Connecticut Science Content Standards

The STANDARDS CORRELATION chart suggests which Connecticut Science Content Standards you can cover using PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA in your classroom. We hope you will discover additional standards you can use. These are the ones our Instructional Materials Development team felt most directly related to the activities contained in PASSPORT TO ANTARCTICA.

For additional Connecticut Science Content Standards you can cover see the STANDARDS CORRELATION chart for the following PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE projects:

PASSPORT TO THE RAINFOREST

PASSPORT TO THE SOLAR SYSTEM

PASSPORT TO WEATHER AND CLIMATE

LIVE FROM MARS 2001/2002

PASSPORT TO THE UNIVERSE

Grades K-4,   Grades 5-8,   Grades 9-12

GRADES K-4

CONTENT STANDARD 1: The Nature Of Science

Students will experience an inquiry-based learning environment in which they are free to ask questions, seek information and validate explanations in thoughtful and creative ways. Students also will understand that the processes, ways of knowing and conceptual foundations of science are interdependent and inextricably bound.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K - 4 will assure that students:

 

recognize (in Grades K-2) that when a scientific investigation is done in the same way in different places or when repeated many times, the investigation generally has the same results;

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raise questions (in Grades K-2) about their surroundings and seek answers by making careful observations and trying things out;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that tools such as thermometers, magnifiers, rulers or balances often give more information than can be obtained by making observations without them;

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describe things as accurately as possible (in Grades K-2) because careful, complete observations enable people to compare their observations with those of others;

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use their senses (in Grades K-2),i.e., sight, taste, sound, touch, smell, to make  observations about the natural world and discuss their findings;

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use open-minded and willing to modify opinions based upon evidence;

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design and conduct (both in groups and individually) simple experiments, keep accurate records of their findings, and communicate their findings to others using graphs, charts, maps, and oral and written reports;

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use evidence and logical reasoning as a basis for decision making;

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recognize that scientistsí explanations about what happens in the world come partly from what they observe and partly from what they believe;

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recognize that sometimes scientists have different explanations for the same set of observations, which usually leads to additional observations to resolve the differences; and

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recognize that measuring instruments can be used to gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects and events and for designing and constructing things that will work properly.

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CONTENT STANDARD 2: History Of Science

Students will learn the evolution of scientific thought, how science has influenced culture and society, and how groups from many countries have contributed to the history of science.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K - 4 will assure that students:

 

recognize (in Grades K-2) that science is an adventure that people every-where can take part in, as they have for many centuries;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that scientists usually work in groups, but important discoveries often have been made by individuals;

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understand (in Grades K-2) that scientists study different things because they have different interests;

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recognize that, although men and women doing scientific inquiry have learned much about the objects, events and phenomena in nature, there is still much more to be understood;

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recognize that scientific ideas have changed over time;

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understand that scientific investigations often raise questions which lead to new investigations;

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recognize that a knowledge of the history of science can help scientists decide what needs to be studied next; and

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understand that new technologies (a new instrument or device) allow scientists to conduct investigations that were not previously possible.

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CONTENT STANDARD 3: Living Things And Their Environments

Students will understand that all organisms in the biosphere are linked to each other and to their physical environments by the transfer and transformation of matter and energy.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K - 4 will assure that students:

 

describe (in Grades K-2) the basic needs of organisms (e.g., food, water, air, shelter and the need for sunlight by plants);

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discuss (in Grades K-2) how organisms depend on other organisms and their environments for basic needs;

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explain (in Grades K-2) how different organisms may interact within the ecosystem in a variety of ways;

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describe how a variety of organisms, such as producers, consumers and decomposers, obtain their basic needs (e.g., food, water, air);

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explain how organisms interact with other organisms in different environments (e.g., mutualism, parasitism, competition); and

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explain that some source of energy is needed for all organisms to stay alive and grow.

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CONTENT STANDARD 5: Relationships Of Structure And Function

Students will understand the classification and physiology of the great diversity of organisms and identify relationships of structure and function.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K - 4 will assure that students:

 

identify (in Grades K-2) the structures (e.g., stems, petals, legs, beaks) found in a variety of organisms;

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show (in Grades K-2) how living and nonliving things can be grouped using the characteristics they share;

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organize, compare and categorize (in Grades K-2) similarities and differences among organisms;

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describe (in Grades K-2) features that help organisms to survive in different environments (e.g., fur, coloration, thorns, webbed feet);

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employ different ways of classifying organisms into groups, using a variety of common features (e.g., presence of feathers, pointy vs. smooth leaves, whether they make their own food or get it from other sources);

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identify anatomical and behavioral adaptations which allow organisms to survive in specific environments;

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explain that the features of living things (e.g., trunks, tails, webbed feet) can be good  indicators of their roles and places in an ecosystem;

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recognize that living things often have specialized sensory organs that help them gather information about their environments; and

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recognize that living things contain systems (such as digestion and respiration) that enable them to carry out basic life processes.

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CONTENT STANDARD 6: Cycles Of Life

Students will recognize patterns and products of genetics and evolution.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K - 4 will assure that students:

 

identify (in Grades K-2) external features of organisms that help them survive in different kinds of places;

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understand (in Grades K-2) that offspring tend to resemble their parents and that individuals of the same species have variations;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that some organisms are alike in the way they look and in the things they do, and others are very different from one another;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that many organisms once living on the Earth have disappeared;

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understand that organisms that are alive on the Earth today are both similar to and different from organisms that have disappeared;

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understand that, when living things reproduce, they transfer genetic information from one generation to the next;

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recognize that individuals of the same species differ in their characteristics, and sometimes these differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing; and

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describe the life cycle of familiar organisms (e.g., frog, butterfly, cat, dandelion).

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CONTENT STANDARD 12: Energy

Students will know that energy is conserved, transferred, transformed, and appears in different forms.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K-4 will assure that students:

 

recognize (in Grades K-2) forms of energy (e.g., heat, light, sound) used every day;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that visible light contains the colors of the rainbow;

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demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that sound can be produced by vibrating objects;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that energy can be used to bring about changes in matter (e.g., melt an ice cube);

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demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that sound has different properties (e.g., high-low, loud-soft);

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understand (in Grades K-2) that the sunís rays warm objects on the Earth;

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describe various forms of energy, such as light, heat, electrical and chemical, and cite examples of the change of one form into another;

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recognize that sounds can be varied by making changes to the objects emitting the sound (e.g., tautness of a string, length of a tube, medium through which the sound travels);

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recognize that some mate-rials conduct heat better than others, and that poor conductors (insulators) can reduce heat loss;

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give examples of ways energy consumption can be reduced;

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recognize that primary colors of light can be mixed to create other colors;

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demonstrate that light has a number of properties, such as color, brightness and direction of travel; and

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demonstrate that light can be absorbed, reflected, transmitted and bent using mirrors and lenses.

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CONTENT STANDARD 13: Interaction Of Matter And Energy

Students will know that interactions between matter and energy can produce changes in a system, although the total quantities of matter and energy are unchanged.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K-4 will assure that students:

 

demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that the position or motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that the motion of objects can be compared by describing the general direction or type of motion (straight line, zigzag, vibrating or circular) and the relative speed;

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demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that magnets can move some objects without touching them;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that magnets attract or repel each other and attract a few kinds of metals;

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demonstrate (in Grades K-2) that objects fall to the ground unless supported;

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give examples of some forces (e.g., magnetism, gravity) that can change the motion of objects without touching them;

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recognize that the motion of an object can be described as a change in the position of the object with respect to another object or background; and

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demonstrate that magnetic and electrostatic forces may both attract and repel.

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CONTENT STANDARD 14: Science And Technology

Students will understand the relationships among mathematics, science and technology and the way they affect and are affected by society.

 

Educational experiences in Grades K-4 will assure that students:

 

understand (in Grades K-2) that people create tools (e.g., shovel, hand lens, pencil), to help them to do things better and to do some things that other-wise could not be done at all ;

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identify (in Grades K-2) the contributions of science and technology to individuals and society;

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recognize (in Grades K-2) that simple machines can be used to help people do work;

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describe the role and use of technological devices in everyday life ( e.g., micro-wave ovens, telephones, VCRs);

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recognize possible negative consequences to people, other organisms or the environment, of technological solutions to specific problems;

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understand that technology enables scientists and others to observe the world, e.g., things that are too small or too far away to be seen without technology, the motion of objects that are moving very rapidly or are hardly moving at all;

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identify alternative strategies to solve existing and potential environmental or technological problems;

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describe activities in which students can participate that can benefit their communities (e.g., recycling, water conservation);

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recognize that technology extends the ability of people to change the world (e.g., to cut, shape or put together materials; to move things from one place to another; to extend the reach of hands, voices, senses and minds);

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identify careers that use science and technology; and

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understand that there are different types of simple machines.

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GRADES 5-8

CONTENT STANDARD 1: The Nature Of Science

Students will experience an inquiry-based learning environment in which they are free to ask questions, seek information and validate explanations in thoughtful and creative ways. Students also will understand that the processes, ways of knowing and conceptual foundations of science are interdependent and inextricably bound.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5 - 8 will assure that students:

 

conduct scientific investigations which generally involve the collection of relevant evidence, the use of logical reasoning and creativity in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the evidence;;

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identify and control variables in experiments;

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evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of claims, arguments or data;

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recognize that a variety of experimental designs and strategies can be developed to answer the same question;

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use appropriate technology as a tool in problem solving;

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accept the open-ended-ness of scientific inquiry and that scientific findings are not always definite or complete; and

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use scientific knowledge and ways of thinking in personal decision making.

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CONTENT STANDARD 2: History Of Science

Students will learn the evolution of scientific thought, how science has influenced culture and society, and how groups from many countries have contributed to the history of science.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5 - 8 will assure that students:

 

recognize important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics and technology that have been made by men and women in different cultures at different times;

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understand that scientific discoveries are influenced by technological demands, competition, controversy, world events, personalities and societal issues;

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recognize that, throughout history, scientists and engineers have been considered valued contributors to society; and

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recognize that, throughout history, it has been difficult for scientific innovators to break through the preconceptions of their time to reach conclusions which today seem obvious.

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CONTENT STANDARD 3: Living Things And Their Environments

Students will understand that all organisms in the biosphere are linked to each other and to their physical environments by the transfer and transformation of matter and energy.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5 - 8 will assure that students:

 

describe the roles of producers, consumers and decomposers in an ecosystem and provide specific examples of each;

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explain the need for sunlight and other abiotic factors, such as water and air, in an ecosystem;

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explain that while matter is recycled in an ecosystem, there is a one-way flow of energy in ecosystems;

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explain that the number and variety of organisms and populations are dependent on the re-sources and physical factors of their environments; and

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explain how both organisms and ecosystems can change if the physical conditions of an ecosystem change (e.g., a pond dries, a forest is destroyed byfire).

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CONTENT STANDARD 5: Relationships Of Structure And Function

Students will understand the classification and physiology of the great diversity of organisms and identify relationships of structure and function.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5 - 8 will assure that students:

 

describe the major distinctions among the kingdoms of living things (e.g., prokaryotic/eukaryotic, nucleated/non-nucleated, heterotrophic/autotrophic);

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describe ways in which internal and external structures, organ systems and body plans contribute to organisms being able to carry out life functions or processes (e.g., reproduction, response to stimuli, production and/or digestion of food, and production of energy, circulation, excretion, homeostasis);

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describe and analyze ways in which scientists determine the relatedness of organisms;

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explain the effects of disease on the inability of organisms to carry out essential life functions;

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understand the complementary nature of structure and function; and

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describe how different life functions (e.g., digestion, reproduction) are carried out by different organisms.

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CONTENT STANDARD 12: Energy

Students will know that energy is conserved, transferred, transformed, and appears in different forms.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5-8 will assure that students:

 

recognize that energy can neither be created nor destroyed;

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identify energy transformations that occur in various systems (e.g., biological, mechanical, geological) and recognize that heat is a by product of energy transformations;

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demonstrate that heat can be transferred by convection, conduction and radiation;

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recognize that energy exists in many forms (e.g., light, heat, chemical, electrical and mechanical) and that energy can be transformed from one form to another;

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understand that all physical changes, including changes of state, require energy;

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recognize that the sun produces energy in a range of wavelengths within the electromagnetic spectrum; and

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compare and contrast different forms of energy in terms of their wave-lengths on the electromagnetic spectrum.

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CONTENT STANDARD 14: Science And Technology

Students will understand the relationships among mathematics, science and technology and the way they affect and are affected by society.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 5-8 will assure that students:

 

investigate and describe human uses of renewable and nonrenewable re-sources (e.g., forests, fossil fuels);

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explain interrelationships between science and technology ( e.g., building a bridge, designing a better running shoe);

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describe how the use of technology can contribute to the solution of an individual or community problem (e.g., using oxygenated fuels to help reduce air pollution);

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recognize that science and technology cannot solve every problem faced by society;

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describe how people use science and technology in their professions;

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identify and analyze ways in which advances in science and technology have affected each other and society;

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recognize that issues related to science, technology and society often are complex and involve risk/benefit trade-offs;

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understand that scientific advances may be misused and developed into technologies that have negative consequences;

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identify technological advances that are reported in the media; and

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understand that engineers, architects and others who engage in design and technology use scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.

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GRADES 9-12

CONTENT STANDARD 1: The Nature Of Science

Students will experience an inquiry-based learning environment in which they are free to ask questions, seek information and validate explanations in thoughtful and creative ways. Students also will understand that the processes, ways of knowing and conceptual foundations of science are interdependent and inextricably bound.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 9 - 12 will assure that students:

 

gather and synthesize information concerning a problem;

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generate and revise hypotheses based upon empirical data and the requirements of logical reasoning;

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interpret the results of experimentation using statistical reasoning;

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critique scientific experiments or research by seeking out possible sources of bias in the design and analysis of data;

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suggest alternative ways of explaining data and criticize arguments in which data, explanations or conclusions are represented as the only ones worthy of consideration; and

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prepare and present oral and written scientific reports that communicate in a logical sequence the process, results and validity of scientific experiments and research.

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CONTENT STANDARD 2: History Of Science

Students will learn the evolution of scientific thought, how science has influenced culture and society, and how groups from many countries have contributed to the history of science.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 9 - 12 will assure that students:

 

recognize that many Western as well as non-Western cultures (e.g., Egyptian, Chinese, Hindu, Arabic, Mayan) have developed scientific ideas and solved human problems through technology;

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recognize that changes in science usually occur as small modifications in existing knowledge and result in incremental advances in our understanding of the world and our ability to meet human needs and aspirations;

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recognize that occasion-ally there are advances in science and technology that have important and long-lasting effects on science and society (e.g., the Copernican revolution; plate tectonics; bio-logical evolution; germ theory; industrial revolution; technological revolution); and

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recognize that the study of scientific explanations throughout history demonstrates how scientific knowledge changes and evolves over time, building on earlier knowledge.

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CONTENT STANDARD 3: Living Things And Their Environments

Students will understand that all organisms in the biosphere are linked to each other and to their physical environments by the transfer and transformation of matter and energy.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 9 - 12 will assure that students:

 

explain chemical bonds and metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis and cellular respiration, as the use of energy by organisms;

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explain that the distribution and abundance of organisms and populations in ecosystems are ultimately governed by the availability of matter and energy and the ability of the ecosystem to  recycle organic materials;

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describe the movement of matter and energy through different levels of organizations of living systems and show how matter and energy are transformed and con-served;

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explain ways in which humans can minimize their impact on biomes; and

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explain the differences between the Earthís major biomes in terms of both climate and organisms.

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CONTENT STANDARD 5: Relationships Of Structure And Function

Students will understand the classification and physiology of the great diversity of organisms and identify relationships of structure and function.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 9 - 12 will assure that students:

 

understand that the present diversity of life is a result of natural selec-tion and other evolution-ary processes that have been at work for long periods of time;

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explain how representa-tive organisms in different phyla are able to maintain a stable internal environ-ment (homeostasis);

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describe why diversity in a species is important for its survival in a changing environment;

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explain how evolutionary relationships among organisms can be inferred from DNA and protein sequences;

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given a classification key, classify a given organism; and

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design a classification key which can be used by others to group organisms.

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CONTENT STANDARD 14: Science And Technology

Students will understand the relationships among mathematics, science and technology and the way they affect and are affected by society.

 

Educational experiences in Grades 9-12 will assure that students:

 

analyze benefits and limit costs and consequences involved in using technology or resources (e.g., X-rays, agricultural chemicals, natural gas reserves);

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analyze how the introduction of new technology has affected or could affect human activity (e.g., invention of the telescope, applications of modern telecommunications and bioengineering);

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recognize that technological innovations (e.g., the automobile) may produce unanticipated problems of their own;

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apply their knowledge and understanding of chemical and physical interactions to explain present and anticipated technologies (e.g., lasers, ultrasound, superconducting materials, photocopy machines);

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recognize that science and technology often develop faster than society can comprehend their ethical implications;

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explore the scientific and technological aspects of contemporary problems (e.g., issues related to nutrition, air quality, natural resources);

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understand that science strives to understand the natural world and seeks explanations for natural phenomena, while technology seeks solutions to human problems and needs;

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understand that science, mathematics and technology are interdependent human endeavors with strengths and limitations; and

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recognize that technological problems often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, while new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research or to undertake entirely new lines of research.

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