subject coworkers, students, the neighborhood, or the community to health or property risks.

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2. knows that special care must be taken in using animals in scientific research.

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3. knows that in research involving human subjects, the ethics of science require that potential subjects be fully informed about the risks and benefits associated with the research and of their right to refuse to participate.

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4. knows that technological design should require taking into account constraints such as natural laws, the properties of the materials used, and economic, political, social, ethical, and aesthetic values.

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5. understands that contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics, and technology have been made by different kinds of people, in different cultures, at different times and are an intrinsic part of the development of human culture.

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6. knows that no matter who does science and mathematics or invents things, or when or where they do it, the knowledge and technology that result can eventually become available to everyone.

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7. knows that computers speed up and extend people's ability to collect, sort, and analyze data; prepare research reports; and share data and ideas with others.

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Grades 9-12

The Nature of Matter

Energy

 

Standard 1: The student recognizes that energy may be changed in form with varying efficiency.

 

1. understands how knowledge of energy is fundamental to all the scientific disciplines (e.g., the energy required for biological processes in living organisms and the energy required for the building, erosion, and rebuilding of the Earth).

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2. understands that there is conservation of mass and energy when matter is transformed.

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Processes that Shape the Earth

 

Standard 2: The student understands the need for protection of the natural systems on Earth.

 

1. understands the interconnectedness of the systems on Earth and the quality of life.

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How Living Things Interact with Their Environment

 

Standard 1: The student understands the competitive, interdependent, cyclic nature of living things in the environment.

 

1. knows of the great diversity and interdependence of living things.

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2. understands how the flow of energy through an ecosystem made up of producers, consumers, and decomposers carries out the processes of life and that some energy dissipates as heat and is not recycled.

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3. knows that the chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things are combined and recombined in different ways.

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Standard 2: The student understands the consequences of using limited natural resources.

 

1. knows that layers of energy-rich organic materials have been gradually turned into great coal beds and oil pools (fossil fuels) by the pressure of the overlying earth and that humans burn fossil fuels to release the stored energy as heat and carbon dioxide.

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2. knows that changes in a component of an ecosystem will have unpredictable effects on the entire system but that the components of the system tend to react in a way that will restore the ecosystem to its original condition.

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3. understands how genetic variation of offspring contributes to population control in an environment and that natural selection ensures that those who are best adapted to their surroundings survive to reproduce.

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4. knows that the world ecosystems are shaped by physical factors that limit their productivity.

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5. understands that the amount of life any environment can support is limited and that human activities can change the flow of energy and reduce the fertility of the Earth.

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6. knows the ways in which humans today are placing their environmental support systems at risk (e.g., rapid human population growth, environmental degradation, and resource depletion).

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The Nature of Science

 

Standard 1: The student uses the scientific processes and habits of mind to solve problems.

 

1. knows that investigations are conducted to explore new phenomena, to check on previous results, to test how well a theory predicts, and to compare different theories.

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2. knows that from time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works, but that more often, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge.

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3. understands that no matter how well one theory fits observations, a new theory might fit them as well or better, or might fit a wider range of observations, because in science, the testing, revising, and occasional discarding of theories, new and old, never ends and leads to an increasingly better understanding of how things work in the world, but not to absolute truth.

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4. knows that scientists in any one research group tend to see things alike and that therefore scientific teams are expected to seek out the possible sources of bias in the design of their investigations and in their data analysis.

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5. understands that new ideas in science are limited by the context in which they are conceived, are often rejected by the scientific establishment, sometimes spring from unexpected findings, and usually grow slowly from many contributors.

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6. understands that in the short run, new ideas that do not mesh well with mainstream ideas in science often encounter vigorous criticism and that in the long run, theories are judged by how they fit with other theories, the range of observations they explain, how well they explain observations, and how effective they are in predicting new findings.

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7. understands the importance of a sense of responsibility, a commitment to peer review, truthful reporting of the methods and outcomes of investigations, and making the public aware of the findings.

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Standard 2: The student understands that most natural events occur in comprehensible, consistent patterns.

 

1. knows that scientists assume that the universe is a vast system in which basic rules exist that may range from very simple to extremely complex, but that scientists operate on the belief that the rules can be discovered by careful, systemic study.

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2. knows that scientists control conditions in order to obtain evidence, but when that is not possible for practical or ethical reasons, they try to observe a wide range of natural occurrences to discern patterns.

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Standard 3: The student understands that science, technology, and society are interwoven and interdependent.

 

1. knows that performance testing is often conducted using small-scale models, computer simulations, or analogous systems to reduce the chance of system failure.

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2. knows that technological problems often create a demand for new scientific knowledge and that new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in a way that advances science.

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3. knows that scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to matters of public concern and help people understand the possible causes and effects of events.

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4. knows that funds for science research come from federal government agencies, industry, and private foundations and that this funding often influences the areas of discovery.

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5. knows that the value of a technology may differ for different people and at different times.

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6. knows that scientific knowledge is used by those who engage in design and technology to solve practical problems, taking human values and limitations into account.

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Updated September 2001